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1924 United States presidential election

The 1924 United States presidential election was the 35th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1924. In a three-way contest, incumbent Republican President Calvin Coolidge won election to a full term. Coolidge had been vice president under Warren G. Harding and became president in 1923 upon Harding's death. Coolidge was given credit for a booming economy at home and no visible crises abroad, he faced little opposition at the 1924 Republican National Convention; the Democratic Party nominated former Congressman and ambassador to the United Kingdom John W. Davis of West Virginia, making Davis the first major party nominee who had held public office in a former slave state since the end of the Civil War. Davis, a compromise candidate, triumphed on the 103rd ballot of the 1924 Democratic National Convention after a deadlock between supporters of William Gibbs McAdoo and Al Smith. Dissatisfied by the conservatism of both major party candidates, the Progressive Party nominated Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin.

Garland S. Tucker, in a 2010 book, argues that the election marked the "high tide of American conservatism," as both major candidates campaigned for limited government, reduced taxes, less regulation. By contrast, La Follette called for the gradual nationalization of the railroads and increased taxes on the wealthy. Coolidge won a decisive victory, taking majorities in both the popular vote and the Electoral College and winning every state outside of the Solid South. La Follette won 16.6% of the popular vote, a strong showing for a third party candidate, while Davis won the lowest share of the popular vote of any Democratic nominee since Breckinridge in 1860. Republican candidates When Coolidge became president, he was fortunate to have had a stable cabinet that remained untarnished by the scandals of the Harding administration, he won public confidence by taking a hand in settling a serious Pennsylvania coal strike though much of the negotiation's success was due to the state's governor, Gifford Pinchot.

However, the more conservative factions within the Republican Party remained unconvinced in the new president's own conservatism, given his rather liberal record while governor of Massachusetts, he had not been their first choice for the vice presidency back in 1920. However, Coolidge was not popular with the progressive factions within the party either. Heartened by their victories in the 1922 midterms, the party's progressives vigorously opposed a continuation of the late Harding's policies. In the fall of 1923, Senator Hiram Johnson of California announced his intention of fighting Coolidge in the presidential primaries, friends of Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin were planning a third party. Coolidge decided to head off the immediate threat of Johnson's candidacy by gaining the endorsement of some of the liberals, he first approached Senator William Borah from Idaho and cultivated his circle by making a conciliatory reference to the Soviet Union in a speech in December. No sooner had the Soviet Union reacted favorably than Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes persuaded the President to reject it.

This left Borah on the verge of deserting Coolidge, but the subsequent disclosure of corruption among the Establishment persuaded him to stay and to try to convince Coolidge to align his policies more to his own. Coolidge for his part seemed unsure of, his State of the Union address in January was neither reactionary. He played Borah by promising to fire Attorney General Harry Daugherty and putting it off. In a speech on Lincoln Day Coolidge promised unstinting prosecution that would not mingle the innocent and the guilty—and managed to keep Borah within his ranks until he no longer feared the senator's influence. By Coolidge had made himself sufficiently strong to replace not only corrupt officeholders but many Republican stalwarts on the national committee and throughout the party hierarchy, elevating in their stead business friends loyal to him. In an effort to try to get at least some of the liberals back into the party ranks, he offered the vice presidency to the popular Senator Borah; the senator declined refusing to nominate Coolidge at that year's Republican convention which he decided against attending.

Another task for Coolidge, only easier than tightening his hold over the party's divergent factions, was to rebuild the party organization. A few years before, Will Hays had brought disciplined energy to the office of Republican national chairman. Hays's replacement, William Butler, lacked his predecessor's experience, it fell to Coolidge himself to whip the party into shape, his prime task was to establish control over the party. Through the power of patronage Coolidge consolidated his hold over Republican officeholders and office-seekers in the South, where the party was made up of little more than those whose positions were awarded through such a system; this allowed him to gain control of southern delegates to the coming Republican convention. He let it be known that his secretary Campbell Slemp, who favored the policy, would remove African-American Republican leaders in the South in order to attract more white voters to the party. Only California Senator Hiram Johnson challenged Coolidge in the South.

When the early Alabama primary

Seichi Konzo

Seichi "Bud" Konzo was a professor of engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1929-71 and a pioneer in the field of home heating and cooling. He lived in the first air-conditioned house in North America in 1933, his research spanned the decades of the 1920s to the 1990s. Konzo was a central participant in the Small Homes Council, an influential research unit established at the University of Illinois in 1944 to improve the state of the art in home building. With the Small Homes Council, Konzo helped to create numerous circular publications. In 1974 he contributed to the Illinois Lo-Cal House, a landmark prototype structure in the history of Superinsulation. Konzo published more than 100 technical papers and books as author or co-author, including: Summer Air Conditioning, 1958. Winter Air Conditioning, 1958; the Quiet Indoor Revolution, 1992. Fellow of ASHRAE E. K. Campbell Award of Merit, ASHRAE, 1967, "to honor outstanding service and achievement in teaching" F. Paul Anderson Medal, ASHRAE, 1973, "for notable scientific achievement or outstanding services performed in the field of heating, ventilating, or air conditioning."

The Wind in the Willows (1995 film)

The Wind in the Willows is a 1995 British animated television film directed by Dave Unwin and written by Ted Walker, based on the novel of the same name, a classic of children's literature by Kenneth Grahame. It was produced by the now defunct TVC in London; the films include live action starting and ending segments with Vanessa Redgrave as the grandmother, Alan Bennett, Michael Gambon, Rik Mayall, Michael Palin, Tom Stourton and Barry Foster, which changes into an animated setting as soon as the grandmother opens the book. Tired from spring cleaning, Mole ventures out of his hole for the first time and stumbles across a river and a new-found friend, Ratty; the two friends enjoy themselves call on Mr. Toad, who takes them on a trip along the open road by gypsy caravan until a passing motor car causes the caravan to crash and Toad to develop a mania for motor cars. Back at the riverbank, Ratty gets a temporary phase of a desire to emigrate but Mole snaps him out of it. By Winter, Mole gets lost in the Wild Wood, where he had hoped to make the acquaintance of Mr. Badger.

Ratty finds Mole and the two friends come across Mr. Badger's house and he invites them in. Ratty and Mole told Badger the whole story of Toad's impactions of Motor Cars and his reckless behaviors would get him into trouble soon or later. After a pleasant visit, the two friends head for home, whereupon Mole feels homesick from leaving his hole for too long, but Ratty comforts him with a visit to the place; when Springtime approaches, Mr. Badger visits Ratty and Mole and the three animals confronts Toad to stop squandering his inheritance on motor cars, but to no avail. Toad escapes his house, forcing Ratty and Badger to go after him, gets himself in a huge trouble for stealing and crashing a motor car, is sentenced 20 years in prison. Meanwhile and Ratty row in the river at night in search of Portly, who they find with Pan. Toad escapes from prison in the guise of a washerwoman, aided by the Jailer's daughter. Lacking money, Toad hitches a ride on a train driven by a kindly engine driver, who helps him escape from the police, who pursue him on a train.

Next morning Toad comes across a horse-towed barge owned by a fat barge woman. Having failed to do some washing up and being laughed at and thrown off by the barge woman, Toad steals her horse and rides off; when he reaches the road, he sees a motor car, carrying the judge who sentenced him. The judge's driver invites Toad for a ride, but when he takes the wheel he crashes the car into a pond, is once more pursued by the police, he swims to safety. Soon, Toad is reunited with his friends, but his home Toad Hall has been requisitioned by the Wild Wooders. Sneaking through an underground passage into Toad Hall, the four animals drive the Wild Wooders out and Toad reclaims his house, receiving a celebration for his return the next day. Vanessa Redgrave as Grandmother/Narrator Jemima Ffyne as Alexandra Jordan Hollywood as Emma Tom Stourton as Edward Barry Forster as Boatman Alan Bennett as Mole Michael Palin as Rat Michael Gambon as Badger Rik Mayall as Mr. Toad James Villiers as Magistrate Emma Chambers as Gaoler's Daughter Judy Cornwell as Barge Women Enn Reitel as Otter, Policeman, Gaoler David Sinclair as Clerk, Rabbit #2, Sergeant Mark Lockyer as Car Owner, Rabbit #3, Driver, Town Crier, Chief Weasel The film was followed by The Willows in Winter in 1996 based on the novel of the same name by William Horwood.

It received positive reviews like the first film, Rik Mayall and Lorraine Marshall won Emmy Awards for Best Voice Acting and Art Direction respectively. Set an unspecified amount of time after the first story, the group have been joined by Mole's orphaned, unnamed nephew. Toad temporarily allows him to stay at Toad Hall, but packs him off back to Mole End when Toad sees an aeroplane fly overhead and becomes fascinated with them. Winter comes and one night, just as Mole agrees to tell his nephew about how he met Ratty and the others, the son of Mole's friend Otter bursts in out of the blizzard outside and, having helped himself to a strong drink, falls asleep halfway through telling Mole something about Ratty and Otter. Worried that they may be in trouble, Mole leaves his nephew to look after Portly and ventures out into the night to get to Ratty's house. Having got to the frozen river and with no other way to get across, Mole attempts to walk across the ice, only to fall through a thin patch and be lost from view.

The next day and Otter arrive at Mole End looking for Portly, it turns out they wished that Mole could join them for a drink the previous night and that Portly ran off to invite Mole without their approval. Horrified that Mole has not returned and Otter recruit the aid of Badger to find their friend and Badger intimidates the denizens of the Wild Wood into helping with the search. Meanwhile, Toad has bought an aeroplane, but is furious that only a qualified pilot may fly it for him; the pilot agrees to keep his head down while flying the plane, to give the impression that Toad is flying it himself. Ratty and Badger spot Toad flying over they go to Toad Hall to confront Toad for his reckless actions and to use the plane to look for Mole. Toad commandeers the plane with Ratty in the back seat. Toad forgets about looking for Mole and starts doing wild stunts with the plane, causing Ratty to fall out. Ratty has a parachute, but on the way down he appears to have a near-death experience, becoming convinced that he has seen'Beyond'.

Ratty and the others are enraged and shout out angrily to Toad "You can go hang!" Badger and Ratty even

Frederick William II of Prussia

Frederick William II was King of Prussia from 1786 until his death. He was in personal union the Prince-elector of Brandenburg and sovereign prince of the Canton of Neuchâtel. Pleasure-loving and indolent, he is seen as the antithesis to his predecessor, Frederick II. Under his reign, Prussia was weakened internally and externally, he failed to deal adequately with the challenges to the existing order posed by the French Revolution, his religious policies were directed against the Enlightenment and aimed at restoring a traditional Protestantism. However, he was a patron of the arts and responsible for the construction of some notable buildings, among them the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. Frederick William was born in Berlin, the son of Prince Augustus William of Prussia and Duchess Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, his mother's elder sister, was the wife of Augustus William's brother King Frederick II. Frederick William became heir-presumptive to the throne of Prussia on his father's death in 1758, since Frederick II had no children.

The boy was of an easy-going and pleasure-loving disposition, averse to sustained effort of any kind, sensual by nature. His marriage with Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Crown Princess of Prussia, daughter of Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, contracted 14 July 1765 in Charlottenburg, was dissolved in 1769, he married Frederica Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, daughter of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt on 14 July 1769 in Charlottenburg. Although he had seven children by his second wife, he had an ongoing relationship with his mistress, Wilhelmine Enke, a woman of strong intellect and much ambition, had five children by her—the first when she was still in her teens. Frederick William, before the corpulence of his middle age, was a man of singularly handsome presence, not without mental qualities of a high order, he was a talented cellist. But an artistic temperament was hardly what was required of a king of Prussia on the eve of the French Revolution, Frederick the Great, who had employed him in various services expressed his misgivings as to the character of the prince and his surroundings.

For his part, Frederick William, who had never been properly introduced to diplomacy and the business of rulership, resented his uncle for not taking him seriously. The misgivings of Frederick II appear justified in retrospect. Frederick William's accession to the throne was, followed by a series of measures for lightening the burdens of the people, reforming the oppressive French system of tax-collecting introduced by Frederick, encouraging trade by the diminution of customs dues and the making of roads and canals; this gave the new king much popularity with the masses. Frederick William terminated his predecessor's state monopolies for coffee and tobacco and the sugar monopoly. Under his reign the codification known as Allgemeines Preußisches Landrecht, initiated by Frederick II, continued and was completed in 1794. In 1781 Frederick William prince of Prussia, inclined to mysticism, had joined the Rosicrucians, had fallen under the influence of Johann Christoph von Wöllner and Johann Rudolf von Bischoffwerder.

On 26 August 1786 Wöllner was appointed privy councillor for finance, on 2 October 1786 was ennobled. Though not in name, he in fact became prime minister. Bischoffswerder, still a simple major, was called into the king's counsels; the opposition to Wöllner was, indeed, at the outset strong enough to prevent his being entrusted with the department of religion. From this position Wöllner pursued long lasting reforms concerning religion in the Prussian state; the king proved eager to aid Wöllner's crusade. On 9 July 1788 a religious edict was issued forbidding Evangelical ministers from teaching anything not contained in the letter of their official books, proclaimed the necessity of protecting the Christian religion against the "enlighteners", placed educational establishments under the supervision of the orthodox clergy. On 18 December 1788 a new censorship law was issued to secure the orthodoxy of all published books; this forced major Berlin journals like Christoph Friedrich Nicolai's Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek and Johann Erich Biester's Berliner Monatsschrift to publish only outside the Prussian borders.

Moreover, people like Immanuel Kant were forbidden to speak in public on the topic of religion. In 1791, a Protestant commission was established at Berlin to watch over all ecclesiastical and scholastic appointments. Although Wöllner's religious edict had many critics, it was an important measure that, in fact, proved an important stabilizing fa


Caresses is a 1998 film by Ventura Pons titled Carícies in Catalan. Barcelona is the scenario for eleven entwined stories sharing the same characters; the movie deals with a variety of intimate relationships, portraying characters who have to experience intense emotions which cannot be materialised in caresses. Connections explored include several different family and romantic relationships across different genders and generations. A recurring theme is the irony of how difficult communication can be when there is close contact. Partial expression, instincts vs. emotions and physical communication all play a part. David Selvas as Home jove Laura Conejero as Dona jove Julieta Serrano as Dona gran Montserrat Salvador as Dona vella Agustín González as Home vell Naim Thomas as Nen Sergi López as Home Mercè Pons as Noia Jordi Dauder as Home gran Roger Coma as Noi Rosa Maria Sardà as DonaOther cast members.

Formica polyctena

Formica polyctena is a species of European red wood ant in the genus Formica and large family Formicidae. The species was first described by Arnold Förster in 1850, it is found in many European countries. It is a eusocial species, that has a distinct caste system of sterile workers and a small reproductive caste; the ants have a genetic based cue that allow them to identify which other ants are members of their nest and which are foreign individuals. When facing these types of foreign invaders the F. polyctena has a system to activate an alarm. It can release pheromones, it is found in Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Latvia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia and Montenegro, Spain, Sweden and Ukraine. Formica polyctena like many ant and bee species, displays a eusocial system. Eusocial insects are characterized by cooperative care of young among members of a colony, distinct caste systems where some individuals breed and most individuals are sterile helpers, overlapping generations so mother, adult offspring and immature offspring are all living at the same time.

In a eusocial colony, an individual is assigned a specialized caste before they become reproductively mature, which makes them behaviorally distinct from other castes. Red wood ants exhibit all of these characteristics, with queens and males that make up the reproductive caste and sterile female workers that aid in brood care and colony maintenance. Workers in ant colonies are sterile females that do not reproduce. F. polyctena is consistent with this model, with completely sterile workers that do not lay eggs. This is in contrast to other Formica species that have workers that do reproduce, disrupting the eusocial system. F. polyctena’s high proportion of worker sterility indicates a strict obligate polygynous colony structure that most allows for a stable unicoloniality, or the cooperation of several nests. In other words, workers do not have the ability to disrupt the strict social segregation of reproduction by reproducing themselves, thus they uphold a multi-queen, multi-nest cooperation that may not be advantageous to their genes since they act altruistically toward non-kin.

In F. polyctena colonies, there appears to be a separate group of designated foraging workers. The number of foragers correlates with the size of the colony. Foragers tend to be older workers. However, if foragers are lost or die, other workers from the nest can replace them, indicating some flexibility in designated roles within the colony; these replacement workers have a shorter life expectancy as foragers, indicating that there could be some physiological development as the workers age that allows them to be effective foragers. In order to prevent costly conflict between fellow nestmates or involuntarily altruistic behavior toward ants from a foreign nest, individual ants need to distinguish between their fellow nestmates and foreigners, it has been demonstrated that Formica polyctena uses genetically-based cues as a nestmate recognition mechanism. Since F. polyctena, like all ant species, lives in colonies with high genetic relatedness, this type of mechanism would be successful in distinguishing between colonies.

Beye and Moritz conducted a study where pairs of ants from different nest were introduced to each other to see if they fought, tolerated or avoided one another. Pairs of ants from the same nests were introduced as well to act as a control. Genetic similarity between these ants was measured as well. A strong positive correlation existed between genetic dissimilarity. Thus, F. polyctena ants likely recognize their fellow workers through some genetically produced signal. Nest populations in close physical proximity to one another didn’t demonstrate either aggressive or passive behavior toward each other, indicating that nest proximity does not influence recognition. Additionally, nest distance did not correlate with genetic similarity. F. polyctena has adapted some form of genetically-based cue that allows nestmates to distinguish between each other and foreign individuals. Beye and Moritz believe that these genetic cues act to keep nest colonies separate in homogenous environments that offer no other nestmate recognition strategies.

Alarm behavior can be triggered in Formica polyctena by the release of pheromones. When ants come across a specific pheromone, they approach the source with jaws wide open, as if confronting a threat. In F. polyctena, these chemical alarm signals elicit a response not only within the nest, but along foraging paths. In particular, the formic acid sprayed by ants when attacked can trigger a predator alarm response in nearby ants, gathering reinforcements to attack the predator. In this way, formic acid doubles as a chemical weapon against predators and an alarm signal in F. polyctena. Due to the close living situation of individuals in a F. polyctena colony, diseases can spread causing significant damage to the colony’s population. Therefore, F. polyctena has evolved responses to combat the spread of disease. When an individual ant develops an immune response to some disease, the other workers can sense this; the workers decrease mouth-to-mouth exchanges of liquid, prevent the infected individual from moving around.

The healthy workers increase antennal contact and grooming of the infected ant. This is believed to either remove pathogens from the ant that could cause such an immune response, or act as a “social vaccination.” Aubert and Richard proposed this social vaccination model, where they argue that if fellow nestmates groom an infected ant, they will be expose