William Charles Frederick Grover-Williams known as "W Williams", was a Grand Prix motor racing driver and special agent who worked for the Special Operations Executive inside France. He coordinated the Chestnut network, he was executed by the Nazis. Grover-Williams was born in Montrouge, Hauts-de-Seine, France, on 16 January 1903 to Frederick and Hermance Grover. Frederick Grover was an English horse breeder. Frederick met a French girl, Hermance Dagan, they were soon married, their first child was Elizabeth, born in 1897. William had two other siblings -- Frederic. Born to an English father and a French mother, Grover-Williams grew up fluent in both the French and English languages; when William was eleven, he was sent to live in the United Kingdom. After the war, Frederick Grover moved the family to Monte Carlo, it was there that William developed a fascination for automobiles, having been taught to drive a Rolls-Royce by his sister's boyfriend. Grover-Williams was granted a licence. Mechanically inclined, fascinated by motorised vehicles, at the age of 15, Grover-Williams acquired an Indian motorcycle and it became his pride and joy.
He would go on to compete in motorcycle races in the early 1920s, although he kept it secret from his family by adopting the pseudonym, "W Williams". In 1919, the Irish portrait painter, William Orpen became the official artist of the Paris Peace Conference. Orpen bought a Rolls-Royce car and hired Grover-Williams, who had returned to Paris, as his chauffeur. At the time, Orpen had a mistress named Yvonne Aupicq. Aupicq and Grover-Williams became good friends and, after the collapse of Aupicq's relationship with Orpen, the pair were married in November 1929. By 1926, Grover-Williams had begun racing a Bugatti in races throughout France, using the alias, "W Williams", entering the Grand Prix de Provence at Miramas and the Monte Carlo Rally. In 1928, he won the French Grand Prix, repeating in 1929; that same year, driving a Bugatti 35B, painted in what would become known as "British racing green", he won the inaugural Monaco Grand Prix beating the favoured Mercedes of the great German driver, Rudolf Caracciola.
Successful financially, Grover-Williams and his wife maintained a home in a fashionable district of Paris while owning a large house in the resort town of La Baule, Pays de la Loire, on the Bay of Biscay, home to one of the annual Grand Prix races. In 1931, he won the Belgian Grand Prix at Spa-Francorchamps, he won the Grand Prix de la Baule in three consecutive years. His career waned and he was out of racing by the latter part of the 1930s. Following the German occupation of France in the Second World War, Grover-Williams fled to England where he joined the Royal Army Service Corps. Due to his fluency in French and English, he was recruited into the Special Operations Executive to foster the French Resistance, he recruited fellow racing driver Robert Benoist and together they worked in the Paris region to build up a successful circuit of operatives, forming sabotage cells and reception committees for Allied parachute operations. On 2 August 1943, Grover-Williams was arrested by the Sicherheitsdienst and underwent lengthy interrogation before being deported to Berlin and was held prisoner in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
Grover-Williams was executed at Sachsenhausen in the spring of 1945, along with fellow SOE network leader Francis Suttill. There is a theory that Grover-Williams survived the war, lived on under an assumed identity as "Georges Tambal" who lived with Grover-Williams's widow for many years, but there is no evidence for this. Grover-Williams is recorded on the Brookwood Memorial in Surrey, as one of the SOE agents who died for the liberation of France, he is listed on the Valençay SOE Memorial's Roll of Honour in the French town of Valençay. Grover-Williams was recommended for an Order of the British Empire by the head of the SOE, Major-General Colin Gubbins, in September 1945, but when it became clear that he had died the honour was not awarded; the Saboteur, a 2009 video game, features an Irish protagonist named Sean Devlin, inspired by Grover-Williams. † Grover-Williams shared a car with Caberto Conelli. † Grover-Williams shared a car with Caberto Conelli. Ryan, Robert. Early one morning. Headline.
ISBN 978-0-7472-6873-4. Saward, Joe; the Grand Prix Saboteurs. Morienval Press. ISBN 978-0-9554868-0-7. Higham, Peter; the Guinness Guide to International Motor Racing. Guinness Publishing. ISBN 0-85112-642-1
The franc commonly distinguished as the French franc, was a currency of France. Between 1360 and 1641, it was the name of coins worth 1 livre tournois and it remained in common parlance as a term for this amount of money, it was reintroduced in 1795. After two centuries of inflation, it was revalued in 1960, with each new franc being worth 100 old francs; the NF designation was continued for a few years before the currency returned to being the franc. The French franc was a held international reserve currency of reference in the 19th and 20th centuries; the first franc was a gold coin introduced in 1360 to pay the Ransom of King John II of France. This coin secured the king's freedom and showed him on a richly decorated horse earning it the name franc à cheval; the obverse legend, like other French coins, gives the king's title as Francorum Rex and provides another reason to call the coin a franc. Its value was set as one livre tournois. John's son, Charles V, continued this type, it was copied at Brabant and Cambrai and, with the arms on the horse cloth changed, at Flanders.
Conquests led by Joan of Arc allowed Charles VII to return to sound coinage and he revived the franc à cheval. John II, was not able to strike enough francs to pay his ransom and he voluntarily returned to English captivity. John II died as a prisoner in England and his son, Charles V was left to pick up the pieces, and so he did. Charles V pursued a policy of reform, including stable coinage. An edict dated 20 April 1365 established the centerpiece of this policy, a gold coin called the denier d’or aux fleurs de lis which had a standing figure of the king on its obverse, pictured under a canopy, its value in money of account was one livre tournois, just like the franc à cheval, this coin is universally known as a franc à pied. In accordance with the theories of the mathematician and royal advisor Nicolas Oresme, Charles struck fewer coins of better gold than his predecessors. In the accompanying deflation both prices and wages fell, but wages fell faster and debtors had to settle up in better money than they had borrowed.
The Mayor of Paris, Étienne Marcel, exploited their discontent to lead a revolt which forced Charles V out of the city. The franc fared better, it became associated with money stable at one livre tournoisHenry III exploited the association of the franc as sound money worth one livre tournois when he sought to stabilize French currency in 1577. By this time, inflows of gold and silver from Spanish America had caused inflation throughout the world economy and the kings of France, who weren't getting much of this wealth, only made things worse by manipulating the values assigned to their coins; the States General which met at Blois in 1577 added to the public pressure to stop currency manipulation. Henry III agreed to do this and he revived the franc, now as a silver coin valued at one livre tournois; this coin and its fractions circulated until 1641 when Louis XIII of France replaced it with the silver écu. The name "franc" continued in accounting as a synonym for the livre tournois; the decimal "franc" was established as the national currency by the French Revolutionary Convention in 1795 as a decimal unit of 4.5 g of fine silver.
This was less than the livre of 4.505 g, but the franc was set in 1796 at 1.0125 livres, reflecting in part the past minting of sub-standard coins. Silver coins now had their denomination marked as "5 FRANCS" and it was made obligatory to quote prices in francs; this ended the ancien régime's practice of striking coins with no stated denomination, such as the Louis d'or, periodically issuing royal edicts to manipulate their value in terms of money of account, i.e. the Livre tournois. The franc became the official currency of France in 1799. Coinage with explicit denominations in decimal fractions of the franc began in 1795. Decimalization of the franc was mandated by an act of 7 April 1795, which dealt with of weights and measures. France led the world in adopting the metric system and it was the second country to convert from a non-decimal to a decimal currency, following Russia's conversion in 1704, the third country to adopt a decimal coinage following the United States in 1787. France's first decimal coinage used allegorical figures symbolizing revolutionary principles, like the coinage designs the United States had adopted in 1793.
The circulation of this metallic currency declined during the Republic: the old gold and silver coins were taken out of circulation and exchanged for printed assignats issued as bonds backed by the value of the confiscated goods of churches, but declared as legal tender currency. The withdrawn gold and silver coins were used to finance wars and to import food, in short supply; as during the "Mississippi Bubble" in 1715–1720, too many assignats were put in circulation, exceeding the value of the "national properties", the coins, due to military requisitioning and hoarding, rarefied to pay foreign suppliers. With national government debt remaining unpaid, a shortage of silver and brass to mint coins, confidence in the new currency declined, leading to hyperinflation, more food riots, severe political instability and termination of the First French Republic and the political fall of the French Convention. Followed the economic failure of the Directoire
Louis Alexandre Chiron was a Monégasque racing driver who competed in rallies, sports car races, Grands Prix. He is the oldest driver to have raced in Formula One, having taken 6th place in the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix when he was 55. Louis Chiron gained interest in cars and racing, he started driving in Grand Prix races after World War I, in which he was seconded from an artillery regiment as a driver for Maréchal Pétain and Maréchal Foch. He won his first local race, the Grand Prix de Comminges of 1926, at Saint-Gaudens, near Toulouse, went on to drive a Bugatti and an Alfa Romeo P3 to victories in the Marseille Grand Prix, the Circuit of Masaryk, the Spanish Grand Prix. In the Indianapolis 500 of 1929, he drove a Delage to 7th place, he won the 1931 Monaco Grand Prix—the only Monégasque driver to have won his home grand prix—and in 1933 he partnered with specialist endurance racer Luigi Chinetti to win the Spa 24 hours race. Chiron retired in 1938, World War II curtailed motor racing a year later.
When racing resumed after the War, he came out of retirement and drove a Talbot-Lago to victory in two French Grands Prix. According to a Los Angeles Times review of fellow driver Hellé Nice's biography, Chiron accused her, at a 1949 party in Monaco to celebrate the first postwar Monte Carlo Rally, of "collaborating with the Nazis"; the review says biographer Miranda Seymour is "circumspect on Nice's guilt". A review of the same book in The New York Times says Nice was accused of being a "Gestapo agent". Seymour's book says that in a letter to Antony Noghes, the head of the Monte Carlo Rally committee, Hellé Nice "protested her innocence". Paired with the Swiss driver Ciro Basadonna, Chiron won the 1954 Monte Carlo Rally, achieved podium finishes in the fifteen Formula One races he entered that year, his last race was in 1955, when he took a Lancia D50 to sixth place in the Monaco Grand Prix a few weeks before his 56th birthday, becoming the oldest driver to compete in a Formula One race. He is the oldest driver to have entered for a Formula One race, taking part in practice for the 1958 Monaco Grand Prix when he was 58.
Belgian Grand Prix – 1930 Czechoslovakian Grand Prix – 1931, 1932, 1933 French Grand Prix – 1931, 1934, 1937, 1947, 1949 German Grand Prix – 1929 Italian Grand Prix – 1928 Spanish Grand Prix – 1928, 1929, 1933 Monaco Grand Prix – 1931 Moroccan Grand Prix– 1934 Grand Prix du Comminges – 1947 Grand Prix de Marseilles – 1933 Grand Prix de Nice – 1932 Spa 24 hours – 1933 Rome Grand Prix – 1928 Marne Grand Prix – 1928 Monte Carlo Rally – 1954 Chiron retired after 35 years in racing but maintained an executive role with the organizers of the Monaco Grand Prix, who honored him with a statue on the Grand Prix course and renamed the Swimming Pool corner after him. As he had achieved the greatest number of podium finishes in Bugattis, the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car and the 2016 Bugatti Chiron are named in his honor. Louis Chiron was so popular in Czechoslovakia, whose Grand Prix he won three consecutive times, that after 75 years his name still lives in a popular saying "He drives likes Chiron", used when referring to speeding motorists or to people who drive quickly.
Grand Prix History, Louis Chiron Louis Chiron at The Crittenden Automotive Library Louis Chiron at Le Mans Louis Chiron at Find a Grave
Antony Noghès was the founder of the Monaco Grand Prix. He helped create the Rallye Monte-Carlo in 1911, he suggested the international adoption of the checkered flag to end races. Since 1979, the last turn of the Monaco circuit just before the finish line, has been named "Virage Antony Noghès" after him; as "Agent general de la Regie des tabacs" he was the Director of the Public administration responsible for the management of the monopoly of procurement and selling of tobacco in the Principality. He was the father of Alexandre-Athenase Noghès, himself father of Lionel Noghès, Elisabeth-Anne, Christian Louis, Christine Alix de Massy and the father of Bathilde Livieratos, mother of Marie Livieratos, Hélène Tchomlekdjoglou and Athanase Livieratos, his other son, was Monaco's first ambassador to the United States, father of journalist Yann-Antony Noghès. 1929 Monaco Grand Prix History of Automobile Club de Monaco
Marcel Lehoux was a French racing driver and businessman. Lehoux was born in Vendée in France, his racing career was built on the back of his successful trading company that operated in French Algeria. He placed second at the Grand Prix de la Marne at Reims in 1929, behind Zenelli and ahead of his friend, Philippe Étancelin, making a Bugatti sweep of the podium. At the 1930 Algerian Grand Prix, he followed Étancelin home to second. In 1931, he shared a Bugatti with Étancelin for both the Italian and French Grands Prix, events of 10 hours duration, run to Formula Libre rules, he would race for Bugatti and Scuderia Ferrari racing teams. Lehoux died after a collision in the 1936 Deauville Grand Prix. "Grand Prix Winners 1895-1949". Retrieved 2009-02-04. "The Golden Era of Grand Prix Racing". Retrieved 2009-02-04. Review of the 1936 Deauville Grand Prix, with images and film Review of the 1936 Deauville Grand Prix with sources and images
Otto Wilhelm Rudolf Caracciola was a racing driver from Remagen, Germany. He won the European Drivers' Championship, the pre-1950 equivalent of the modern Formula One World Championship, an unsurpassed three times, he won the European Hillclimbing Championship three times – twice in sports cars, once in Grand Prix cars. Caracciola raced for Mercedes-Benz during their original dominating Silver Arrows period, named after the silver colour of the cars, set speed records for the firm, he was affectionately dubbed Caratsch by the German public, was known by the title of Regenmeister, or "Rainmaster", for his prowess in wet conditions. Caracciola began racing while he was working as apprentice at the Fafnir automobile factory in Aachen during the early 1920s, first on motorcycles and in cars. Racing for Mercedes-Benz, he won his first two Hillclimbing Championships in 1930 and 1931, moved to Alfa Romeo for 1932, where he won the Hillclimbing Championship for the third time. In 1933, he established the privateer team Scuderia C.
C. with his fellow driver Louis Chiron, but a crash in practice for the Monaco Grand Prix left him with multiple fractures of his right thigh, which ruled him out of racing for more than a year. He returned to the newly reformed Mercedes-Benz racing team in 1934, with whom he won three European Championships, in 1935, 1937 and 1938. Like most German racing drivers in the 1930s, Caracciola was a member of the Nazi paramilitary group National Socialist Motor Corps, but never a member of the Nazi Party, he returned to racing after the Second World War, but crashed in qualifying for the 1946 Indianapolis 500. A second comeback in 1952 was halted in a sports car race in Switzerland. After he retired, Caracciola worked as a Mercedes-Benz salesman targeting North Atlantic Treaty Organization troops stationed in Europe, he died after suffering liver failure. He was buried in Switzerland, he is remembered as one of the greatest pre-1939 Grand Prix drivers, a perfectionist who excelled in all conditions.
His record of six German Grand Prix wins remains unbeaten. Rudolf Caracciola was born in Remagen, Germany, on 30 January 1901, he was the fourth child of Mathilde, who ran the Hotel Fürstenberg. His ancestors had migrated during the Thirty Years' War from Naples to the German Rhineland, where Prince Bartolomeo Caracciolo had commanded the Ehrenbreitstein Fortress near Koblenz. Caracciola was interested in cars from a young age, from his fourteenth birthday wanted to become a racing driver, he drove an early Mercedes during the First World War, gained his driver's license before the legal age of 18. After Caracciola's graduation from school soon after the war, his father wanted him to attend university, but when he died Caracciola instead became an apprentice in the Fafnir automobile factory in Aachen. Motorsport in Germany at the time, as in the rest of Europe, was an exclusive sport limited to the upper classes; as the sport became more professional in the early 1920s, specialist drivers, like Caracciola, began to dominate.
Caracciola enjoyed his first success in motorsport while working for Fafnir, taking his NSU motorcycle to several victories in endurance events. When Fafnir decided to take part in the first race at the Automobil-Verkehrs- und Übungs-Straße track in 1922, Caracciola drove one of the works cars to fourth overall, the first in his class and the quickest Fafnir, he followed this with victory in a race at the Opelbahn in Rüsselsheim. He did not stay long in Aachen, however, he moved to Dresden. In April of that year, Caracciola won the 1923 ADAC race at the Berlin Stadium in a borrowed Ego 4 hp. In his autobiography, Caracciola said he only sold one car for Fafnir, but due to inflation by "the time the car was delivered the money was just enough to pay for the horn and two headlights". In 1923, he was hired by the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft as a car salesman at their Dresden outlet. Caracciola continued racing, driving a Mercedes 6/25/40 hp to victory in four of the eight races he entered in 1923.
His success continued in 1924 with the new supercharged Mercedes 1.5-litre. He attended the Italian Grand Prix at Monza as a reserve driver for Mercedes, but did not take part in the race, he drove his 1.5-litre to five victories in 1925, won the hillclimbs at Kniebis and Freiburg in a Mercedes 24/100/140 hp. With his racing career becoming successful, he abandoned his plans to study mechanical engineering. Caracciola's breakthrough year was in 1926; the inaugural German Grand Prix was held at the AVUS track on 11 July, but the date clashed with a more prestigious race in Spain. The newly merged company Mercedes-Benz, conscious of export considerations, chose the latter race to run their main team. Hearing this, Caracciola took a short leave from his job and went to the Mercedes office in Stuttgart to ask for a car. Mercedes agreed to lend Caracciola and Adolf Rosenberger two 1923 2-litre M218s, provided they enter not as works drivers but independents. Rosenberger started well in front of the 230,000 spectators.
His riding mechanic, Eugen Salzer, jumped out and pushed the car to get it started, but by the time they began moving they had lost more than a minute to the leaders. It started to rain, Caracciola passed many cars that had retired in the poor conditions. Rosenberger lost control at the North
Monaco the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides. Monaco has an area of 2.020 km2, making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican. Its population was about 38,400 based on the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, 161 metres above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state.
Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297; the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris. Since Monaco's mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax, low business taxes, is well known for being a tax haven. It is the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One; the principality has a club football team. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004, it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" "alone, single" + "οἶκος" "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods; as a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos.
Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before gaining control. Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy the Third Reich, before being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.
Since Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union. Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia", his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was known by this name. Francesco, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century; the Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica; the Crown of Aragon became a part of Spain through marriage and other parts drifted into various pieces of other