Thomas Taggart was the political boss of the Democratic Party in Indiana for the first quarter of the twentieth century and remained an influential political figure in local and national politics until his death. Taggart was elected auditor of Marion County and mayor of Indianapolis, his mayoral administration supported public improvements, most notably the formation of the city's park and boulevard system. He served as a member of the Democratic National Committee and as its chairman. Taggart was appointed to the U. S. Senate in March lost the seat in the November election. Taggart, an Irish-born immigrant, came to the United States in 1861 at the age of five, grew up in Xenia and moved to Indiana as a teenager. After relocating to Indianapolis in 1877, he began a successful career as an hotelier and politician; as the party's county chairman during Grover Cleveland's 1888 presidential campaign, Taggart helped him carry Marion County over Republican Benjamin Harrison, the hometown candidate. As state chairman in 1892, Taggart helped Cleveland carry Indiana in opposition to Harrison’s bid for reelection.
In 1908 Taggart assisted in securing the Democratic nomination of John W. Kern for U. S. vice president and Thomas R. Marshall for governor of Indiana, he was involved in securing the nomination of Woodrow Wilson for U. S. president and Marshall for vice president in 1912, as well as James M. Cox's nomination in the 1920 presidential election. In addition to his political activities, Taggart was the owner and developer of the French Lick Springs Hotel in Orange County, Indiana. Thomas Taggart was born on November 17, 1856, to Thomas and Martha Kingsbury Taggart in Amyvale, County Monaghan and immigrated with his family to the United States in 1861 at the age of five; the Taggarts settled in Xenia, where Thomas senior worked at a local railroad depot. Young Taggart left high school early to work full time at the depot's restaurant. In 1875, when young Thomas was 18, his employer, the N. and G. Ohmer Company, sent him to Garrett, Indiana, to work in the restaurant at DeKalb House, a depot hotel.
Thomas remained at Garrett until 1877, when he was transferred to Indianapolis, Indiana, to work as a clerk for the Ohmer company's dining hall/restaurant at the city's Union Depot. Known as a hard worker, Taggart became the depot restaurant's manager and its sole owner in the new Union Station. In 1878, a year after his move to Indianapolis, Taggart married Eva Dora Bryant, whom he met while living in Garrett. Thomas and his wife were the parents of five daughters and one son. Florence Eva died tragically in a yachting accident in the Gulf of Mexico. Thomas and Eva Taggart had nine grandchildren; the Taggart family's primary residence was in Indianapolis, where they built a new home at 1331 North Delaware Street in 1913. The large home included an Italian-style interior, it was selected as one of House Beautiful's three best homes in Indianapolis in 1920. The Taggarts were members of Saint Paul Episcopal Church in Indianapolis. In 1901, after Taggart and a group of investors purchased the French Lick Springs Hotel in Orange County, the Taggart family visited the hotel.
Its seven-story deluxe wing, completed in 1915, provided accommodations for the family when they were in residence. The family had a summer home built in 1915–16 at Hyannis Port, Massachusetts; the home was called Amyvale, in honor of Taggart’s Irish birthplace. In 1928 Joseph P. and Rose Kennedy acquired property adjacent to the Taggarts' Hyannis Port home to establish the Kennedy compound. The Taggarts' Hyannis Port home was sold after Eva's death, in 1937. After his move to Indianapolis in 1877, Taggart began a successful career as an Indiana hotelier and politician. Taggart became the owner of the restaurant at the Indianapolis Union Station, but sold his restaurant business and began other ventures that included acquisition of two hotels in Indianapolis and the French Lick Springs Hotel in Orange County, among other investments. Taggart became a "powerful Democratic boss of the state," referred to by his initials, T. T. or called "the Easy Boss" because of his congenial nature. Taggart was elected auditor of Marion County and mayor of Indianapolis.
As the Democratic Party's boss in Indiana, a member of Democratic National Committee, the party's national chairman, Taggart became an influential political figure in state and national politics. In 1916 Taggart was appointed U. S. Senator, but he was defeated that year in a special election. After Taggart sold his restaurant business at the Indianapolis Union Station, his investments expanded to include controlling interests in the Grand and Denison hotels in Indianapolis and investments in the copper and oil industries. In 1901 Taggart began his most ambitious and famous project when he organized a small group of investors that acquired and developed the French Lick Springs
Joseph S. Frelinghuysen Sr.
Joseph Sherman Frelinghuysen Sr. represented New Jersey as a Republican in the United States Senate from 1917 to 1923. He was born in New Jersey, on March 12, 1869 to Frederick Frelinghuysen and Victoria Bowen, his father was a lawyer. He came from a historic New Jersey political family, his paternal grandparents were John Frederick Frelinghuysen, a lawyer and brigadier general in the War of 1812, his second wife, Elizabeth Mercereau Van Vechten. His great-grandparents were Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, lawyer and Senator from New Jersey, his first wife, Gertrude Schenck. After fighting in the Spanish–American War and starting an insurance business, Frelinghuysen was elected to the state Senate in 1905 and became president of that body in 1909, he held several statewide offices before being elected to the U. S. Senate in 1916, he was New Jersey's first directly elected senator following ratification of the 17th Amendment to the Constitution in 1913. While in the Senate, he frequented the Chevy Chase Club and would golf with his fellow Senators Warren G. Harding, Stephen B.
Elkins, Eugene Hale. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding signed the Knox–Porter Resolution ending America's involvement in World War I at Frelinghuysen's estate in Raritan, New Jersey; the President stayed on the estate until at least July 4. After a failed reelection bid in 1922, Frelinghuysen returned to the insurance business. In 1938, after considering a run for one of the United State Senate seats in New Jersey, Frelinghuysen declined to run. Instead, he put his support behind fellow Republican, former Senator W. Warren Barbour, for the Republican nomination. Barbour won the Senate seat and served until his death in 1943. Frelinghuysen married Emily Macy Brewster, born in Rochester, New York. Together they had three children: Victoria Frelinghuysen, who married John Grenville Bates Jr. Emily Frelinghuysen, who married H. Edward Bilkey until his death in 1950 and married Dr. Ross A. McFarland of the Harvard School of Public Health. Joseph S. Frelinghuysen Jr. who married Emily Lawrance, the daughter of Charles Lawrance and Emily Margaret Gordon Dix, the granddaughter of Rev. Morgan Dix, the rector of Trinity Parish.
His wife's portrait and that of Joseph Jr, were painted in 1916 by the Swiss-born American artist Adolfo Müller-Ury. Frelinghuysen owned an 88-foot houseboat called Victoria that Harding used for 12 days after he won the 1920 election for President, but before he was inaugurated in March 1921, he died on February 8, 1948 in Tucson and was interred at St. Bernard's Cemetery in Bernardsville, New Jersey. A memorial plaque was placed on the estate grounds commemorating the Knox–Porter Resolution ending America's involvement in World War I. Today the estate is long gone and suburban sprawl has replaced it with mini-malls; the marker remains in a patch of grass near a Burger King parking lot along Route 28, just north of the Somerville traffic circle. United States Congress. "Joseph S. Frelinghuysen Sr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Barbour, Thomas. Our Families. Self-printed. 1983 Hess, Stephen. America's Political Dynasties: From Adams to Clinton. Brookings Institution Press, Nov 24, 2015 Joseph Sherman Frelinghuysen Sr. at Findagrave
William F. Kirby
William Fosgate Kirby was a Democratic Party politician from Arkansas who represented the state in the U. S. Senate from 1916 to 1921. Kirby was born in Miller County, Arkansas near Texarkana on November 16, 1867, attended common schools, he studied law at Cumberland School of Law at Cumberland University, graduating in 1885, in which year he was admitted to the bar and began practice in Texarkana. A member of the state House of Representatives in 1893 and again in 1897, Kirby served in the state senate from 1899 to 1901. In 1904 he wrote Kirby’s Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, he was the state's attorney general from 1907 to 1909 and was elected associate justice of the state supreme court, serving from 1910 to 1916. He resigned upon his election to the Senate to serve out the term of James P. Clarke, who had died in office; as a senator, Kirby chaired the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Agriculture and served on the Committee on Patents. An unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1920 and again in 1932, he resumed his law practice upon leaving the Senate.
He again became an associate justice of the state supreme court. List of United States Senators from Arkansas United States Congress. "KIRBY, William Fosgate". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Media related to William Fosgate Kirby at Wikimedia Commons
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
1912 United States Senate elections in Arizona
The 1912 United States Senate elections took place on December 12, 1911 and March 27, 1912. This marked the first U. S. Senate elections held in Arizona. Henry F. Ashurst was elected to the Territorial House of Representatives in 1897, he was re-elected in 1899, became the territory's youngest speaker. In 1902, he was elected to the Territorial Senate. In 1911, Ashurst presided over Arizona's constitutional convention. During the convention, he positioned himself for a U. S. Senate seat by avoiding the political fighting over various clauses in the constitution which damaged his rivals. With the admission of Arizona as a state in 1912, Ashurst was elected by the Arizona legislature as one of the state's two Senators, taking office on April 2 alongside Marcus A. Smith. Marcus A. Smith announced his candidacy for one of Arizona's two senate seats on September 24, 1911 As the campaign began, Smith abandoned his long standing conservative stand and declared himself a "Progressive"; the Arizona State Legislature confirmed the selection of Smith and Ashurst as the state's first U.
S. Senators on March 27, 1912. United States Senate elections, 1912 and 1913
William M. Calder
William Musgrave Calder I was an American politician from New York. He was born in Brooklyn on March 3, 1869 to Susan Calder and Alexander G. Calder, a carpenter and building contractor, he trained as a carpenter, attended night classes at Cooper Union, went into business as a building contractor. In 1893 he married Catherine E. Harloe, his children were Elsie Calder. He served as the Borough of Brooklyn Building Commissioner from 1902 to 1903, he represented New York as a Republican in the United States House of Representatives from 1905 until 1915. In 1914, he lost the Republican primary for U. S. Senator to James Wolcott Wadsworth, Jr. In 1916, he won the Republican primary, defeating Robert Bacon, was elected to the United States Senate over Democratic National Committee chairman William F. McCombs in the general election, he served one term, from 1917 to 1923. He became well known as the sponsor of the Standard Time Act of 1918, the first U. S. law implementing standard time and daylight saving time in the United States.
In 1922, he was defeated for re-election by Democrat Royal S. Copeland. After leaving Congress he continued to be active in the financial institutions, he died on March 3, 1945, his 76th birthday. His papers are held in a number of archives including: Herbert Hoover Presidential Library, his grandson William Musgrave Calder III is a professor of Classics at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. He authored many books. Media related to William M. Calder at Wikimedia CommonsUnited States Congress. "William M. Calder". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
65th United States Congress
The Sixty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1917, to March 4, 1919, during the fifth and sixth years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910. The Senate had a Democratic majority, the House had a Republican plurality but the Democrats remained in control with the support of the Progressives and Socialist Representative Meyer London. March 4, 1917: Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first woman member of the United States House of Representatives. March 8, 1917: The United States Senate adopted the cloture rule to limit filibusters. March 31, 1917: The United States took possession of the Danish West Indies, which become the US Virgin Islands, after paying $25 million to Denmark.
April 2, 1917: World War I: President Woodrow Wilson asks the U. S. Congress for a declaration of war on Germany. April 10, 1917: An ammunition factory explosion in Chester, kills 133. May 21, 1917: Over 300 acres are destroyed in the Great Atlanta fire of 1917. May 26, 1917: A tornado strikes Mattoon, causing devastation and killing 101 people. July 1, 1917: A labor dispute ignited a race riot in East St. Louis, which left 250 dead. July 12, 1917: The Phelps Dodge Corporation deported over 1,000 suspected Industrial Workers of the World members from Bisbee, Arizona. July 28, 1917: The Silent Protest was organized by the NAACP in New York to protest the East St. Louis Riot of July 2, as well as lynchings in Texas and Tennessee. August, 1917: The Green Corn Rebellion, an uprising by several hundred farmers against the World War I draft, took place in central Oklahoma. November 24, 1917: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 9 members of the Milwaukee Police Department were killed by a bomb, the most fatal single event in U.
S. police history until the September 11, 2001, attacks. December 26, 1917: President Woodrow Wilson used the Federal Possession and Control Act to place most U. S. railroads under the United States Railroad Administration, hoping to more efficiently transport troops and materials for the war effort. January 8, 1918: Woodrow Wilson delivered his Fourteen Points speech. March 4, 1918: A soldier at Camp Fuston, fell sick with the first confirmed case of the Spanish flu. April 3, 1918 "The American's Creed" is the title of a resolution passed by the U. S. House of Representatives on this date, it is a statement written in 1917 by William Tyler Page as an entry into a patriotic contest. Source:The American's Creed at USHistory.org May 15, 1918: The United States Post Office Department began the first regular airmail service in the world. October 8, 1918: World War I: In the Argonne Forest in France, U. S. Corporal Alvin C. York single-handedly killed 25 German soldiers and captures 132. December 4, 1918: U.
S. President Woodrow Wilson sailed for the Paris Peace Conference, becoming the first U. S. president to travel to Europe. January 6, 1919: Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States, died. January 15, 1919: The Boston Molasses Disaster: A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, killing 21 and injuring 150. February 25, 1919: Oregon placed a 1 cent per U. S. gallon tax on gasoline, becoming the first U. S. state to levy a gasoline tax. April 6, 1917: Declaration of war against Germany, Sess. 1 ch. 1, 40 Stat. 1 April 24, 1917: First Liberty Bond Act, Sess. 1, ch. 4, 40 Stat. 35 May 12, 1917: Enemy Vessel Confiscation Joint Resolution, Pub. L. 65–2, 40 Stat. 75 May 12, 1917: First Army Appropriations Act of 1917, 40 Stat. 69 May 18, 1917: Selective Service Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 15, 40 Stat. 76 May 29, 1917: Esch Car Service Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 23, 40 Stat. 101 June 15, 1917: Emergency Shipping Fund Act of 1917, c. 29, 40 Stat. 182 June 15, 1917: Second Army Appropriations Act of 1917, 40 Stat. 188 June 15, 1917: Espionage Act of 1917, Sess.
1, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 217 August 8, 1917: River and Harbor Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 49, 40 Stat. 250 August 10, 1917: Priority of Shipments Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 51, 40 Stat. 272 August 10, 1917: Food and Fuel Control Act, Sess. 1, ch. 53, 40 Stat. 27 October 1, 1917: Second Liberty Bond Act, Sess. 1, ch. 56, 40 Stat. 288 October 1, 1917: Aircraft Board Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 61, 40 Stat. 296 October 3, 1917: War Revenue Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 63, 40 Stat. 300 October 5, 1917: Repatriation Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 68, 40 Stat. 340 October 6, 1917: Federal Explosives Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 83, 40 Stat. 385 October 6, 1917: War Risk Insurance Act of 1917, Sess. 1, ch. 105, 40 Stat. 398 October 6, 1917: International Emergency Economic Powers Act, Sess. 1, ch. 106, 40 Stat. 411 December 7, 1917: Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, Sess. 2, ch. 1, 40 Stat. 429 February 24, 1918: Revenue Act of 1918, Sess. 2, ch. 18, 40 Stat. 1057 March 8, 1918: Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act, Sess. 2, ch.
20, 40 Stat. 440 March 19, 1918: Standard Time Act of 1918, Sess. 2, ch. 24, 40 Stat. 450 March 21, 1918: Federal Control Act of 1918, Sess. 2, ch. 25, 40 Stat. 451 April 4, 1918: Third Liberty Bond Act, Sess. 2, ch. 44, 40 Stat. 502 April 5, 1918: War Finance Corporation Act, Sess. 2, ch. 45, 40 Stat. 506 April 10, 1918: Webb-Pomerene Act, Sess. 2, ch. 50, 40 Stat. 516 April 18, 1918: American Forces Abroad Indemnity Act, Sess. 2, ch. 57, 40 Stat. 532 Apr