1919 in Italy

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See also: 1918 in Italy, other events of 1919, 1920 in Italy.

Events from the year 1919 in Italy.

Kingdom of Italy[edit]


The years 1919 and 1920 were known as the Biennio Rosso (English: "Red Biennium"): a two-year period of intense social conflict and political unrest in Italy, following the First World War. The revolutionary period and nationalist agitation on the Mutilated victory and the failure to obtain territorial concessions in Dalmatia at the end of World War I to fulfil Italy’s irrendentist claims, was followed by the violent reaction of the Fascist blackshirts militia and eventually by the March on Rome of Benito Mussolini in 1922.

The heads of the "Big Four" nations at the Paris Peace Conference, 27 May 1919. From left to right: David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson.



th Fasci italiani di combattimento manifesto as published in Il Popolo d'Italia on 6 June 1919
The platform of Fasci italiani di combattimento, as published in "Il Popolo d'Italia" on 6 June 1919.


  • April 11 – Italy supports the Racial Equality Proposal introduced by Japan at the Paris Peace Conference.[6]
  • April 15 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson issues a memorandum proposing a line, the so-called "Wilson Line", dividing the Istrian peninsula between Italy and Yugoslavia. Trieste and Pula, with the railway connecting them, lay on the Italian side; Fiume and Ljubljana, with the railway connecting them, on the Yugoslav. Učka (Monte Maggiore) was to be Italian, but the Wilson Line ran further west of Fiume than that of the Treaty of London. Italy would have none of the rights in northern Dalmatia granted it by that treaty, but it would receive the islands of Vis (Lissa) and Lošinj (Lussin).[4][7]
    After the resignation of Orlando and Sonnino in June, the new Foreign Minister Tommaso Tittoni alters the course of negotiations by abandoning the Treaty of London and strengthening the Franco-Italian alliance, but he did not accept President Wilson's proposed "line". The French diplomat André Tardieu worked as an intermediary between Tittoni and the Americans, and he first suggested the creation of a buffer state out of a strip of land around Fiume, the future Free State of Fiume.[7]
  • April 26 – Fiume affair. Faced with the refusal of Wilson, Clemenceau and Lloyd George to assign Fiume to Italy, Orlando abandons the Paris Peace Conference and returns to Rome.



Fiume residents cheering D'Annunzio and his raiders, September 1919



Gabriele D'Annunzio (in the middle with the stick) with some legionaries in Fiume in 1919. To the right of D'Annunzio, facing him, Lt. Arturo Avolio.






  1. ^ MacMillan, Paris 1919, p. xxviii
  2. ^ Vittorio Emanuele Orlando. (2011). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1.
  3. ^ MacMillan, Paris 1919, p. 274
  4. ^ a b c Burgwyn, Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period, 1918-1940, p. 12-14
  5. ^ a b Gilbert & Nilsson, The A to Z of Modern Italy, p. 328
  6. ^ Lauren, Power And Prejudice, p. 92
  7. ^ a b "The Peace Conference and the Adriatic Question", Edinburgh Review, 231:472 (1920), pp. 224-26
  8. ^ Danesi, Encyclopedia of Media and Communication, p. 488
  9. ^ Bellamy & Schecter, Gramsci and the Italian State, p. 28
  10. ^ Cut Food Prices To Check Rioting, The New York Times, July 7, 1919
  11. ^ "General Strike" Complete Failure; Day Set by Socialists Passes Quietly, Very Few Men Leaving Their Work, The New York Times Company, July 23, 1919
  12. ^ D'Annunzio in Fiume With Armed Forces, The New York Times, September 14, 1919
  13. ^ Italian 6th Corps Disobeys Orders, The New York Times, September 15, 1919
  14. ^ Italy To Starve Out D'Annunzio; Blockade of Fiume to Bring Insurgents to Terms, The New York Times, September 18, 1919
  15. ^ Nation To Decide Fiume Question; Italian Parliament Is Dissolved, The New York Times, September 30, 1919
  16. ^ Elections Absorb Italy; Catholics for First Time to Have Their Own Candidates, The New York Times, October 3, 1919
  17. ^ Italy Faces Winter With Apprehension; Coal Shortage Sends Price of Gas Up to Three Times Its Former Cost, The New York Times, October 8, 1919
  18. ^ Cfr. Gabriele D'Annunzio, in an editorial in Corriere della Sera, October 24, 1918, Vittoria nostra, non sarai mutilata ("Our victory will not be mutilated").