click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1928 Winter Olympics

The 1928 Winter Olympics known as the II Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event, celebrated February 11–19, 1928 in St. Moritz, Switzerland; the 1928 Games were the first true Winter Olympics held on its own as they were not in conjunction with a Summer Olympics. The preceding 1924 Games were retroactively renamed the inaugural Winter Olympics, though they had been in fact part of the 1924 Summer Olympics. All preceding Winter Events of the Olympic Games were the winter sports part of the schedule of the Summer Games, not held as a separate Winter Games; these games replaced the now redundant Nordic Games, that were held quadrennially since early in the century. Fluctuating weather conditions challenged the hosts; the opening ceremony was held in a blizzard while warm weather conditions plagued sporting events throughout the rest of the games. Because of the weather the 10,000 metre speed-skating event had to be abandoned and cancelled. Sonja Henie of Norway returned to the Winter Olympics to make history when she won the ladies' figure skating at the age of 15.

She became the youngest Olympic champion in history, a distinction she held for 70 years, went on to defend her title at the next two Winter Olympics. Ivar Ballangrud won the Olympic title in the 5,000m speed skating and Clas Thunberg won the 500m and the 1,500m. Norway finished on top of the medal table with a total of 6 gold medals, 4 silver and 5 bronze, a total of 15 medals; the USA finished second in the table. The single bronze medal won by Switzerland is the lowest output by a host nation at an Olympics. Medals were awarded in 14 events contested in 4 sports. Bobsleigh Bobsleigh Skeleton Ice hockey Skating Figure skating Speed skating Nordic skiing Cross-country skiing Nordic combined Ski jumping Military patrol Skijoring St. Moritz Olympic Ice Rink - Figure skating, Ice hockey, Speed Skating Around the hills of St. Moritz - Cross-country skiing, Nordic combined Olympiaschanze St. Moritz - Nordic combined, Ski jumping St. Moritz-Celerina Olympic Bobrun - Bobsleigh Cresta Run - Skeleton Athletes from 25 nations competed at these Games, up from 16 in 1924.

Nations making their first appearance at the Winter Olympic Games were Argentina, Germany, Lithuania, Mexico, the Netherlands, Romania. * Host nation List of 1928 Winter Olympics medal winners 1928 Summer Olympics Olympic Games celebrated in Switzerland 1948 Winter OlympicsMoscow 1948 Winter Olympics – St. MoritzOlympic Games International Olympic Committee List of IOC country codes "St Moritz 1928". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. "Results and Medalists—1928 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee; the program of the 1928 St. Moritz Winter Olympics The official report of St. Moritz 1928

Josef Kalasanz von Erberg

Josef Kalasanz Freiherr von Erberg was a Carniolan botanist, cultural historian and patron of the arts. Von Erberg was born in Ljubljana. After graduating from mathematics, logics and administrative law, he was at first a board councillor at the Carniolan Provincial Estates. In 1794, he married Gräfin von Attems, they had seven children. In 1804, he became a chamberlain at the Austrian Court, was from 1809 until 1814 the educator of the young Ferdinand I of Austria. In 1815, von Erberg moved to Dol pri Ljubljani, where he intensively collected books and numerous other cultural and natural objects from Carniola and created a garden with over 7000 plants, he was a friend of Sigmund Zois and corresponded with other Carniolan scientists and artists. Until the end of his life, he only left Dol. In 1832, he hired an officer, to inform him about events in Vienna and in Ljubljana. In the following eight years, Franz sent him about 1800 letters, which have been preserved until today and give an insight in the history of Ljubljana before the 1848 revolutions.

In 1825, von Erberg wrote the Attempt at a Sketch of the Literary History of Carniola, which he intended for his personal use. It consists of twelve questions about the literary history of his homeland and extensive answers to them. Today, it represents a source of information about the older Slovenian literary history. Media related to Josef Kalasanz von Erberg at Wikimedia Commons

Chaim Avrohom Horowitz

Chaim Avrohom Horowitz was a Polish-born American rabbi. In 1985 he became Bostoner Rebbe, Grand Rabbi of the Boston Jewish Hasidic sect, established in 1915 by his grandfather Pinchas Duvid Horowitz, named after his city, Massachusetts, USA, he was a student of Aharon Kotler. After the death of Pinchas Duvid in 1941 his eldest son, Moshe Horowitz, held the position of Bostoner Rebbe in New York until his death in 1985, following Chasidic tradition; as the eldest son of Moshe, Horowitz succeeded his father as the Bostoner Rebbe of New York. He founded the Bostoner community in Ramat Beit Shemesh, where he resided, he composed contemporary Chasidic music. Andy Statman credits him with being a major influence in his musical career, having performed several of the Horowitz's compositions on his recordings and in concert. In 1954 Horowitz married Miriam Adler, daughter of Rebbe Elazar Adler of the Zvhil dynasty, who gave birth to their son Yaakov Yitzchak "Yankel" in 1956, he was raised in his maternal grandparent’s home in the West Hollywood section of Los Angeles, now serves as rabbi of the Bostoner Shul in Lawrence, New York.

Horowitz married the daughter of Yonah Hass in his second marriage. They have one son, Yisrael Yona, seven daughters

Blog del Narco

Blog del Narco was a blog that attempted to document the violent incidents and characters involved in the Mexican Drug War that never made it to government reports or the mainstream media. An anonymous person created the website because the Government of Mexico was not reporting the violence and was trying to pretend that "nothing happening", the media was "intimidated" and the "government had been bought."The author would spend four hours every day working on the website. To deal with the increased workload, he asked a friend anonymous, to help him, they decided to broadcast their content without alteration or modifications of convenience—and help Mexicans take all necessary precautions to protect their own well-being. They chose YouTube to comment as @infonarco on Twitter. During the early days of Blog del Narco, the general population of Mexico submitted only a small number of reports to them, but as the website built trust with time, more reports were submitted; the creators and current editors of the blog "have not received any threats yet."In 2011, a video posted on the blog outlined a prison warden's system of letting prisoners free at night so they could commit murders for drug cartels.

As a result of the video, the prison warden was arrested. In May 2013, it was revealed that one of the authors of the blog was a woman in her early 20s who goes by the pseudonym "Lucy." In early May, Lucy fled Mexico for the United States Spain. According to the author, the blog posts all cartel-related media, regardless of the cartel affiliation or content; some of the videos torture. In Mexico, many traditional journalistic outlets have been threatened and harassed due to stories about the drug trafficking industry they dared publish, so anonymous blogs like Blog del Narco have taken the role of reporting on events related to the drug war; the author, an anonymous computer security student in his 20s from northern Mexico, uses computer security techniques to obscure his identity. His anonymity has been maintained; when he conducted an interview with the Associated Press, he used a disguised telephone number. The author of the blog said that he is doing a service by publishing sensitive details about the Mexican Drug War that journalist organizations in Mexico are hesitant to publish for fear of retaliation.

The blogger said, "for the scanty details that they put on television, they get grenades thrown at them and their reporters kidnapped. We publish everything. Imagine what they could do to us." As of September 2010, the blog had three million unique monthly views. By 2011, it became. Members of police and drug cartel groups directly read the blog. MSNBC described Blog del Narco as "Mexico's go-to Web site on information on the country's drug war." Additionally, The Houston Chronicle said that Blog del Narco is "a gritty, front-row seat to Mexico's drug war."The Guardian and Los Angeles Times noted that Blog del Narco is a response to Mexico's "narco-censorship," a term used when reporters and editors of the Mexican Drug War, out of fear or caution, are forced to either write what the drug lords demand, or remain silent by not writing anything at all. If they do not comply with what the drug cartels demand, the journalists may be kidnapped, intimidated, or killed. Spencer Ackerman of Wired said, "even if you don’t read Spanish, the images on Blog Del Narco tell the gruesome story.

Old, wealthy men humiliated. Paramilitary cops in ski masks taking dudes into custody. People walking the streets in body armor, automatic weapons out. There’s all the dead bodies and shot-up cars."Jo Tuckman of Dawn said that the website's contents are "a catalogue of horror absent from the national press, which still covers the violence from the relative safety of its headquarters in the capital."Duncan Robinson of the New Statesman said "To say that the blog's coverage is raw is an understatement. It is undigested; this is news unprocessed and uncensored. Where a news editor would cut away, Blog del Narco's footage lingers. Decapitations are not described, they are pictured. It's unapologetically violent; the blog's raison d'être is simple: to reflect what is happening."Nate Freeman of The Observer said "his facelessness allowed him get away with stories that would endanger known journalists"Carlos Lauria of the Committee to Protect Journalists criticized the website, saying that it was "produced by someone, not doing it from a journalistic perspective.

He is doing it without ethical considerations." Many critics said. Mexican Drug War Citizen journalism Blog del Narco Gomez, Robert. "A New Visual Regime: Narco Warfare through Social Media". Sightlines. 2012. Posted at: California College of the Arts Burnett, Thane. "Mexico's drug war goes online." Toronto Sun. September 2, 2010. "Blogger tells the real story of the war on drugs." France 24. 12 March 2010. "La cuadratura del círculo Operativos en el Noroeste." Tribuna Campeche. Thursday February 3, 2011

Galina Shamrai

Galina Yakovlevna Shamray is a retired Soviet gymnast. In 1954, she became the first women's all-around World Champion from the USSR. Shamrai was born on October 5, 1931, Tashkent, USSR, she graduated from the Lenin Pedagogical Institute of the Moscow Region. She married Anatoly Ilyin, who played for Spartak and became an Olympic champion in football at the 1956 Summer Olympics; the couple had a daughter, Elena, in 1958. She lives in Moscow. Shamrai trained at the Iskra club and at the Burevestnik sports society in Moscow, she began competing at the USSR Championships in 1950. She was added to the team roster for the 1952 Summer Olympics, which were the first Olympic performance for Soviet athletes. Shamrai did not compete in the event finals, but was 8th in the all-around, contributing to the team's gold, she won the team's silver in the portable apparatus event. In December of the same year, Shamrai earned the silver medal on the floor exercise at the USSR Championships, she continued a progressive movement upwards in 1953, placing fourth in the all-around at the Nationals.

The 1954 World Championships were the culmination of her competitive career. She won the all-around title, a gold medal in the team competition, a silver on bars and the team's silver in the portable apparatus, she earned one more gold medal on the balance beam, at the 1955 Nationals, retired in 1956. In 1957, Shamrai was awarded the Order of the Badge of Honor, she worked as a coach at the Spartak club in Moscow and began judging at international gymnastics events in 1975. Galina Shamrai at the International Federation of Gymnastics List of competitive results at Gymn Forum

Oberhofgericht Leipzig

The Oberhofgericht Leipzig was a judicial instance of the Electorate and the Kingdom of Saxony from the fifteenth century until 1831. Until the fifteenth century, the Saxon Hofgericht was linked to the Electors and moved around the country as he did. In 1483 Elector Ernest and his brother Duke Albert III established the Oberhofgericht, a court with a fixed seat in Leipzig; the court was controlled by both nobles and Burgers and was the first authority established in Saxony to be independent of the Electors and the court. The court was founded with authority over all Saxony, but after the Partition of the Wettin lands, it applied only to the Albertine lands from 1483 to 1493 and again from 1547. After 1529 it ceased to have authority over Wittenberg, which came under the jurisdiction of the newly established Electoral Circle. From 1493 until 1547, the Oberhofgericht met alternately in Leipzig and Altenburg and had authority over both Albertine and Ernestine lands. In 1488 the court received a new assessor.

The court was raised to a full bench of twelve people. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, six of these seats belonged to the nobility, including the Oberhofgerichters, six learned men with the Professor of law at the University of Leipzig. Both sides were filled out by extraordinary assessors; the Oberhofgericht was in charge of Private law and had some control over feudal law. On the other hand, administrative law, criminal law and ecclesiastical law remained outside its control, it was the court of first instance only for members of the Wettin princely house, schriftsässig lords of manors, schriftsässig cities and the holders of important honours and offices, so only these people had direct access to the court. For the majority of Saxons, it was an appellate court. In 1822, the Oberhofgericht lost its role as an appellate court. With the 1831 state reform in the Kingdom of Saxony, a progressive transformation of the judiciary was begun. In the course of this reform, the Oberhofgericht was abolished.

Hauptstaatsarchiv Dresden Deutsches Rechtswörterbuch Manfred Wilde: "Verfahren vor dem sächsischen Oberhofgericht in Leipzig," in Die Zauberei- und Hexenprozesse in Kursachsen. Köln: Böhlau, 2003, ISBN 3-412-10602-X, p. 79 Christian Gottfried Kretschmann: Geschichte des Churfürstlich Sächsischen Oberhofgerichts zu Leipzig von seiner Entstehung 1483 an bis zum Ausgange des 18. Jahrhunderts: nebst einer kurzen Darstellung seiner gegenwärtigen Verfassung, Leipzig: Crusius, 1804, p. 243