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1912 United States presidential election

The 1912 United States presidential election was the 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912. Democratic Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey unseated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and defeated former President Theodore Roosevelt, who ran as the Progressive Party nominee; this was the last presidential election in which one of the top-two finishers did not come from either the Democratic or Republican parties, signifying the primacy of these two parties in modern American politics. Roosevelt had served as President from 1901 to 1909 as a Republican, Taft had won the 1908 Republican presidential nomination with his support. However, following Taft's election, his actions as President displeased Roosevelt, who challenged him for the nomination at the 1912 Republican National Convention. After Taft and his conservative allies narrowly prevailed at the convention, Roosevelt rallied his progressive supporters and launched a third party bid.

Roosevelt's Progressive Party was nicknamed the Bull Moose Party after journalists quoted Roosevelt saying that he was "feeling like a bull moose" on the campaign trail shortly after the new party was formed. On the Democratic side, Wilson won the presidential nomination on the 46th ballot, defeating Speaker of the House Champ Clark and several other candidates with the support of William Jennings Bryan and other progressive Democrats. Meanwhile, the Socialist Party renominated Eugene V. Debs; the 1912 election was bitterly contested by three individuals, Wilson and Taft, who all had or would serve as President. Roosevelt's "New Nationalism" platform called for social insurance programs, an eight-hour workday, a strong federal role in regulating the economy. Wilson's "New Freedom" platform called for tariff reform, banking reform, a new antitrust law. Knowing that he had little chance of victory, Taft conducted a subdued campaign based on his own platform of "progressive conservatism." Debs claimed that the other three candidates were financed by trusts and tried to galvanize support behind his socialist policies.

Wilson carried 40 states and won a large majority of the electoral vote, taking advantage of the split in the Republican Party. He was the first Democrat to win a presidential election since 1892, would be one of just two Democratic presidents to serve between the American Civil War and the onset of the First World War. Roosevelt won 88 electoral votes, while Taft carried only Vermont and Utah, taking 8 electoral votes. Wilson won 41.8% of the national popular vote, while Roosevelt won 27%, Taft 23%, Debs 6%. Republican President Theodore Roosevelt had declined to run for re-election in 1908 in fulfillment of a pledge to the American people not to seek a second full term, his first term as President was incomplete, as he succeeded to the office upon the assassination of William McKinley. Roosevelt had tapped his Secretary of War, William Howard Taft, to become his successor, Taft defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in the general election. During Taft's administration, a rift developed between Roosevelt and Taft, as they became the leaders of the Republican Party's two wings: the progressives and the conservatives.

The progressive Republicans favored restrictions on the employment of women and children, promoted ecological conservation, were more sympathetic toward labor unions. They favored the popular election of federal and state judges and opposed the appointing of judges by the President or state governors; the conservative Republicans supported high tariffs on imported goods to encourage consumers to buy American-made products, but favored business leaders over labor unions and were opposed to the popular election of judges. By 1910 the split between the two wings of the party was deep, this in turn caused Roosevelt and Taft to turn against one another, despite their personal friendship; the 1910 midterm elections proved to be rather rough for the Republicans, seeming to further cement the growing divide within the party. Taft's popularity among progressives collapsed when he supported the Payne–Aldrich Tariff Act in 1909, abandoned Roosevelt's antitrust policy, fired popular conservationist Gifford Pinchot as head of the Bureau of Forestry in 1910.

Democratic candidates: Woodrow Wilson, Governor of New Jersey Champ Clark, Speaker of the House from Missouri Judson Harmon, Governor of Ohio Oscar Underwood, House Majority Leader from Alabama Eugene Foss, Governor of Massachusetts Thomas R. Marshall, Governor of Indiana Simeon E. Baldwin, Governor of Connecticut The Democratic Convention was held in Baltimore, from June 25 to July 2, it proved to be one of the more memorable presidential conventions of the twentieth century. The front-runner appeared to be House Speaker Champ Clark of Missouri, Clark did receive the largest number of delegate votes early in the balloting. However, he was unable to get the two-thirds majority required to win the nomination. Clark's chances were hurt when Tammany Hall, the powerful and corrupt Democratic political machine in New York City, threw its support behind him, causing William Jennings Bryan, the former three-time Democratic presidential candidate and leader of the party's progressives, to turn against Clark as the candidate of "Wall Street."

Bryan shifted his support to New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson, who had finished second to Clark on each ballot and was regarded as a moderate reformer. Wilson had nearly given up hope, was on the verge of having a concession speech read for him at the convention that would fre

Wojciech Rojowski

Wojciech Rojowski was a Polish sculptor and woodcarver. His date of birth is not known. Information on the life Rojowski is scarce, he had a workshop in Kraków. He performed sculptures and decorating the interior of churches in Kraków, he worked in wood in the Rococo style. His works are characterized by their richness of decoration. In 1750, he completed the stucco decoration of the altar of St. John of Nepomuk in the Pauline Church Na Skałce. In the years 1758-1766 he worked on the interior decoration of the Bernardine Church, Lviv. In addition, he participated in the work of such the Carmelite church, a church cloister in Bielany, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Miechów. Rojowski decorated the chapel of Bishop Andrzej Stanisław Załuski in the Wawel Cathedral, including a carved statue of the bishop, he was the creator of the Copernicus monument, commissioned for the Town Hall of Toruń. Jan Samek, Wojciech Rojowski, in Polish Biographical Dictionary, Volume XXXI, 1989

Ferdinand Bordewijk Prize

The Ferdinand Bordewijk Prize or F. Bordewijk-prijs is a literary award, presented annually by the Jan Campert Foundation to the author of the best Dutch prose book; the prize was established in 1948 as the'Vijverberg Prize', has been named after the Dutch author Ferdinand Bordewijk since 1979. The prize includes a cash prize of € 6000, -. Vijverberg Prize1948 - Jo Boer for Kruis of munt 1949 - not awarded 1950 - Josepha Mendels for Als wind en rook 1951 - Theun de Vries for Anna Casparii of Het heimwee 1953 - Albert Helman for De laaiende stilte 1954 - Max Croiset for the play Amphitryon 1955 - not awarded 1956 - Albert van der Hoogte for Het laatste uur 1957 - not awarded 1958 - Marga Minco for Het bittere kruid 1959 - Jos. Panhuijsen for Wandel in het water 1960 - not awarded 1961 - Boeli van Leeuwen for De rots der struikeling 1962 - J. W. Holsbergen for De handschoenen van het verraad 1963 - Harry Mulisch for De zaak 40/61 1964 - Jacques Hamelink for Het plantaardig bewind 1965 - Alfred Kossmann for De smaak van groene kaas 1966 - Willem Frederik Hermans for Beyond Sleep 1967 - Jeroen Brouwers for Joris Ockeloen en het wachten 1968 - Geert van Beek for De steek van een schorpioen 1969 - Ivo Michiels for Orchis militaris 1970 - Jaap Harten for Garbo en de broeders Grimm 1971 - Bert Schierbeek for Inspraak 1972 - Anton Koolhaas for Blaffen zonder onraad 1973 - Kees Simhoffer for Een geile gifkikker 1974 - William D. Kuik for De held van het potspel 1975 - Daniël Robberechts for Praag schrijven 1976 - Adriaan van der Veen for In liefdesnaam 1977 - J. Bernlef for De man in het midden 1978 - F.

B. Hotz for ErnstvuurwerkFerdinand Bordewijk Prize1979 - Willem Brakman for Zes subtiele verhalen 1980 - Oek de Jong for Opwaaiende zomerjurken 1981 - Cees Nooteboom for Rituals 1982 - F. Springer for Bougainville 1983 - Willem G. van Maanen for Het nichtje van Mozart 1984 - Armando for Machthebbers 1985 - Maarten Biesheuvel for Reis door mijn kamer 1986 - A. F. Th. van der Heijden for De gevarendriehoek 1987 - Frans Kellendonk for Mystiek lichaam 1988 - Hermine de Graaf for De regels van het huis 1989 - Jeroen Brouwers for De zondvloed 1990 - Leo Pleysier for Wit is altijd schoon 1991 - Jan Siebelink for De overkant van de rivier 1992 - Jacq Firmin Vogelaar for De dood als meisje van acht 1993 - Robert Anker for De terugkeer van kapitein Rob 1994 - Louis Ferron for De walsenkoning 1995 - Nicolaas Matsier for Gesloten huis 1996 - Wessel te Gussinklo for De opdracht 1997 - J. J. Voskuil for Meneer Beerta en Vuile handen 1998 - Helga Ruebsamen for Het lied en de waarheid 1999 - Gijs IJlander for Twee harten op een schotel 2000 - Peter Verhelst for Tongkat.

H. Wiener for Nestor 2004 - Arnon Grunberg for De asielzoeker 2005 - Paul Verhaeghen for Omega Minor 2006 - Tommy Wieringa for Joe Speedboot 2007 - Marcel Möring for Dis 2008 - Doeschka Meijsing for Over de liefde 2009 - Marie Kessels for Ruw 2010 - Koen Peeters for De bloemen 2011 - Gustaaf Peek for Ik was Amerika 2012 - Stephan Enter for Grip 2013 - Oek de Jong for Pier en oceaan 2014 - Jan van Mersbergen for De laatste ontsnapping 2015 - Annelies Verbeke for Dertig dagen 2016 - Anton Valens for Het compostcirculatieplan 2017 - Jeroen Olyslaegers for WIL 2018 - Jan van Aken for De ommegang 2019 - Marente de Moor for Foon Website Jan Campert Foundation

Applause (1929 film)

Applause is a 1929 black-and-white backstage musical talkie directed by Rouben Mamoulian and starring Helen Morgan, Jack Cameron, Joan Peers. It was shot at Paramount's Astoria Studios in Astoria, New York, during the early years of sound films; the film is notable as one of the few films of its time to break free from the restrictions of bulky sound technology equipment in order to shoot on location around Manhattan. Based on a novel by Beth Brown, the film was staged and directed by Rouben Mamoulian, stars Helen Morgan, Joan Peers, Jack Cameron, Henry Wadsworth, Fuller Mellish Jr. Mae West was considered for the part of Kitty Darling, but Paramount decided West's glamorous stage presence would undercut the tackier aspects of the storyline; the National Board of Review named Applause one of the 10 best films of 1929. This was Morgan's first all-talking film, she had appeared in the sound prologue to the part-talkie version of Show Boat, released by Universal Studios. In the same year, Morgan appeared in Applause, Glorifying the American Girl.

In 2006, Applause was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". The first scene has a marching band playing Theodore Mentz's "A Hot Time in the Old Town"; the film tells of a burlesque star. Upon the recommendation of burlesque clown and suitor, Joe King, Kitty sends her young daughter to a convent to get her away from the sleazy burlesque environment she is involved in. Many years Kitty is not doing so well and her best days are behind her. She's now an alcoholic, she lives with a burlesque comic named Hitch. Hitch only cares about spending what little money she has; when he finds out she has been paying for her daughter's convent education for over a decade, he pushes her into bringing April back home. Her grown, but naive daughter April returns. Kitty is embarrassed by her condition and marries Hitch; when April arrives, she is disgusted with her sad life. Hitch tries to force her into show business and gropes her, at one point forcing a kiss on her.

April meets a lonely young sailor named Tony. They fall in love and agree to marry and April will move to his home in Wisconsin; when April goes to tell her mother about their plans she overhears Hitch belittling Kitty, calling her a "has-been." April calls off her wedding. She decides to join the chorus line of a burlesque show, she says a reluctant goodbye to Tony at the subway. Meanwhile, Kitty takes an overdose of sleeping pills; the bottle says "For insomnia one tablet only". She collapses on a couch. Knowing that Kitty cannot perform in the show, the producer berates her, mistaking her reaction to the overdose for delirium tremens. April not realizing what is happening, over Kitty's objections, says she will take Kitty's place, she tells Kitty. As April goes onstage, Kitty passes away. April can not complete the show; as she runs off the stage, none other than Tony is there to greet her. He says, she says she wants to go far away. Not realizing Kitty is dead, she says they will need to take care of her mother too, Tony agrees.

The final shot is a close-up of the Kitty Darling poster on the wall, behind April. Helen Morgan as Kitty Darling Joan Peers as April Darling Fuller Mellish Jr. as Hitch Nelson Jack Cameron as Joe King Henry Wadsworth as Tony Roy Hargrave as Slim Lamont The censor boards approved of the message and production values of the film, but were concerned about a scene in which Kitty told April that two of the chorus girls in the show were Catholic, "as good Catholics as anybody if they do shake for a living." The line was changed to "Christians". Censors in Ohio, British Columbia, Worcester, Massachusetts banned the film outright. Many cuts were made for showings in cities such as Chicago, Providence, Rhode Island, St. Louis, Missouri; the film opened to mixed reviews from film critics. Critic Mordaunt Hall, writing for The New York Times, liked the acting but was troubled by some of Rouben Mamoulian's direction, he said, "The opening chapters are none too interesting and subsequently one anticipates pretty much what's going to happen...however, Mr. Mamoulian commits the unpardonable sin of being far too extravagant.

He becomes tedious in his scenes of the convent and there is nothing but viciousness in his stage passages."Photoplay described the film as "a curious one," however recommendable for the performances by Morgan and Joan Peers. The anonymous reviewer, thought the two leads, "and some nice camera work, help save a confusing job."The Library of Congress says the following about the film: Many have compared Mamoulian’s debut to that of Orson Welles' Citizen Kane because of his flamboyant use of cinematic innovation to test technical boundaries. The tear-jerking plot boasts top performances from Morgan as the fading burlesque queen, Fuller Mellish Jr. as her slimy paramour and Joan Peers as her cultured daughter. However, the film is remembered today chiefly for Mamoulian's audacious style. While most films of the era were static and stage-bound, Mamoulian's camera reinvigorated the melodramatic plot by prowling relentlessly through sordid backstage life. A recent review by Manuel Cintra Ferreira highlights the innovative direction and influ

1877 Iquique earthquake

The 1877 Iquique earthquake occurred at 21:16 local time on 9 May. It had a magnitude of 8.5 on the surface wave magnitude scale. Other estimates of its magnitude have been as high as 9.0. It had a maximum intensity of XI on the Mercalli intensity scale and triggered a devastating tsunami. A total of 2,385 people died in Fiji. Affected areas in what was part of Bolivia, but is now the Antofagasta region of Chile, had during this period been subject to the Atacama border dispute between the two countries. Under the 1874 boundary treaty between Bolivia and Chile, the border between the two nations as of 1877 followed the 24th parallel south; the terms of that treaty required that Bolivia not levy taxes on Chilean companies mining nitrates between the 23rd and 24th parallels for 25 years, except for agreed duties to be shared between the two countries. Following extensive damage in the 1877 earthquake and tsunami, the municipal authorities in Antofagasta voted for a tax of 10 centavos per quintal of nitrates exported to fund reconstruction of the town.

The Chilean Antofagasta Nitrate & Railway Company, a major nitrate mining company in the region, refused to pay, backed by the Chilean government. This dispute resulted in the War of the Pacific, fought from 1879 to 1884, by which Chile gained control of territory as far north as Tacna, including Bolivia's entire coastline. Coastal regions of Peru and Chile lie above the convergent boundary, where the Nazca Plate is being subducted beneath the South American Plate along the line of the Peru–Chile Trench; the rate of convergence across this boundary is measured at about 8 cm per year. This boundary has been the site of many great megathrust earthquakes, in addition to events caused by faulting within both the subducting and over-riding plates; the earthquake shaking caused significant damage over most of the coastal parts of the Tarapacá and Antofagasta Regions. The tsunami caused a 10 m wave along about 500 km of coast, from Arica in the north to Mejillones in the south. At Arica the water reached the cathedral.

The hulk of the U. S. gunboat Wateree, beached hundreds of metres inland by the final wave of the tsunami triggered by the 1868 Arica earthquake, was moved several kilometres to the north along the coast and nearer the shoreline. The tsunami caused 2,000 deaths in Fiji, another 5 in Hilo, Hawaii; the shaking lasted for five minutes at Caleta Pabellón de Pica, a coastal town 70 km south of Iquique. The area of felt intensity of VIII on the Mercalli intensity scale or greater, extended from about 50 km south of Arica to just south of Cobija; this indicates a rupture length of about 420 km. The tsunami affected the coasts of Peru and northern Chile and was observed across the Pacific Ocean, in Australia, New Zealand, Tonga, Hawaii, Mexico and Japan. At Arica eight separate large waves were recorded; the rupture area of the 1877 earthquake has been recognised as one of the major seismic gaps on the plate boundary, known as the "Northern Chile Seismic Gap". The Mw = 7.7 2007 Tocopilla earthquake occurred at the southern edge of the gap, but is not considered to have reduced the risk of a great megathrust earthquake within this area.

In 2005, a recurrence period of 135 years was estimated for great earthquakes along this part of the plate boundary, suggesting that a similar earthquake to the 1877 event was in the early 21st century. The 2014 Iquique earthquake struck in the same seismic gap with a magnitude of Mw = 8.2. 1868 Arica earthquake List of earthquakes in Chile List of historical earthquakes List of historical tsunamis

Birdman Rally

Birdman Rally is a competition where members of the public build home-made gliders, hang gliders and human-powered aircraft, ranging from serious aircraft to mere costumes, leap from a river– or sea–side jetty, or from a bridge, compete for distance and entertainment value. Birdman rallies occur in multiple locations around the world, including Bognor Regis and Worthing in the United Kingdom, the Yarra River in Melbourne and Lake Biwa in Japan and in China, created by regular entrants in the Bognor Regis event; the oldest Birdman rally in the world started in Selsey, West Sussex, United Kingdom in 1971. Moved to Bognor Regis, where it was known as the International Bognor Birdman throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the event moved along the coast to Worthing in 2008 and since 2010 annual rallies have been held in both Bognor Regis and Worthing; the Australian competition first started in 1972 in Glenelg, South Australia but now occurs as a part of Melbourne's Moomba festival in March. In New Zealand, the Birdman Rally ran from 1974 to 1979.

Started in 1977, the Japanese competition takes place every year in August, the majority of competitors come from engineering programmes at universities. Since 1991, Red Bull is holding Birdman Rallies under the name Red Bull Flugtag. International Bognor Birdman Worthing Birdman Japan's Quirky Festivals: Japan International Birdman Rally Japan's 39th International Birdman Rally Birdman Rally, Melbourne's Moomba Festival 2017