The 1926 general strike in the United Kingdom was a general strike that lasted nine days, from 3 May 1926 to 12 May 1926. It was called by the General Council of the Trades Union Congress in an unsuccessful attempt to force the British government to act to prevent wage reduction and worsening conditions for 1.2 million locked-out coal miners. Some 1.7 million workers went out in transport and heavy industry. The government enlisted middle class volunteers to maintain essential services. There was little violence and the TUC gave up in defeat. Though nine days in, the TUC leadership knew'the government could hold out longer than the workers', it was perceived at the time as a'brilliant failure'. According to a leading TUC researcher, Walter Milne-Bailey,'There has never been a more amazing display of labour solidarity and the effect of such a demonstration must be deep and enduring. Workers have learnt a new sense of their oneness and their power.' In the 1929 general election, the Labour Party won more seats than any other party in Parliament for the first time in its history.
The First World War: The heavy domestic use of coal in the war meant that rich seams were depleted. Britain exported less coal in the war than it would have done in peacetime, allowing other countries to fill the gap; the United States and Germany and their strong coal industries benefited, in particular. Coal production was at its lowest ebb. Annual output per man had fallen to just 199 tons in 1920–1924, from 247 tons in the four years before the war, a peak of 310 tons in the early 1880s. Total coal output had been falling since 1914; the fall in coal prices resulting from the 1924 Dawes Plan. It allowed Germany to re-enter the international coal market by exporting "free coal" to France and Italy, as part of their reparations for the First World War; the reintroduction of the gold standard in 1925 by Winston Churchill, which made the British pound too strong for effective exporting to take place from Britain and raised interest rates, hurting some businesses. Mine owners wanted to maintain profits during times of economic instability, which took the form of wage reductions for miners in their employment.
Coupled with the prospect of longer working hours, the industry was thrown into disarray. Miners' pay had been lowered from £6.00 to £3.90 over seven years. Mine owners announced; the Miners Federation of Great Britain rejected the terms: "Not a penny off the pay, not a minute on the day." The Trades Union Congress responded to the news by promising to support the miners in their dispute. The Conservative government, under Stanley Baldwin, decided to intervene by declaring that a nine-month subsidy would be provided to maintain the miners' wages and that a Royal Commission, under the chairmanship of Sir Herbert Samuel, would look into the problems of the mining industry and consider its impact on other industries and organisations dependent on coal supplies industry; the Samuel Commission published a report on 10 March 1926 recommending that national agreements, the nationalisation of royalties and sweeping reorganisation and improvement should be considered for the mining industry. It recommended a reduction by 13.5% of miners' wages, along with the withdrawal of the government subsidy.
Two weeks the prime minister announced that the government would accept the report if other parties did. A previous royal commission, the Sankey Commission in 1919, had failed to reach agreement, producing four different reports with proposals ranging from complete restoration of private ownership and control, to complete nationalisation. David Lloyd George, the prime minister, offered reorganisation, rejected by the miners. After the Samuel Commission's report, the mine owners declared that miners would be offered new terms of employment, which included lengthening the work day and reducing wages depending on various factors; the Miners' Federation of Great Britain refused regional negotiation. The final negotiations began on 1 May but failed to achieve an agreement, leading to an announcement by the TUC that a general strike "in defence of miners' wages and hours" was to begin on 3 May, a Monday, at one minute to midnight; the leaders of the British Labour Party were unhappy about the proposed general strike because they were aware of the revolutionary elements within the union movement and of the damage that the association would do to the party's new reputation as a party of government.
During the next two days, frantic efforts were made to reach an agreement between the government and the mining industry representatives. However, they failed because of an eleventh-hour decision by printers of the Daily Mail to refuse to print an editorial condemning the general strike, they objected to the following passage: "A general strike is not an industrial dispute. It is a revolutionary move which can only succeed by destroying the government and subverting the rights and liberties of the people". Baldwin was now concerned about the TUC and printers' action interfering with the freedom of the press. King George V tried to stabilise the situation and create balance saying, "Try living on their wages before you judge them."The TUC feared that an all-out general strike would bring revolutionary elements to the fore and limited the participants to railwaymen, transport workers, dockers and steelworkers, as they were regarded as pivotal in the dispute. The government had been preparing for the strike over the nine months in which it had provided a subsidy by creating organisations such as the Organisation for the Maintenance
Keith J. Bulluck is a former American Football linebacker who played for eleven seasons in the National Football League. After playing college football for Syracuse University, he was drafted by the Tennessee Titans in the first round in the 2000 NFL Draft, he had a ten-year career with the Titans, which included a Pro Bowl selection in 2003. He played for the New York Giants in 2010. At Clarkstown High School North in New City, New York, Bulluck was named first-team All County, first-team All-State, Blue-Chip All-American, both Prep Football Report and Super Prep All-Northeast. Like many children in the New York metropolitan area in the 1980s and early 1990s, he idolized Giants linebacker Lawrence Taylor while growing up, he was an All-County in basketball as a junior. On April 27, 2009, Bulluck's high school jersey, #1, was retired in a ceremony held at the high school, he has a name plaque at Clarkstown High School North hung up on the "Hall of Fame". Bulluck attended Syracuse University, where he played for the Syracuse Orange football team from 1996 to 1999.
He played outside linebacker and middle linebacker. As a senior in 1999 he led the Big East in tackles with 138 and received the Bill Horr Award, given to Syracuse’s most valuable player, he finished his career with 375 tackles, six quarterback sacks, three interceptions, three forced fumbles and six fumble recoveries. The Tennessee Titans selected Bullock in the first round of the 2000 NFL Draft. Bullock was the fifth linebacker drafted in 2000 and was one of four Pro Bowl linebackers selected in the first round of the 2000 NFL Draft; the first round included Pro Bowl linebackers LaVar Arrington, Brian Urlacher, Julian Peterson. After spending his first two seasons as a backup and special teamer, he became a starter in 2002. After becoming a starter he has led the Titans in tackles five times. In 2004, he led the NFL in tackles with 152. In 2007, he recorded a Titans-record five interceptions for a linebacker. On July 24, 2010, after a private workout with the team, he signed a one-year, $2.5 million contract with the Giants.
He became an unrestricted free agent following the season. Bulluck did not play in the 2011 season. After having the year off, he announced his retirement on January 25, 2012. On August 3, 2012, Bulluck formally retired from the National Football League with the team who drafted him, the Tennessee Titans, he became the first player in Titans franchise history to formally retire from their organization. Bulluck joined the Titans broadcast team in Summer 2013. On August 25, 2013, Bulluck was arrested in Nashville, Tennessee for robbing a taxi driver, although the claims by the taxi driver are disputed. Since retirement from professional football, Keith has picked up the sport of curling. In March 2018 Jared Allen formed a team of all retired NFL players, consisting of Bulluck, Marc Bulger and Michael Roos with the goal of representing the United States at the 2022 Winter Olympics, they have since played together in the 2019 USA Men's Challenge Round and Ed Werenich Golden Wrench Classic, going winless in both events.
Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, better known as Piri Reis, was an Ottoman admiral, navigator and cartographer. He is known today for his maps and charts collected in his Kitab-ı Bahriye, a book that contains detailed information on navigation, as well as accurate charts describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea, he gained fame as a cartographer when a small part of his first world map was discovered in 1929 at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. His world map is the oldest known Turkish atlas showing the New World, one of the oldest maps of America still in existence anywhere. Piri Reis' map is centered on the Sahara at the latitude of the Tropic of Cancer. In 1528, Piri Reis drew a second world map. According to his imprinting text, he had drawn his maps using about 20 foreign charts and mappae mundi including one by Christopher Columbus, he was executed in 1553 in Cairo, having been found guilty of raising the siege of Hormuz Island and abandoning the fleet though his reason was the lack of maintenance of his ships.
For many years, little was known about the identity of Piri Reis. The name Piri Reis means Captain Piri. Today, based on the Ottoman archives, it is known that his full name was "Hacı Ahmed Muhiddin Piri" and that he was born either in Gelibolu on the European part of the Ottoman Empire, or in Karaman in central Anatolia the capital of the Beylik of Karaman; the exact date of his birth is unknown. His father's name was Hacı Mehmed Piri; the honorary and informal Islamic title Hadji in Piri's and his father's names indicate that they both had completed the Hajj by going to Mecca during the dedicated annual period. Piri began engaging in government-supported privateering when he was young, following his uncle Kemal Reis, a well-known corsair and seafarer of the time, who became a famous admiral of the Ottoman Navy. During this period, together with his uncle, he took part in many naval wars of the Ottoman Empire against Spain, the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Venice, including the First Battle of Lepanto in 1499 and the Second Battle of Lepanto in 1500.
When his uncle Kemal Reis died in 1511, Piri returned to Gelibolu, where he started working on his studies about navigation. By 1516, he was again at sea as a ship captain in the Ottoman fleet, he took part in the 1516–17 Ottoman conquest of Egypt. In 1522 he participated in the Siege of Rhodes against the Knights of St. John, which ended with the island's surrender to the Ottomans on 25 December 1522 and the permanent departure of the Knights from Rhodes on 1 January 1523. In 1524 he captained the ship. In 1547, Piri had risen to the rank of Reis as the Commander of the Ottoman Fleet in the Indian Ocean and Admiral of the Fleet in Egypt, headquartered in Suez. On 26 February 1548 he recaptured Aden from the Portuguese, followed in 1552 by the sack of Muscat, which Portugal had occupied since 1507, the strategically important island of Kish. Turning further east, Piri Reis attempted to capture the island of Hormuz in the Strait of Hormuz, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, unsuccessfully; when the Portuguese turned their attention to the Persian Gulf, Piri Reis occupied the Qatar peninsula to deprive the Portuguese of suitable bases on the Arabian coast.
He returned to Egypt, an old man approaching the age of 90. When he refused to support the Ottoman Vali of Basra, Kubad Pasha, in another campaign against the Portuguese in the northern Persian Gulf, Piri Reis was beheaded in 1553. Several warships and submarines of the Turkish Navy have been named after Piri Reis. Piri Reis is the author of the Kitāb-ı Baḥrīye, or "Book of the Sea", one of the most famous cartographical works of the period; the book gives seafarers information on the Mediterranean coast, crossings and gulfs. The work was first published in 1521, it was revised in 1524-1525 with additional information and better-crafted charts in order to be presented as a gift to Sultan Suleiman I; the revised edition had a total of 434 pages containing 290 maps. Although he was not an explorer and never sailed to the Atlantic, he compiled over twenty maps of Arab, Portuguese, Chinese and older Greek origins into a comprehensive representation of the known world of his era; this work included the explored shores of both the African and American continents.