Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy. There are wheelchair divisions; the marathon has an official distance of 42.195 kilometres run as a road race. The event was instituted in commemoration of the fabled run of the Greek soldier Pheidippides, a messenger from the Battle of Marathon to Athens, who reported the victory; the marathon was one of the original modern Olympic events in 1896, though the distance did not become standardized until 1921. More than 800 marathons are held throughout the world each year, with the vast majority of competitors being recreational athletes, as larger marathons can have tens of thousands of participants; the name Marathon comes from the legend of the Greek messenger. The legend states that he was sent from the battlefield of Marathon to Athens to announce that the Persians had been defeated in the Battle of Marathon, which took place in August or September, 490 BC, it is said that he ran the entire distance without stopping and burst into the assembly, exclaiming νενικήκαμεν, before collapsing and dying.
The account of the run from Marathon to Athens first appears in Plutarch's On the Glory of Athens in the 1st century AD, which quotes from Heraclides Ponticus's lost work, giving the runner's name as either Thersipus of Erchius or Eucles. Satirist Lucian of Samosata first gives an account closest to the modern version of the story, but is writing tongue in cheek, names the runner Philippides. There is debate about the historical accuracy of this legend; the Greek historian Herodotus, the main source for the Greco-Persian Wars, mentions Philippides as the messenger who ran from Athens to Sparta asking for help, ran back, a distance of over 240 kilometres each way. In some Herodotus manuscripts, the name of the runner between Athens and Sparta is given as Philippides. Herodotus makes no mention of a messenger sent from Marathon to Athens, relates that the main part of the Athenian army, having fought and won the grueling battle, fearing a naval raid by the Persian fleet against an undefended Athens, marched back from the battle to Athens, arriving the same day.
In 1879, Robert Browning wrote the poem Pheidippides. Browning's poem, his composite story, became part of late 19th century popular culture and was accepted as a historic legend. Mount Pentelicus stands between Marathon and Athens, which means that if Philippides made his famous run after the battle, he had to run around the mountain, either to the north or to the south; the latter and more obvious route matches exactly the modern Marathon-Athens highway, which follows the lay of the land southwards from Marathon Bay and along the coast takes a gentle but protracted climb westwards towards the eastern approach to Athens, between the foothills of Mounts Hymettus and Penteli, gently downhill to Athens proper. This route, as it existed when the Olympics were revived in 1896, was 40 kilometres long, this was the approximate distance used for marathon races. However, there have been suggestions that Philippides might have followed another route: a westward climb along the eastern and northern slopes of Mount Penteli to the pass of Dionysos, a straight southward downhill path to Athens.
This route is shorter, 35 kilometres, but includes a steep initial climb of more than 5 kilometres. When the modern Olympics began in 1896, the initiators and organizers were looking for a great popularizing event, recalling the glory of ancient Greece; the idea of a marathon race came from Michel Bréal, who wanted the event to feature in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. This idea was supported by Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympics, as well as by the Greeks; the Greeks staged a selection race for the Olympic marathon on 22 March 1896, won by Charilaos Vasilakos in 3 hours and 18 minutes. The winner of the first Olympic marathon, on 10 April 1896, was Spyridon Louis, a Greek water-carrier, in 2 hours 58 minutes and 50 seconds; the marathon of the 2004 Summer Olympics was run on the traditional route from Marathon to Athens, ending at Panathinaiko Stadium, the venue for the 1896 Summer Olympics. That men's marathon was won by Italian Stefano Baldini in 2 hours 10 minutes and 55 seconds, a record time for this route until the non-Olympics Athens Classic Marathon of 2014, when Felix Kandie lowered the course record to 2 hours 10 minutes and 37 seconds.
The women's marathon was introduced at the 1984 Summer Olympics and was won by Joan Benoit of the United States with a time of 2 hours 24 minutes and 52 seconds. It has become a tradition for the men's Olympic marathon to be the last event of the athletics calendar, on the final day of the Olympics. For many years the race finished inside the Olympic stadium; the men's marathon medals are awarded during the closing ceremony. The Olympic men's record is 2:06:32, set at the 2008 Summer Olympics by Samuel Kamau Wanjiru of Kenya; the Olympic women's record is 2:23:07, set at the 2012 Summer Olympics by Tiki Gelana
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
1928 Summer Olympics
The 1928 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, celebrated from 28 July to 12 August 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The city of Amsterdam had bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but was obliged to give way to war-torn Antwerp in Belgium for the 1920 Games and Pierre de Coubertin's Paris for the 1924 Games; the only other candidate city for the 1928 Olympics was Los Angeles, which would be selected to host the Olympics four years later. In preparation for the 1932 Summer Olympics, the United States Olympic Committee reviewed the costs and revenue of the 1928 Games; the committee reported a total cost of US$1.183 million with receipts of US$1.165 million, giving a negligible loss of US$18,000, a considerable improvement over the 1924 Games. Dutch nobleman, Frederik van Tuyll van Serooskerken, first proposed Amsterdam as host city for the Summer Olympic Games in 1912 before the Netherlands Olympic Committee was established; the Olympic Games were cancelled in 1916 due to World War I.
In 1919, the Netherlands Olympic Committee abandoned the proposal of Amsterdam in favor of their support for the nomination of Antwerp as host city for the 1920 Summer Olympics. In 1921, Paris was selected for the 1924 Summer Olympics on the condition that the 1928 Summer Olympics would be organized in Amsterdam; this decision, supported by the Netherlands Olympic Committee, was announced by the International Olympic Committee on 2 June 1921. The IOC's decision was disputed by the Americans, but their request to allocate the 1928 Summer Olympics to Los Angeles was without success in 1922 and again in 1923. Los Angeles was selected as host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics; these were the first Olympics to be organized under the IOC presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour. The Olympic Flame was lit for the first time for the duration of the Olympics, a tradition that continues to this day; the torch relay, would not take place until the 1936 Summer Olympics. For the first time, the parade of nations started with Greece, which holds the origins of the Olympics, ended with the host country, a tradition which has continued since.
The Games were opened by Prince Hendrik, consort of Queen Wilhelmina, who had authorized her husband to deputise for her. The Queen was unable to attend the opening ceremony as she was on holiday in Norway and did not want to disrupt her trip; this was the second time a head of state had not officiated at an Olympic opening ceremony. The Queen had refused to make an appearance at either the opening or closing ceremony. However, she returned from Norway before the conclusion of the Games, to be present at the closing ceremony, she presented the first prizes at the prize distribution, held beforehand. Athletics events were held on a 400-meter track becoming the standard for athletics tracks; these Games were the first to feature a fixed schedule of sixteen days, still followed. In previous Olympics, competition had been stretched out over several months. Johnny Weissmuller, who appeared in several Tarzan movies, won two gold medals in swimming: an individual gold in the men's 100 m freestyle, a team gold in the men's 4 x 200 m freestyle relay.
Paavo Nurmi of Finland won his ninth, final, gold medal in the 10,000 m race. Canadian athlete Percy Williams exceeded expectations by winning both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events. South American football made a definite breakthrough, as Uruguay retained its title by defeating Argentina. India took its first gold medal in field hockey, beginning a streak of six consecutive gold medals in the sport. Mikio Oda of Japan won the triple jump event with a result of 15.21 meters, becoming the first gold medalist from an Asian country. Algerian-born marathon runner Boughera El Ouafi won a gold medal for France in the men's marathon. Among the participants was Crown Prince Olav, who would become King of Norway. Pat O'Callaghan won the first medal for a newly independent Ireland, taking gold in the hammer throw; the sponsor Coca-Cola made its first appearance at the Olympic Games. These Games were the first to bear the name "Summer Olympic Games", to distinguish them from the Winter Olympic Games. Germany returned to the Olympic Games for the first time since 1912, after being banned from the 1920 and 1924 Games.
The German team finished second in the 1928 medal count. Many cars were expected for the Games, but Amsterdam had no more than 2,000 single car parking spaces. A number of new parking sites were provided and a special parking symbol was launched to show foreign visitors where they could park; the white P on a blue background was to become the international traffic sign for parking, still used today. During the 1928 Summer Olympics, there were 14 sports, 20 disciplines and 109 events in the tournament. In parentheses is the number of events per discipline. Women's athletics and team gymnastics debuted in spite of criticism. Halina Konopacka of Poland became the first female Olympic field champion. Reports that the 800 meter run ended with several of the competitors being exhausted were circulated; as a result, the IOC decided that women were too frail for long distance running, women's Olympic running events were limited to 200 meters
Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, more known as Chamonix, is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. It was the site of the first Winter Olympics in 1924. Situated to the north of Mont Blanc, near the massive peaks of the Aiguilles Rouges and most notably the Aiguille du Midi, Chamonix is one of the oldest ski resorts in France; the Chamonix commune is popular with skiers and mountain enthusiasts, via the cable car lift to the Aiguille du Midi it is possible to access the off-piste ski run of the Vallée Blanche. Chamonix is the fourth largest commune in mainland France, with an area of 245 km2, its population of around 8,900 ranks 1,089th within the country of France. The valley was first mentioned in 1091, when it was granted by the Count of the Genevois to the great Benedictine house of St. Michel de la Cluse, near Turin, which by the early 13th century had established a priory there. However, in 1786 the inhabitants bought their freedom from the canons of Sallanches, to whom the priory had been transferred in 1519.
In 1530, the inhabitants obtained from the Count of the Genevois the privilege of holding two fairs a year, while the valley was visited by the civil officials and by the bishops of Geneva. But travellers for pleasure were rare. Chamonix was part of the historical land of Savoy emerged as the feudal territory of the House of Savoy during the 11th to 14th centuries; the historical territory is shared between the modern countries of France and Switzerland. The House of Savoy became the longest surviving royal house in Europe, it ruled the County of Savoy to 1416 and the Duchy of Savoy from 1416 to 1860. The first party to publish an account of their visit was that of Richard Pococke, William Windham and others, such as the Englishmen who visited the Mer de Glace in 1741. In 1742 came P. Martel and several other Genevese, in 1760 H. B. de Saussure, rather Marc Th. Bourrit; the growth of tourism in the early 19th century led to the formation of the Compagnie des Guides de Chamonix in 1821, to regulate access to the mountain slopes, this association held a monopoly of guiding from the town until it was broken by French government action in 1892.
From the late 19th century on, tourist development was dominated by national and international initiatives rather than local entrepreneurs, though the local community was dependent upon and active in the tourist industry. The commune lobbied to change its name from Chamonix to Chamonix-Mont-Blanc in 1916. However, following the loss of its monopoly, the Compagnie reformed as an association of local guides, retained an important role in local society; the holding of the first Winter Olympic Games in Chamonix in 1924 further raised Chamonix's profile as an international tourist destination. During the Second World War, a Children's Home operated in Chamonix, in which several dozens of Jewish children were hidden from the Nazis; some of those who hid them were recognised as "Righteous Among the Nations". By the 1960s, agriculture had been reduced to a marginal activity, while the number of tourist beds available rose to around 60,000 by the end of the 20th century, with about 5 million visitors a year.
The commune of Chamonix-Mont-Blanc includes 16 hamlets. From north to south: Le Tour 1,462 m, Montroc, Le Planet, Argentière 1,252 m, Les Chosalets, Le Lavancher, Les Tines, Les Bois, Les-Praz-de-Chamonix 1,060 m, Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, Les Pècles, Les Mouilles, Les Barrats, Les Pélerins, Les Gaillands, Les Bossons 1,012 m. Due to its elevation, Chamonix has a humid continental climate, with an average annual precipitation of 1,275 mm. Summers are mild and winters are cold and snowy. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 · Population Over Time Chamonix is a winter sports resort town; as the highest European mountain west of Russia, Mont Blanc attracts mountain climbers. There is a cable car up to the 3,842 m Aiguille du Midi. Constructed in 1955, it was the highest cable car in the world and remains the highest vertical ascent cable car in the world; the town of Chamonix is served by French Route Nationale 205, nicknamed the Route blanche, or "white route", due to its snowiness.
This is an extension of French autoroute 40 nicknamed the autoroute blanche, which ends at Le Fayet, a village in the commune of Saint-Gervais-les-Bains. The 11.6-km Mont Blanc Tunnel originates here. Chamonix is linked to Switzerland by. In 2006, it was converted to a Route Départementale 1506, with a part of it integrated into RN 205; the nearest airport to Chamonix is Geneva Cointrin International and it is 88 kilometres in distance. Chamonix is served by the metre-gauge St Gervais-Vallorcine Line, operated by SNCF; the line from Saint Gervais to Chamonix opened in 1901. The line ho
"The Flying Finn" is a nickname given to several Finnish athletes who were noted for their speed. It was given to several Finnish middle and long-distance runners; the term was extended to notable Finnish racing sportsmen. The nickname was first used of Hannes Kolehmainen known as "Smiling Hannes", as he took home three gold medals and broke two world records during the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm; as Finnish runners started to dominate long-distance running, the nickname was passed on to all successful Finns in the sport, including multi-Olympic gold medalists Paavo Nurmi and Ville Ritola. Nurmi won three gold medals at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Belgium and five at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, where he was partnered with Ritola, who ran to four gold medals. Volmari Iso-Hollo, the winner of 3000 m steeplechase at the 1932 and 1936 Summer Olympics, was one of the best-known Finnish runners in the 1930s and nicknamed the Flying Finn. During his tour of the United States in 1940, Taisto Mäki—who held five world records—was referred to as a Flying Finn.
The last Flying Finn in running was Lasse Virén, who won the 5000 m and 10,000 m events at the 1972 and 1976 Summer Olympics. The nickname was next used to describe the efforts of Finnish rally drivers in the 1960s. Timo Mäkinen, Rauno Aaltonen and Simo Lampinen were among the first drivers referenced as the Flying Finn. In 1968, Castrol released a film called "The Flying Finns", it featured the 1968 1000 Lakes Rally and concentrated on documenting the duel between Mäkinen and Hannu Mikkola; the term moved on to the next generations of Finnish rally drivers, among others, the four-time World Rally Champions Juha Kankkunen and Tommi Mäkinen were referred to as Flying Finns. The first driver to carry the nickname in Formula One was Leo Kinnunen. Kinnunen had the title written on his helmet in 1970, when he won the World Sportscar Championship for Porsche. However, he wasn't able to turn his success in sports car racing into a successful F1 career in his underpowered Surtees. In the 1980s the moniker was given to Keke Rosberg, who became the first well-known Finn in the sport, winning the 1982 world championship.
Following the success of Finnish drivers, Rosberg has been described as the "original Flying Finn". After Rosberg, many Finnish Formula 1 drivers have been called the "Flying Finn", including Mika Häkkinen, who won the drivers' championship in 1998 and 1999, Mika Salo, Kimi Räikkönen, drivers' champion in 2007, Heikki Kovalainen, Valtteri Bottas. On two wheels, the most famous Flying Finn was Jarno Saarinen known as The Baron, who won the 250cc road racing World Championship as privateer in 1972, finished a close second to Giacomo Agostini in the 350cc class. Saarinen died the following year, while leading both the 250cc and 500cc championships and after competing for only three years, he remains in motorcycle sport history books for developing a new riding style, still predominantly in use today. During the 1970s, Finnish rider Heikki Mikkola won four motocross world championships and became known as the Flying Finn. Mika Kallio, who finished second in the 125cc championship in 2005 and 2006, has been nicknamed the Flying Finn.
Mauno Hermunen, who has finished third in 2010 and fourth in 2011 in the world supermoto series, has been nicknamed the Flying Finn. Shefki Kuqi, who played for Scottish side Hibernian F. C. has been nicknamed the "Flying Finn", owing to a strange but popular celebration when he scores a goal. His habit of throwing himself onto the ground, with his arms outstretched and landing on his chest, has drawn notice from many fans and media pundits. Timo Mäkinen – rally driver Rauno Aaltonen – rally driver Markku Alén – rally driver Marcus Grönholm – two time World Rally Champion Mikko Hirvonen – rally driver Joonas Kylmäkorpi – four time world long track champion Jari-Matti Latvala – rally driver Tommi Mäkinen – four time World Rally Champion Heikki Mikkola – four-time motocross world champion Keke Rosberg – F1 World Champion Jarno Saarinen – Motorcycle World Champion Teuvo Länsivuori – Motorcycle road racer Juha Kankkunen – four time World Rally Champion Juha Salminen – twelve time World Enduro Champion Timo Salonen – rally driver Marko Tarkkala – enduro rider Mika Salo – two time Le Mans GT2 winner Kari Tiainen – seven time World Enduro Champion Henri Toivonen – rally driver Ari Vatanen – rally driver Patu Leppälä – F1 boat driver Sami Seliö – F1 Boat World Champion Mika Häkkinen – two time F1 World Champion Kimi Räikkönen – F1 World Champion/World Rally Championship Driver Heikki Kovalainen – F1 race winner Valtteri Bottas – F1 race winner Janne Ahonen – ski jumper Toni Haikonen – snowmobile racer Jari Kurri – ice hockey player Matti Nykänen – ski jumper Kalle Palander – alpine skier Teemu Selänne – ice hockey player Kalevi Häkkinen – speed skier Patu Leppälä – Speed Skiing World Champion Pertti Karppinen – triple Olympic rowing champion.
Jarkko Nieminen – tennis player known for his speed. Makwan Amirkhani – MMA fighter known for his flying knee attack. Flying Finns - Famous Finnish Rally Drivers
An Olympic Village is an accommodation center built for the Olympic Games within an Olympic Park or elsewhere in a host city. Olympic Villages are built to house all participating athletes, as well as officials and athletic trainers. After the Munich Massacre at the 1972 Olympics, the Villages have been made secure. Only athletes and officials are allowed to room at the Village, though family members and former Olympic athletes are allowed inside with proper checks. Press and media are barred; the idea of the Olympic Village comes from Pierre de Coubertin. Up until the 1924 Summer Olympic Games, National Olympic Committees rented locations around the host city to house participants, expensive. For the 1924 Summer Olympics, the organizers built cabins near the Stade Olympique de Colombes to allow the athletes to access the Games' venues; the Olympic Village of the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles served as the model of today's Olympic Villages. Athens 1906: The Zappeion, used during Athens 1896 as the main Fencing Hall, was used in 1906 as a Olympic Village.
Paris 1924: In Paris in 1924, a number of cabins were built near the stadium to house visiting athletes. Los Angeles 1932: The first Olympic Village is constructed in the Baldwin Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. For male athletes only, the Village consisted of several hundred buildings, including post and telegraph offices, an amphitheater, a hospital, a fire department, a bank. Female athletes were housed at the Chapman Park Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard; the village was dismantled after the games. Berlin 1936: About 145 one- and two-story apartment buildings, Haus der Nationen refectory, Hindenburghaus theater, a hospital, an indoor arena, a swimming pool and a sauna in Wustermark about 6 mi west of Berlin. Used as barracks for over 50 years, the buildings are ruined. A men's residence has been restored under the name "Jesse Owens house". Helsinki 1952: The first Olympic Village, Olympiakylä, was constructed in the Käpylä district of Helsinki for the planned 1940 Summer Olympics, which were cancelled due to World War II.
Another Olympic Village, Kisakylä, was built nearby for the 1952 Olympics. Kisakylä couldn't accommodate all athletes so other villages were designated for instance in Otaniemi and the Santahamina military base. Both Olympiakylä and Kisakylä areas are listed by Docomomo as significant examples of modern architecture in Finland. Melbourne 1956: The area in Heidelberg West, where the athletes stayed is still called "Olympic Village". After the games, athlete residences were used for public housing; the area now consists of a sports center, a primary school, shopping strip, a community health centre which houses a registered training organization and a legal service. Rome 1960:consist of 33 buildings with two, three and five floors. Squaw Valley 1960: Four identical three-story apartment buildings, two of which still stand, modified into condominiums. Mexico City 1968: 904 apartments distributed in 29 multi-story buildings in the Miguel Hidalgo Olympic Village Complex. Munich 1972: Multiple buildings of 25, 22, 20, 19, 16, 15, 12 stories, used now as Olympic Village student housing.
Montreal 1976: Olympic Village, Two 23-story pyramid-shaped buildings. Now apartment buildings. Lake Placid 1980: The village was built as a minimum security federal prison to house first time offenders after the games known as FCI Ray Brook, it is still in use today. Moscow 1980: Eighteen 16-story buildings. Sarajevo 1984: Apartment buildings now used as condominiums and tourist facilities. Los Angeles 1984: The UCLA residents' facilities, CSULA, USC, UCSB. Calgary 1988: Presently student accommodations on the campus of the Mount Royal University; the athlete's village consisted of the existing Kananaskis, Castle and Brewster buildings, as well as the newly constructed Glacier and Olympus buildings. Seoul 1988: Twenty-one multiple-story buildings. Albertville 1992: Brides-les-Bains Barcelona 1992: A new neighbourhood, La Vila Olímpica, was built on reclaimed sea front in Poblenou. Secondary villages were built in Banyoles and La Seu d'Urgell for rowing and white water canoeing athletes respectively.
Lillehammer 1994: The village was built on a west-facing slope just to the north of Lillehammer, took its form from the old farms of Gudbrandsdal. Atlanta 1996: Housing was built on the campus of Georgia Institute of Technology, Clark Atlanta University, Georgia State University; the Olympic village at Georgia State was bought by Georgia Tech for students' housing. The village on the campus of Clark Atlanta became housing for students at CAU. Nagano 1998: The village is located 7 kilometers southwest of Nagano Station; the total land space is 19 hectares. There are 1032 apartments in 22 buildings, is capable of accommodating 3,000 people. Another Village was in the site for the newly entered Olympic sport of curling. Karuizawa is about 70 kilometers southeast of Nagano City. 120 people from 9 countries stayed at the Karuizawa Skate Center Hotel during the Winter Games. Sydney 2000: A new suburb, which became residential following the Games. Salt Lake City 2002: Housing from the University of Utah and Fort Douglas.
Athens 2004: A new suburb composed of four- to five-story apartments in the Parnitha area located in northeast Athens adjacent to Maroussi, the suburb where the main Olympic complex, OAKA, is located. The Athens Olympic Village became a residential area following the Games. Today, the village with a c