Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Beverly Hills Speedway
The Beverly Hills Speedway was a 1.25-mile wooden board track for automobile racing in Beverly Hills, California. It was built in 1919 on 275 acres of land that includes the site of today's Beverly Wilshire Hotel, just outside the "Golden Triangle"; the former site is bounded by Wilshire Boulevard, South Beverly Drive, Olympic Boulevard and Lasky Drive. The project was financed by a group of racers and businessmen that called itself the Beverly Hills Speedway Association; the track was the first in the United States to be designed with banked turns incorporating an engineering solution known as a spiral easement. The Speedway operated for four years and attracted many significant competitors including Ralph DePalma, Jimmy Murphy, Tommy Milton, it was the site of a racing accident that killed National Champion and Indianapolis 500 winner Gaston Chevrolet in 1920. Because of increasing real estate values, the Speedway became an uneconomical use of property; the track was torn down and the Association moved its racing operation a few miles away to Culver City, California in 1924.
Wooden board tracks were established in the United States prior to World War I, such a track had been successful in Southern California. The Los Angeles Motordrome in nearby Playa del Rey was the first-ever wooden track purpose-built for motorized competition; the Motordrome created a sensation when it was built in 1910, attracting large crowds of paying spectators for two years before it was destroyed by a fire. The Speedway Association consisted of eleven members around a nucleus of racer Cliff Durant and William Danziger of the Rodeo Land and Water Company, included future three-time Indianapolis 500 winner Louis Meyer; the group purchased land from a bean farmer at $1,000 per acre in 1919 and began work once the farmer had harvested his crop. The circular Motordrome in Playa del Rey had been built by contractor Jack Prince, a British former bicycle racer, given the work on the strength of his experience building velodromes. Prince had subsequently built a number of oval tracks, many of which suffered from badly designed transitions between the straightaways and curves.
The Association's civil engineer, Art Pillsbury, turned to Prince for consultation, found that he was a capable builder but was "quite innocent of any engineering knowledge," and so resorted to a method used by railroads, called the Searle Spiral Easement Curve, to design the track's layout and contours. Prince and Pillsbury had set out to build the fastest race track in the nation, they may have succeeded. At the inaugural event for the brand new facility, the opening race of the 1920 Championship season, victorious Jimmy Murphy averaged more than 103 miles per hour in the 250-mile contest, a pace that would not be seen in time trials at the much larger Indianapolis Motor Speedway until 1923; the race was attended by 50,000 fans. In addition to racing, the Speedway hosted other events such as horse shows, was used as a movie location; the Speedway hosted the opening and closing rounds of the Championship for its first three years, but would only host a single contest in 1924. The final race was held February 24, 1924, before a crowd of 85,000.
On that day Harlan Fengler broke the world record for a 250-mile race, averaging 116.6 miles per hour. After just four years, the 70,000-seat stadium was disassembled to make room for other improvements, as the land was deemed more valuable than the track that lay atop it; the property was sold to a developer for $10,000 per acre. By 1928, the Beverly Wilshire hotel would be built on the site of the track's north-west turn; the Speedway Association would open a new track in Culver City, just south of MGM studios. Statistics for winners of each race. 500 mi ≈ 800 km, 250 mi ≈ 400 km and 25 mi ≈ 40 km Gaston Chevrolet and Eddie O'Donnell collided and crashed into one another during the Thanksgiving Day Beverly Hills Speedway Classic race. Chevrolet was killed along with O'Donnell, Lyall Jolls, his riding mechanic, died the next day. AAA Contest Board American Championship car racing
René Thomas (racing driver)
René Thomas was a French motor racing champion. Thomas was a pioneer aviator, he won the 1914 Indianapolis 500. He was born on March 1886 in Périgueux, France. A leading driver in his native France, René Thomas traveled to the United States to compete in the Indianapolis 500 on four occasions, he won. He was given leave from the French Army during World War I. Laminated spring steel steering wheel were manufactured in the inter-war period engraved with Rene Thomas portrait and signature and were used on Delage motorcars but championed by racing ace Jean Chassagne on his winning 1922 TT Sunbeam. On July 6, 1924 at Arpajon, Thomas set a new world land speed record when he drove a Delage at 143.31 mph. On May 28, 1973, he returned to Indianapolis to drive his winning Delage in a series of parade laps, prior to the start of the 1973 Indianapolis 500. Although he did not drive the car himself, he did sit in the seat where the riding mechanic would sit, he died on September 23, 1975 in Paris, France at age 89.
Beginning around 1910 Thomas flew airplanes for the Antoinette company whose president was Leon Levavasseur. Hubert Latham was one of Thomas's fellow Antoinette test pilots. Thomas competed in early aviation competitions throughout Europe. In Milan Italy in October 1910 Thomas was involved in the world's first mid-air collision when his Antoinette monoplane fell onto the Farman biplane of Scottish aviator Captain Bertram Dickson. Thomas miraculously was not injured but Dickson suffered internal injuries and never recovered and died in 1913
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Gaston Chevrolet was a Swiss racecar driver and automobile manufacturer. Born near Beaune, in the Côte-d'Or region of France where his Swiss parents had emigrated to a few years earlier, he was the younger brother of Louis and Arthur Chevrolet. After brother Louis emigrated to the United States and earned enough money, he sent for Gaston and Arthur to join him. Once there, Gaston joined his brothers in auto racing. In 1916, the year after older brother Louis left the Chevrolet car company, Gaston Chevrolet became a partner with Louis and Arthur in the new Frontenac Motor Corporation. Driving a Frontenac race car, Chevrolet competed in the 1919 Indianapolis 500, finishing in tenth place while brother Louis finished seventh. Chevrolet broke the dominance of European built cars in the 1920 Indianapolis 500, winning the race in a redesigned Monroe-Frontenac. In the process, he became the first driver in the history of the 500-mile race to go the distance without making a tire change. Following his May 31, 1920 victory at Indianapolis, Chevrolet raced in several more events.
He won a 100-mile match race against top racers Tommy Ralph Mulford. With the coming of winter in late 1920, racing moved to the West Coast. While competing in the last race of the season on the board track at the Beverly Hills Speedway, Chevrolet was killed when his Frontenac crashed on lap 146 of the 200 lap race. Despite the crash, Chevrolet had accumulated enough points during the race and through the season to win the 1920 title of "Speed King of the Year". Chevrolet is considered by accredited historians and contemporary accounts as the 1920 National Champion despite revisionist publications retrospectively listing Tommy Milton as such. Chevrolet is interred next to his brother Louis in the Holy Cross and Saint Joseph Cemetery in Indianapolis, Indiana, he was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 2002. Gaston Chevrolet at Find a Grave
Jules Goux, was a Grand Prix motor racing champion and the first Frenchman, the first European, to win the Indianapolis 500. Influenced by the Gordon Bennett Cup in auto racing, Jules Goux began racing cars in his early twenties. Success came in 1908 on a circuit set up on roads around Sitges, near Barcelona, when he won the Catalan Cup, a victory he repeated the following year; because of his racing success, along with Georges Boillot, he was invited by Peugeot Automobile to race for their factory team. As part of a four-man design team led by Paul Zuccarelli and Ernest Henry, Goux helped develop a racecar powered by a radically new Straight-4 engine using a twin overhead cam. Jules Goux won the 1912 Sarthe Cup at Le Mans driving a Peugeot, in 1913 he travelled with the team to the United States to compete in the Indianapolis 500 race. Goux won the race, becoming the first French person to do so. Goux consumed four bottles of champagne while driving in the Indy 500 and was quoted as saying, "Without the good wine, I would have not been able to win."
The following year, World War I broke out in Europe and his racing career had to be put aside for service in the French military. At war's end, Goux returned to European Grand Prix motor racing. In 1921, driving for Ballot Automobile, he finished third in the French Grand Prix won the inaugural Italian Grand Prix at Brescia, Italy. For the next few years his racing career was marked by repeated problems and he did not return to the winners circle until 1926; that year, driving for Bugatti in a T39A model, he won both the French Grand Prix at Miramas and the European Grand Prix at the Circuito Lasarte, Spain
Louis-Joseph Chevrolet was a Swiss race car driver, co-founder of the Chevrolet Motor Car Company in 1911, a founder in 1916 of the Frontenac Motor Corporation. The second child of French-Swiss parents Joseph-Félicien and Marie-Anne Angéline, Louis-Joseph Chevrolet was born in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Canton of Neuchâtel, a center of watchmaking in northwestern Switzerland. In 1886, Chevrolet's family left Switzerland to live in Beaune, in the Côte-d'Or département of France. There, as a young man, Louis developed his mechanical skills and interest in bicycle racing. Chevrolet worked for the Roblin mechanics shop from 1895 to 1899, he went to Paris, where he worked for a short time before emigrating to Montreal, Canada in 1900 to work as a mechanic. The following year, he moved to New York City, where he worked for a fellow Swiss immigrant's engineering company moved to the Brooklyn operations of the French car manufacturer de Dion-Bouton. In 1905 he married Suzanne Treyvoux. In the same year, he was hired by FIAT as a racing car driver.
In 1907, Chevrolet was hired by The Autocar Company in Philadelphia for a secret project to develop a revolutionary front-wheel-drive racing car. His racing career continued as he drove for Buick, becoming a friend and associate of Buick owner William C. Durant, founder of General Motors, he raced at the Giants Despair Hillclimb in 1909. With little in the way of formal education, Chevrolet learned car design while working for Buick and started designing his own engine for a new car in 1909, he built an overhead valve six-cylinder engine in his own machine shop on Grand River Boulevard in Detroit, Michigan. On November 3, 1911, Chevrolet co-founded the Chevrolet Motor Car Company with Durant and investment partners William Little and Dr. Edwin R. Campbell, son-in-law of Durant and friend of Samuel McLaughlin of the McLaughlin Car Company of Canada Ltd; the company was established in Detroit. One story tells the choosing of the company's logo as a modified Swiss cross, to honor Chevrolet's homeland.
Another story tells of the Chevrolet logo as a design taken from the wallpaper of a Paris hotel room where Louis once stayed. Chevrolet had differences with Durant over the car's design, in 1915 sold Durant his share in the company and started McLaughlin's Company in Canada building Chevrolets. By 1916 the trading of Chevrolet stock for GM Holding stock enabled Durant to repurchase a controlling stake in General Motors, by 1917 the Chevrolet company that Louis had co-founded was merged as a company into General Motors after the outstanding Chevrolet stocks were purchased from McLaughlin in 1918; the McLaughlin Car Company merged with his Chevrolet Motor Company of Canada Ltd. to become General Motors of Canada Ltd. in 1918, prior to the incorporation of the General Motors Corporation in the U. S. when General Motors Company of New Jersey dissolved. In 1916, Louis Chevrolet and his brothers founded the Frontenac Motor Corporation to make racing parts for Ford Model Ts. In 1916, American Motors Corporation was formed in Newark, New Jersey, with Louis Chevrolet as vice president and chief engineer.
By 1918 it was producing cars in a plant at New Jersey. In 1923 it merged with the Bessemer Motor Truck Company of Pennsylvania into Bessemer-American Motors Corporation, which lasted less than a year before merging with the Winther and Northway companies into Amalgamated Motors; the latter company ceased soon after. By the mid-1910s, Louis Chevrolet had shifted into the racing car industry, partnering with Howard E. Blood of Allegan, Michigan, to create the Cornelian racing car, which he used to place 20th in the 1915 Indianapolis 500 automobile race. In 1916, he and younger brothers Gaston and Arthur Chevrolet started Frontenac Motor Corporation and producing a line of racing cars, they became well known among other things, their Fronty-Ford racers. Louis drove in the Indianapolis 500 four times, with a best finish of 7th in 1919. Both Louis and Gaston competed with racing Sunbeams achieving a number of third places in 1916. Arthur competed twice, Gaston won the race in 1920 in one of their Frontenacs, going on to win the 1920 AAA National Championship.
He raced for the Buick racing team. Chevrolet died on June 6, 1941, in Detroit as a result of complications from a leg operation which led to its amputation, he is buried in the Holy Saint Joseph Cemetery in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum in Speedway, features a memorial at the entrance to the building dedicated to the accomplishments of Louis Chevrolet; the memorial, designed by Fred Wellman and sculpted by Adolph Wolter, was created during 1968–1970 and installed in the spring of 1975. The centerpiece of the memorial is a bronze bust of Chevrolet wearing goggles. In 1992, Louis Chevrolet was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, he was named to the National Sprint Car Hall of Fame in 1990. He was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1995, he was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1969. Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925. New York: Bonanza Books, 1950. Louis Chevrolet in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
Sinzig, Martin. Louis Chevrolet, der Mann, der dem Chevy seinen Namen gab". Frauenfeld. Verlag Huber, 2011. ISBN 978-3-7193-1566-5 Louis Chevrolet driver statistics at Racing-Reference Louis Chevrolet at Find a