The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. High intensity shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, an agricultural region to the south of the San Francisco Bay Area. Devastating fires soon lasted for several days; as a result, up to 3,000 people died. Over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed; the events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest earthquakes in the history of the United States. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history and high in the lists of American disasters; the San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The strike-slip fault is characterized by lateral motion in a dextral sense, where the western plate moves northward relative to the eastern plate.
This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, a distance of about 810 miles. The maximum observed; the 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the modern moment magnitude scale is 7.9. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earth's crust took place both before and after the earthquake's impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the supposed cause of the damage along the 450-kilometer-long segment of the San Andreas plate boundary; the 1906 rupture propagated both southward for a total of 296 miles. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, inland as far as central Nevada. A strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds; the strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds. There were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake.
Interpreted as precursory activity to the 1906 earthquake, they have been found to have a strong seasonal pattern and are now believed to be due to large seasonal sediment loads in coastal bays that overlie faults as a result of the erosion caused by hydraulic mining in the years of the California Gold Rush. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, due to local earth displacement measurements. In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more offshore of San Francisco, to the northwest of the Golden Gate; the most recent analyses support an offshore location for the epicenter, although significant uncertainty remains. An offshore epicenter is supported by the occurrence of a local tsunami recorded by a tide gauge at the San Francisco Presidio. Analysis of triangulation data before and after the earthquake suggest that the rupture along the San Andreas Fault was about 500 km in length, in agreement with observed intensity data.
The available seismological data support a shorter rupture length, but these observations can be reconciled by allowing propagation at speeds above the S-wave velocity. Supershear propagation has now been recognized for many earthquakes associated with strike-slip faulting. Using old photographs and eyewitness accounts, researchers were able to estimate the location of hypocenter of the earthquake as offshore from San Francisco or near the city of San Juan Bautista, confirming previous estimates. At the time, 375 deaths were reported; the total number of deaths is still uncertain, but various reports presented a range of 700–3,000+. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area. In Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina. Between 227,000 and 300,000 people were left homeless out of a population of about 410,000.
Newspapers described Golden Gate Park, the Presidio, the Panhandle and the beaches between Ingleside and North Beach as covered with makeshift tents. More than two years many of these refugee camps were still in operation; the earthquake and fire left long-standing and significant pressures on the development of California. At the time of the disaster, San Francisco had been the ninth-largest city in the United States and the largest on the West Coast, with a population of about 410,000. Over a period of 60 years, the city had become the financial and cultural center of the West. S. economic and military power was projected into the Asia. Over 80 % of the city was destroyed by the fire. Though San Francisco rebuilt the disaster diverted trade and population growth south to Los Angeles, which during the 20th century becam
One Piece Film: Strong World or Strong World is a 2009 Japanese animated fantasy action adventure film directed by Munehisa Sakai. It is the tenth feature film based on the shōnen manga series One Piece by Eiichiro Oda; the events of the film take place during the thirteenth season of One Piece as 2-Parts of the eighteenth story arcs, "Impel Down". The film features Naoto Takenaka and Scott McNeil as Shiki, the evil captain of his crew who kidnaps Nami to force her to join his crew and intends to conquer the East Blue. Monkey D. Luffy and his crew must stop Shiki from carrying out his plans. Shiki uses his Devil Fruit powers to destroy marine ships and warn Monkey D. Garp and Fleet Admiral Sengoku. On a floating island, Monkey D. Luffy is chased by a genetically-enhanced animal; the monster is overpowered by the other monsters before Luffy defeats the fourth monster. The Straw Hats have been separated into three groups: Sanji with Usopp, Roronoa Zoro with Tony Tony Chopper, Nico Robin with Franky and Brook.
Shiki tells Nami that she has been taken to the island against her will and a brief flashback is shown: several days earlier, the Straw Hats read news of an attack on East Blue. Luffy vows to protect the East Blue before witnessing Shiki's ship overhead. After escaping a storm, Shiki meets Nami and reveals his powers to make any inanimate object he touches float. After learning it was Nami that delivered the warning, Shiki offers to take them there before abducting Nami; the others try to rescue her, but Shiki makes the pirates scatter on the island. Shiki asks Nami to become his navigator but she refuses, his minion Doctor Indigo demonstrates an evolved bird called Billy, who can produce electricity, but Shiki rejects it after Dr. Indigo is electrocuted, he reveals that a plant, called IQ, can cause animals to evolve and to increase strength along the way. Nami protects Billy, the bird is left with her as Shiki and his men leave. Meanwhile and Usopp battle various animals while Sanji searches for Robin and Nami.
Meanwhile and Chopper rescue a young girl and are led to her village and are told about the large poisonous plants around the village. However, long term exposure to the plants is poisonous to humans, the girl's grandmother has become ill by it. Xiao was looking for the cure, the IQ plant, but Shiki has stolen the IQ plants for his experiments. Sanji and Usopp learn that Shiki takes all the men and young women to his royal palace, leaving the village with only the young and old, before meeting up with Zoro and Chopper. Nami flees with the help of Billy, finds the Thousand Sunny along with Luffy. Robin's group discovers that Shiki is planning to release the animals on the island into East Blue to force the World Government's surrender and that he is planning a demonstration against a village on the floating island to show their power; the two join the others at the village, they learn of the plan from the village residents. Shiki confronts and defeats the Straw Hats and offers Nami to rejoin him on the condition that the Cocoyashi Village will be taken.
Robin's group arrives and rejoin the rest of the crew. Xiao gives them a tone dial and they replay Nami's farewell message to Luffy, but he angrily leaves before the end. Meanwhile, Nami attempts to destroy the plants protecting his palace, but gets poisoned herself. Shiki traps her near the plants and heads off to meet the pirate captains gathering. While greeting them, the Straw Hats launch a preemptive strike against Shiki and his henchmen; the group manages to defeat them while Chopper and Usopp are ordered to search for Nami. Nami is found by Billy who helps destroy the plants just as Usopp and Chopper arrive. Chopper soon realizes the only way to save Nami is to find the IQ medicine, but Shiki attempts to stop them. Luffy engages Shiki in a duel; the two find the IQ plant, but find the medicine is being held by Dr. Indigo. Zoro manages to defeat Dr. Indigo and Nami recovers. Sanji and Brook, witness another of Shiki's henchmen, Captain Scarlet, attempting to kiss Robin, but Sanji defeats Scarlet.
Nami and Chopper trick Shiki into redirecting his ship to the island, forcing his crew to flee. The Straw Hats rig the palace with explosives. Shiki refocuses his attention on the Straw Hats, but Luffy uses an electric charge and knocks Shiki to the ground, leaving Luffy victorious; the other Straw Hats escape with the Thousand Sunny, using Shiki's pirate sail as a parachute. Luffy is recovered by Billy while the villagers are shown flying away using the wings on their arms; the Marines capture the retreating pirates, including Shiki. As the Marines witness the islands crash into the sea, now free of Shiki's power, they spot the Thousand Sunny. However, the Straw Hats escape. Luffy learns that Nami's message was a coded SOS directed at him that the crew took as a love confession. Oda supervised the production of Strong World, created the film's original story and over 120 pages of rough drawings. Furthermore, he placed his own name on the film's credits to indicate his desire for a film, different from its nine predecessors.
The actual director of the film is Munehisa Sakai, a former director of the One Piece anime television series. The Japanese rock band Mr. Children performed the film's theme song, "Fanfare". Oda had offered them the opportunity. An English-language teaser trailer of 45 seconds length was shown on the Tokyo International Anime Fair in March 2009 and placed on the official website o
Norman James Schofield was a Scottish-American political scientist, the Dr. William Taussig Professor of Political Economy at the Washington University in St. Louis. Schofield earned two bachelor's degrees from the University of Liverpool, he obtained two PhDs from Essex University: the first in government in 1976 and the second in economics in 1985. From 1970 to 1976 he was a lecturer in government at Essex University, he came to Washington University in 1986 as a fellow to the Center of Political Economy. Schofield is the author or co-author of the following books: Mathematical Methods in Economics and Social Choice Social Choice and Democracy Advanced Statistical Methods in the Social Sciences Multiparty Government: the politics of coalition in Europe Architects of Political Change: Constitutional Quandaries and Social Choice Theory Multiparty Democracy: Elections and Legislative Politics The Spatial Model of Politics The Political Economy of Democracy and Tyranny Leadership Or Chaos: The Heart and Soul of Politics Schofield has been awarded honorary doctorates from the University of Liverpool in 1986, from the University of Caen in 1992.
In 2002 Schofield won the William H. Riker Prize in political science "for his path-breaking contributions to the theory of collective choice in multidimensional settings, the extension of those results to the analysis of coalition politics in parliamentary systems, subsequently, to the analysis of American constitutional politics."In 2005 he was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences