President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Solano County, California
Solano County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 413,344; the county seat is Fairfield. Solano County comprises the Vallejo–Fairfield, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. Solano County is the northeastern county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. A portion of the South Campus at the University of California, Davis is in Solano County. Solano County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. At the request of General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, the county was named for Chief Solano of the Suisun people, a Native American tribe of the region and Vallejo's close ally. Chief Solano at one time led the tribes between the Sacramento River; the chief was called Sem-Yeto, which signifies "brave or fierce hand." The Chief was given the Spanish name Francisco Solano during baptism at the Catholic Mission, is named after the Spanish Franciscan missionary, Father Francisco Solano.
"Solano" is a common surname in the north of Spain in Navarra, Zaragoza and La Rioja. Travis Air Force Base is located just east of Fairfield. Solano County is the easternmost county of the North Bay; as such, it is sometimes reported by news agencies as being in the East Bay. Additionally, a portion of the county extends into the Sacramento Valley, geographically. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 906 square miles, of which 822 square miles is land and 84 square miles is water. Solano County has several inactive cinnabar mines including the Hastings Mine and St. John's Mine, both of which are subject to ongoing mercury monitoring; these mines were worked in the first half of the twentieth century. Solano County has a number of rare and endangered species including the beetle Elaphrus viridis, the wildflower Lasthenia conjugens known as Contra Costa goldfields and the annual plant Legenere limosa or False Venus' looking glass. Contra Costa County, California - south Sonoma County, California - west Napa County, California - west Yolo County, California - north Sacramento County, California - east San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge Solano County is served by several transit agencies: SolTrans, formed as a merger between these two existing transit agencies: Vallejo Transit, which used to operate the Baylink Ferry to San Francisco Benicia Breeze San Francisco Bay Ferry, with a terminal in Vallejo Fairfield and Suisun Transit Vacaville City Coach Rio Vista Delta BreezeEach agency interconnects with each other, enabling transit trips throughout the county.
Service connects with BART stations in Contra Costa County. Transit links are provided to Napa and Sacramento counties as well. Greyhound and Amtrak provide long-distance intercity service. General aviation airports in Solano County which are open to the public are the Nut Tree Airport and Rio Vista Municipal Airport; the following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. A 2014 analysis by The Atlantic found Solano County to be the 5th most racially diverse county in the United States, behind Aleutians West Census Area and Aleutians East Borough in Alaska, Queens County in New York, Alameda County in California; the 2010 United States Census reported that Solano County had a population of 413,344. The racial makeup of Solano County was 210,751 White, 60,750 African American, 3,212 Native American, 60,473 Asian, 3,564 Pacific Islander, 43,236 from other races, 31,358 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 99,356 persons.
At 52,641 Filipinos in the County making up 12% of the population, Solano County has the largest percentage Filipino population of any County in all of the United States. As of the census of 2000, there were 394,542 people, 130,403 households, 97,411 families residing in the county; the population density was 476 people per square mile. There were 134,513 housing units at an average density of 162 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 56.4% White, 14.9% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 12.8% Asian, 0.8% Pacific Islander, 8.0% from other races, 6.4% from two or more races. 17.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 8.5% were of German, 6.4% Irish and 6.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 75.7 % spoke 12.1 % Spanish and 6.6 % Tagalog as their first language. There were 130,403 households out of which 39.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families.
19.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.33. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 101.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $54,099, the median income for a family was $60,597. Males had a median income of $41,787 versus $31,916 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,731. About 6.1% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over. The Government of Solano County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution and
Santa Barbara County, California
Santa Barbara County, California the County of Santa Barbara, is a county located in the southern region of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 423,895; the county seat is Santa Barbara, the largest city is Santa Maria. Santa Barbara County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the county is part of the California Central Coast. Mainstays of the county's economy include engineering, resource extraction, winemaking and education; the software development and tourism industries are important employers in the southern part of the county. Southern Santa Barbara County is sometimes considered the northern cultural boundary of Southern California; the Santa Barbara County area, including the Northern Channel Islands, was first settled by Native Americans at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence has been found in the form of a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara Coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s.
For thousands of years, the area was home to the Chumash tribe of Native Americans, complex hunter-gatherers who lived along the coast and in interior valleys leaving rock art in many locations, including Painted Cave. Europeans first contacted the Chumash in AD 1542, when three Spanish ships under the command of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo explored the area; the Santa Barbara Channel received its name from Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno when he sailed along the California coast in 1602. Spanish ships associated with the Manila Galleon trade made emergency stops along the coast during the next 167 years, but no permanent settlements were established; the first land expedition to explore California, led by Gaspar de Portolà explored the coastal area in 1769, on its way to Monterey Bay. The party traveled the same route on the return to San Diego in January 1770; that same year, a second expedition to Monterey again passed through the area. The DeAnza expeditions of 1774-76 followed Portola's trail.
The Presidio of Santa Barbara was established in 1782, followed by Mission Santa Barbara in 1786 – both in what is now the city of Santa Barbara. The presidio and mission kept Vizcaino's denomination, as did the city and county – a common practice which has preserved the names of many of the 21 California Missions. European contacts had devastating effects on the Chumash people, including a series of disease epidemics that drastically reduced Chumash population; the Chumash survived and thousands of Chumash descendants still live in the Santa Barbara area or surrounding counties. A tribal homeland was established in the Santa Ynez Reservation. Following the Mexican secularization of the missions in the 1830s, the mission pasture lands were broken up into large ranchos and granted to prominent local citizens who lived in the area. 604 of these land grants were confirmed by the state of California, with 36 in Santa Barbara County. Santa Barbara County was one of the 27 original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood.
The county's territory was divided to create Ventura County in 1873. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,789 square miles, of which 2,735 square miles is land and 1,054 square miles is water. Four of the Channel Islands – San Miguel Island, Santa Cruz Island, Santa Rosa Island and Santa Barbara Island – are in Santa Barbara County, they form the largest part of the Channel Islands National Park. Santa Barbara County has a mountainous interior abutting several coastal plains on the west and south coasts of the county; the largest concentration of population is on the southern coastal plain, referred to as the "south coast" – meaning the part of the county south of the Santa Ynez Mountains. This region includes the cities of Santa Barbara and Carpinteria, as well as the unincorporated areas of Hope Ranch, Mission Canyon and Isla Vista, along with stretches of unincorporated area such as Noleta/Nanta Barbara. North of the Santa Ynez range in the Santa Ynez Valley are the towns of Santa Ynez, Buellton, Lompoc.
North of the Santa Ynez Valley are the cities of Santa Maria and Guadalupe, the unincorporated towns of Orcutt, Los Alamos, Casmalia and Sisquoc. In the extreme northeastern portion of the county are the small cities of New Cuyama and Ventucopa; as of January 1, 2006, Santa Maria has become the largest city in Santa Barbara County. The principal mountain ranges of the county are the Santa Ynez Mountains in the south, the San Rafael Mountains and Sierra Madre Mountains in the interior and northeast. Most of the mountainous area is within the Los Padres National Forest, includes two wilderness areas: the San Rafael Wilderness and the Dick Smith Wilderness; the highest elevation in the county is 6820 feet at Big Pine Mountain in the San Rafaels. North of the mountains is the arid and sparsely populated Cuyama Valley, portions of which are in San Luis Obispo and Ventura Counties. Oil production and agriculture dominate the land use in the owned parts of the Cuyama Valley.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the 34th governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election; as president, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. He led the United States during World War I, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism." Born in Staunton, Wilson spent his early years in Augusta and Columbia, South Carolina. After earning a Ph. D. in political science from Johns Hopkins University, Wilson taught at various schools before becoming the president of Princeton. As governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913, Wilson broke with party bosses and won the passage of several progressive reforms, his success in New Jersey gave him a national reputation as a progressive reformer, he won the presidential nomination at the 1912 Democratic National Convention.
Wilson defeated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and Progressive Party nominee Theodore Roosevelt to win the 1912 presidential election, becoming the first Southerner to serve as president since the American Civil War. During his first term, Wilson presided over the passage of his progressive New Freedom domestic agenda, his first major priority was the passage of the Revenue Act of 1913, which lowered tariffs and implemented a federal income tax. Tax acts implemented a federal estate tax and raised the top income tax rate to 77 percent. Wilson presided over the passage of the Federal Reserve Act, which created a central banking system in the form of the Federal Reserve System. Two major laws, the Federal Trade Commission Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act, were passed to regulate and break up large business interests known as trusts. To the disappointment of his African-American supporters, Wilson allowed some of his Cabinet members to segregate their departments. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.
He won re-election by a narrow margin in the presidential election of 1916, defeating Republican nominee Charles Evans Hughes. In early 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany after Germany implemented a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, Congress complied. Wilson presided over war-time mobilization but devoted much of his efforts to foreign affairs, developing the Fourteen Points as a basis for post-war peace. After Germany signed an armistice in November 1918, Wilson and other Allied leaders took part in the Paris Peace Conference, where Wilson advocated for the establishment of a multilateral organization known as the League of Nations; the League of Nations was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles and other treaties with the defeated Central Powers, but Wilson was unable to convince the Senate to ratify that treaty or allow the United States to join the League. Wilson suffered a severe stroke in October 1919 and was incapacitated for the remainder of his presidency.
He retired from public office in 1921, died in 1924. Scholars rank Wilson as one of the better U. S. presidents, though he has received strong criticism for his actions regarding racial segregation. Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born to a Scots-Irish family in Staunton, Virginia, on December 28, 1856, he was the third of four children and the first son of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow, who were slaveholders. Wilson's paternal grandparents had immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland in 1807, settling in Steubenville, Ohio, his grandfather James Wilson published a pro-tariff and anti-slavery newspaper, The Western Herald and Gazette. Wilson's maternal grandfather, Reverend Thomas Wodrow, migrated from Paisley, Scotland to Carlisle, before moving to Chillicothe, Ohio in the late 1830s. Joseph met Jessie while she was attending a girl's academy in Steubenville, the two married on June 7, 1849. Soon after the wedding, Joseph was ordained as a Presbyterian priest and assigned to serve as a pastor in Staunton.
Before he was two years old, Woodrow Wilson and his family moved to Georgia. Wilson's earliest memory was of standing near the front gate of the Augusta parsonage on an autumn day in 1860, when a strange passerby said that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming. By 1861, both of Wilson's parents had come to identify with the Southern United States and they supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War. Wilson's father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States after it split from the Northern Presbyterians in 1861, he became minister of the First Presbyterian Church in Augusta, the family lived there until 1870. After the end of the Civil War, Wilson began attending a nearby school, where classmates included future Supreme Court Justice Joseph Rucker Lamar and future ambassador Pleasant A. Stovall. Though Wilson's parents placed a high value on education, he struggled with reading and writing until the age of thirteen because of developmental dyslexia.
From 1870 to 1874, Wilson lived in Columbia, South Carolina, where his father was a theology professor at the Columbia Theological Seminary. In 1873, Wilson became a communicant member of the Columbia First Presbyterian Church. Wilson attended Davidson College in North Carolina for the 1873–74 school year, but transferred as a freshman to the College of New Jersey, he studied political philosophy and history, joined t
Hiram Warren Johnson was a leading American progressive and a Liberal Isolationist Republican politician from California. He served as the 23rd Governor of California from 1911 to 1917 and as a United States Senator from 1917 to 1945, he was Theodore Roosevelt's running mate in the 1912 presidential election on the Progressive ticket. After working as a stenographer and reporter, Johnson embarked on a legal career, he began his practice in his hometown of Sacramento, but moved to San Francisco, where he worked as an assistant district attorney. Gaining statewide notoriety for his prosecutions of public corruption, Johnson won the 1910 California gubernatorial election with the backing of the Lincoln–Roosevelt League, he instituted several progressive reforms, establishing a railroad commission and introducing aspects of direct democracy such as the power to recall state officials. Johnson joined with Roosevelt and other progressives to form the Progressive Party and won the party's 1912 vice presidential nomination.
In one of the best third party performances in U. S. history, the ticket finished second nationally in the electoral vote. Johnson won election to the Senate in 1916, becoming a leader of the chamber's Progressive Republicans, but he emerged as an early voice for Liberal Progressive isolationism, opposing U. S. entry into World War I and U. S. participation in the League of Nations. As a postwar Liberal Republican, he helped enact the Immigration Act of 1924, which restricted immigration from East Asian countries. Johnson unsuccessfully sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1920 and 1924 and supported Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election. Johnson supported many of the New Deal programs but came to oppose Roosevelt as the latter's tenure continued. Johnson remained in the Senate until his death in 1945. Johnson was born in Sacramento, California on September 2, 1866, his mother was Annie De Montfredy, a descendant of a family of Huguenots who had left France to escape religious persecution after the Edict of Fontainebleau.
Annie was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution as the result of her descent from Pierre Van Cortlandt and Philip Van Cortlandt. Johnson had three sisters. After attending public schools and Heald College, Johnson first worked as a shorthand reporter and stenographer in law offices, he pursued a legal career, studying at the University of California, where he was a member of the Chi Phi Fraternity. He commenced practice in his hometown. In 1902, he moved to San Francisco, he served as assistant district attorney and became active in reform politics, taking up an anti-corruption mantle. He attracted statewide attention in 1908 when he assisted Francis J. Heney in the graft prosecution of Abe Ruef and Mayor Eugene Schmitz, his success was due in large measure to the fact that after Heney was gunned down in the courtroom, he took the lead for the prosecution and won the case. He married Minne L. McNeal. In 1910, Johnson won the gubernatorial election as a member of the Lincoln–Roosevelt League, a Progressive Republican movement running on an anti-Southern Pacific Railroad platform.
He toured the state in an open automobile. In office, Johnson was a populist. Among them was the popular election of U. S. senators, which stripped away the sole franchise of the California State Legislature to vote for federal senators. Johnson's administration pushed for the ability of candidates to register in more than one political party, a reform that he believed would cripple the influence of what he viewed as a monolithic political establishment. In 1911, Johnson and the Progressives added initiative and recall to the state government, giving California a degree of direct democracy unmatched by any other U. S. state. Johnson was instrumental in the establishment of a railroad commission to regulate the power of the Southern Pacific Railroad. On taking office, Johnson soon paroled the convicted Southern Pacific train bandit Chris Evans but required that he leave California. Although opposed to the bill, Johnson gave in to political pressure and supported the California Alien Land Law of 1913 as a fledgling Liberal Progressive, legislation which prevented Asian immigrants from owning land in the state.
Nationally, Johnson was a founder of the Progressive Party in 1912. That same year, he was the party's vice presidential candidate, sharing a ticket with former President Theodore Roosevelt; the Progressives finished second nationally ahead of the incumbent Republican, President William Howard Taft, but still lost the election to the Democrats and their candidate, Woodrow Wilson. Johnson was re-elected governor of California in 1914 doubling his opponent's vote total. In 1916, Johnson ran for the U. S. Senate, defeating Democrat George S. Patton Sr. and assuming office on March 16, 1917. It is alleged, the year that he spoke the words for which he is best remembered today: "The first casualty when war comes is truth" about United States entry into World War I. However, the source of the famous quote has yet to be determined. From 1917 to 1929, he resided at Riversdale in Maryland. Following Theodore Roosevelt's death in Janu
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft was the 27th president of the United States and the tenth chief justice of the United States, the only person to have held both offices. Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for re-election by Woodrow Wilson in 1912 after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft to be chief justice, a position in which he served until a month before his death. Taft was born in Cincinnati in 1857, his father, Alphonso Taft, was a U. S. Attorney General and Secretary of War. Taft attended Yale and, like his father, was a member of Bones. After becoming a lawyer, he was appointed a judge while still in his twenties, he continued a rapid rise, being named Solicitor General and as a judge of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. In 1901, President William McKinley appointed Taft civilian governor of the Philippines. In 1904, Roosevelt made him Secretary of War, he became Roosevelt's hand-picked successor.
Despite his personal ambition to become chief justice, Taft declined repeated offers of appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, believing his political work to be more important. With Roosevelt's help, Taft had little opposition for the Republican nomination for president in 1908 and defeated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency that November. In the White House, he focused on East Asia more than European affairs and intervened to prop up or remove Latin American governments. Taft sought reductions to trade tariffs a major source of governmental income, but the resulting bill was influenced by special interests, his administration was filled with conflict between the conservative wing of the Republican Party, with which Taft sympathized, the progressive wing, toward which Roosevelt moved more and more. Controversies over conservation and antitrust cases filed by the Taft administration served to further separate the two men. Roosevelt challenged Taft for renomination in 1912.
Taft used his control of the party machinery to gain a bare majority of delegates and Roosevelt bolted the party. The split left Taft with little chance of re-election and he took only Utah and Vermont in Wilson's victory. After leaving office, Taft returned to Yale as a professor, continuing his political activity and working against war through the League to Enforce Peace. In 1921, President Harding appointed Taft as an office he had long sought. Chief Justice Taft was a conservative on business issues and under him there were advances in individual rights. In poor health, he resigned in February 1930. After his death the next month, he was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the first president and first Supreme Court justice to be interred there. Taft is listed near the middle in historians' rankings of U. S. presidents. William Howard Taft was born September 15, 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Alphonso Taft and Louise Torrey; the Taft family was not wealthy. Alphonso served as a judge, ambassador and in the cabinet, as War Secretary and Attorney General under Ulysses S. Grant.
William Taft was a hard worker. He attended Woodward High School in Cincinnati. At Yale College, which he entered in 1874, the heavyset, jovial Taft was popular, was an intramural heavyweight wrestling champion. One classmate described him succeeding through hard work rather than being the smartest, as having integrity. In 1878, Taft graduated, second in his class out of 121, he attended Cincinnati Law School, graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1880. While in law school, he worked on The Cincinnati Commercial newspaper, edited by Murat Halstead. Taft was assigned to cover the local courts, spent time reading law in his father's office. Shortly before graduating from law school, Taft went to the state capital of Columbus to take the bar examination and passed. After admission to the Ohio bar, Taft devoted himself to his job at the Commercial full-time. Halstead was willing to take him on permanently at an increased salary if he would give up the law, but Taft declined. In October 1880, Taft was appointed assistant prosecutor for Hamilton County, took office the following January.
Taft served for a year as assistant prosecutor. He resigned in January 1882 after President Chester A. Arthur appointed him Collector of Internal Revenue for Ohio's First District, an area centered on Cincinnati. Taft refused to dismiss competent employees who were politically out of favor, resigned effective in March 1883, writing to Arthur that he wished to begin private practice in Cincinnati. In 1884, Taft campaigned for the Republican candidate for president, Maine Senator James G. Blaine, who lost to New York Governor Grover Cleveland. In 1887, Taft aged 29, was appointed to a vacancy on the Superior Court of Cincinnati by Governor Joseph B. Foraker; the appointment was good for just over a year, after which he would have to face the voters, in April 1888, he sought election for the first of three times in his lifetime, the other two being for the presidency. He was elected to a full five-year term; some two dozen of Taft's opinions as a state judge survive, the most significant being Moores & Co. v. Bricklayers' Union No. 1 if only because it was used against him when he ran for president in 1908.
The case involved bricklayers who refused to work for any firm that de
Sierra County, California
Sierra County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,240 making it California's second-least populous county; the county seat is Downieville, the only incorporated city is Loyalton. The county is in the Sierra Nevada, northeast of Sacramento on the border with Nevada. Sierra County was formed from parts of Yuba County in 1852; the county derives its name from the Sierra Nevada. Prior to the California Gold Rush, the area was home to both the Washoe peoples, they summered in the higher elevations to hunt and fish, returned to lower elevations for the winter months. After the discovery of gold in the Sierra foothills sparked the California Gold Rush, more than 16,000 miners settled in Sierra County between 1848-1860. Most mining settlements in the county sprung up along the North and Middle Forks of the Yuba River, both of which had rich deposits of gold. While some of the mining boom towns faded away once gold fever died down, other settlements such as Downieville and Sierra City have remained.
Notable gold nuggets found in the county include a 26.5 pound specimen, found by a group of sailors at Sailor Ravine, two miles above Downieville. A 51-pound specimen was found in 1853 by a group of Frenchmen in French Ravine; the 106 pound Monumental Nugget was found in Sept. 1869 at Sierra City. The Bald Mountain drift mine in Forest City was founded in Aug. 1864, was the largest of its kind in the state at the time. The Bald Mountain Extension was located in 1874 east of Forest; the Monte Cristo Mine was located in 1854. The largest quartz-mine is the Sierra Buttes Gold; the Gold Bluff Mine was located near Downnieville in 1854. By 1880 the county had 266 miles of mining ditches. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 962 square miles, of which 953 square miles is land and 9.0 square miles is water. Nevada County, California - south Yuba County, California - west Plumas County, California - north Lassen County, California - northeast Washoe County, Nevada - east Plumas National Forest Tahoe National Forest Toiyabe National Forest Sierra County at one time had favored the Democratic party in Presidential elections and was one of few counties in California to be won by George McGovern.
In more recent times it is a Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections. The last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Jimmy Carter in 1976. On November 4, 2008, Sierra County voted 64.2% for Proposition 8, which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages. U. S. Route 395 Interstate 80 State Route 49 State Route 89 County Route A23 County Route A24 Henness Pass Road Stampede Dam Road Gold Lake Road/Highway Public transportation in Sierra County is limited to vans run by senior citizen agencies in Downieville and Loyalton which the general public may ride on a space-available basis. Sierraville-Dearwater Field Airport is a general aviation airport located near Sierraville; the following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. As of 2015 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Sierra County, California are: The 2010 United States Census reported that Sierra County had a population of 3,240.
The racial makeup of Sierra County was 3,022 White, 6 African American, 44 Native American, 12 Asian, 2 Pacific Islander, 75 from other races, 79 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 269 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,555 people, 1,520 households and 986 families residing in the county. The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 2,202 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.2% White, 0.2% Black or African American, 1.9% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Six percent of the population were Latino of any race. Eighteen percent were of English ancestry, 16 % were of Irish, 8 % Italian ancestry. Over ninety-five percent spoke English and 3.4% Spanish as their first language. There were 1,520 households out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families.
29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.83. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 4.8% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 30.2% from 45 to 64, 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.9 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,827, the median income for a family was $42,756. Males had a median income of $36,121 versus $30,000 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,815. About 9.0% of families and 11.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.3% of those under age 18 and 2.2% of those age 65 or over. Sierra-Plumas Joint Unified School District Loyalton Forest Gibsonville Bassetts The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Sierra County.† county seat Because Loyalton is Sierra County's most populous municipality and its only incorporated city half of the meetings of the county's board of supervisors are held in Downiev