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1932 Ford

Ford produced three cars between 1932 and 1934: the Model B, the Model 18, the Model 46. These succeeded the Model A; the Model B had an updated four cylinder and was available from 1932 to 1934. The V8 was available in the Model 18 in 1932, in the Model 46 in 1933 & 1934; the 18 was the first Ford fitted with the flathead V‑8. The company replaced the Model AA truck with the Model BB, available with either the four- or eight-cylinder engine. Rather than just updating the Model A, Ford launched a new vehicle for 1932; the V8 was marketed as the Model 18 in its initial year, but was known as the Ford V‑8. It had the new flathead V8 engine; the Model 18 was the first low-priced, mass-marketed car to have a V8 engine, an important milestone in the American automotive industry. The 221 cu in V8 was rated at 65 hp, but power increased with improvements to the carburetor and ignition in succeeding years; the V8 was more popular than the four-cylinder, a variant of the Model A engine with improvements to balancing and lubrication.

Model B was derived with as few technical changes as possible to keep cost low. Other than the engine, badging on headlamp support bar and hub caps, it was indistinguishable from the V-8, its intention was to be a price leader, as it offered more than the popular Model A, this should have been a winning formula. In fact, the new and only more expensive V-8 stole the show, made it obsolete; the V8 engine was exclusive to Lincoln products, which in 1932 switched to V12 engines only. Although there is a certain visual similarity with the predecessor Model A, the car was new. While the Model A has a simple frame with two straight longitudinal members, the new car got a longer wheelbase, an outward curved, double-dropped chassis. In both models the fuel tank is relocated from the cowl as in Model A and late Model T, where its back formed the dash, to the lower rear of the car, as is typical in modern vehicles. While the V8 was developed from scratch, the B just had an improved four-cylinder Model A engine of 201 cu in displacement producing 50 horsepower.

When Ford introduced the Model A in late 1927, there were several competitors offering four-cylinder cars, among them Chevrolet, Durant, or Willys. That changed within a few years, soon leaving the new Plymouth the sole major make in the Ford's price class with a four. Although sharing a common platform, Model Bs and Model 18s came not only in Standard and Deluxe trim, they were available in a large variety of body styles; some of them, such as the commercial cars described below, were only available as Standards, a few other came only in Deluxe trim. There were two-door roadster, two-door cabriolet, four-door phaeton and four-door sedans, four-door "woodie" station wagon, two-door convertible sedan and sedan deliveries, five-window coupe, a sport coupe, the three-window Deluxe Coupe, pickup; the wooden panels were manufactured at the Ford Iron Mountain Plant in the Michigan Upper Peninsula from Ford owned lumber. One of the more well known and popular models was the two-door Victoria, designed by Edsel Ford.

It was a smaller version of the Lincoln Victoria coupe, built on the Lincoln K-series chassis with a V8 engine. Prices ranged from US$495 for the roadster, $490 for the coupes, $650 for the convertible sedan. Production totals numbered from 12,597 for the roadster to 124,101 for the two-door sedan. Ford sold 298,647 V8-powered 18s in 1932, except for the fact Ford could not keep up with V8 demand, the identical four-cylinder B would have been a sales disaster: dealers switched customers to them from the V8, then sold only 133,539, in part because the V8 cost just US$10 more; the B was discontinued because buyers disliked four-cylinder models in general, because of the huge success of the V8, not for being an inferior car. In fact, it persisted a little longer in Europe, where in many countries the tax system favored smaller-displacement engines. Today, the 1932 Model B, although always a little bit in the shadow of the V8, is a collectible car and people will pay thousands of dollars to restore one to original specification, ironic, as they were once cheap "throwaway" cars popular with hot rodders who would tear them apart and use them as the basis for a "build", why it is so hard to find an unaltered specimen today.

All 1932 Fords—V8-8s and Model Bs—came with black fenders, wire wheels, a rear-mounted spare wheel. Options included single or twin sidemounts, luggage rack, clock and exterior mirrors, choice of leather or Broadcloth interior material. Paints were Pyroxylin lacquer; the B shared frame and most of the trim with the eight-cylinder car. The only technical difference was the use of the reworked Model A engine, thus the designation B. Most body styles were available as Standard or Deluxe variants with either engine offered as an option. Customers could get a Deluxe version of the 1932 Model B in three-window coupe, phaeton and Fordor as well. Standard trim meant black front window frame, black wire wheels, black horn, single tail light, painted dash, position lights integrated in the head lamps, less expensive interiors; when the Model 40 and the n

Ahsan Habib

Ahsan Habib was a Bangladeshi poet and literary figure in Bengali culture. He was born in Pirojpur. Before the India-Pakistan partition, he worked on several literary magazines: Takbir and The Saogat and he was a staff artiste at the Kolkata Centre of All India Radio. After partition he came to Dhaka and worked on Daily Azad, Monthly Mohammadi, Daily Krishak, Daily Ittehad, Weekly Prabaha, etc, he was born in Pirojpur district. His father's name is Hamijuddin Hawladar and his mother's name is Jomila Khatun, he had been writing poem since his school life. While reading in Brojomohun College, he shifted to Kolkata for livelihood, his first book of poetry was Ratri Shesh. Others include: Chhaya Horin Shara Dupur Ashay Boshoty Megh Bole Choitrey Jabo Duhate Dui Adim Pathar Josna Rater Golpo Brsti Pare Tapur Tupur Chutir Din Dupure Ranee Khaler Shako Aronno Neelima Zafrani Rong Payra Ahsan Habib received several awards for his literary achievements, including: UNESCO Literary Prize Bangla Academy Literary Award Adamjee Literary Award Nasiruddin Gold Medal Ekushey Padak Jatiya Padak Abul Mansur Ahmed Memorial Prize Abul Kalam Memorial Prize

Naum Theatre

The Naum Theatre, named after its owners Michel Naum and Joseph Naum of Syrian Catholic background, was a theatre and opera house on İstiklal Avenue in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey. It was opened in 1844 and remained active until the theatre building was damaged by the Fire of Pera in 1870; the ruined theatre building was purchased by Ottoman Greek banker Hristaki Zoğrafos Efendi, who built the present-day Çiçek Pasajı on its land plot in 1876. The Naum Theatre was built as the Bosco Theatre by Italian illusionist Bartolomeo Bosco, on a land plot on İstiklal Avenue owned by the Naum family, as a wooden Ottoman style building. After Bartolomeo Bosco left the city, the ownership of the building passed to Michel Naum and Joseph Naum; the first play to be performed in the theatre was the opera play Norma by Vincenzo Bellini. After this original wooden building suffered damage from fire, a new theatre building was constructed in 1849 and was opened with the name Théatre Italien Naum; the theatre was visited by Sultans Abdülaziz and Abdülhamid II, hosted Giuseppe Verdi's play Il Trovatore before the opera houses of Paris.

The majority of the opera plays that were performed at the Naum Theatre were composed by Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti and Gioachino Rossini. In a letter to his mother, Gustave Flaubert wrote that he watched a play by Donizetti at the Naum Theatre in Istanbul the day following his arrival to the city. Michel and Joseph Naum were the sole owners in Istanbul of the rights to display many European theatre and opera plays, brought many foreign troupes to Istanbul, they printed the first Ottoman Turkish translations of the opera plays in the form of booklets. Apart from the usual evening plays, they organized daytime plays for groups of viewers coming from the Asian side of the Bosphorus. After the Fire of Pera in 1870, the ruined theatre building was purchased by the local Greek banker Hristaki Zoğrafos Efendi, architect Kleanthis Zannos designed the current Çiçek Pasajı building, constructed in 1876 on the theatre's former land plot. Emre Aracı: "Naum Tiyatrosu - 19. Yüzyıl İstanbul’unun İtalyan Operası".

Yapı Kredi Yayınları, Istanbul, 2010. ISBN 978-975-08-1801-1 Vatan: "Paris’in Garnier’si neyse, İstanbul için de Naum Tiyatrosu oydu" by Buket Aşçı, 16 December 2010. Naum Tiyatrosu


Midsund is a former municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. It was part of the Romsdal region; the administrative centre was the village of Midsund on Otrøya island. Other settlements on the island included Uglvik and Raknes in the north and Nord-Heggdal in the southeast; the municipality consisted of many islands. The main islands were Otrøya, Midøya, Dryna, as well as the smaller populated islands of Magerøya and Tautra—both are less than 1 square kilometre. There were many tiny uninhabited islands and skerries; the islands all sit at the mouth of the great Romsdalsfjord. At the time if its dissolution in 2020, the 95-square-kilometre municipality is the 384th largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Midsund is the 323rd most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 2,049; the municipality's population density is 21.8 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 7.8% over the last decade. The municipality of Midsund was established on 1 January 1965 when the old municipality of Sør-Aukra was merged with part of Midøya island and the neighboring island of Dryna which were part of the old Vatne Municipality.

On 1 January 2020, the municipality of Midsund was merged into the neighboring Molde Municipality, along with the municipality of Nesset. Together, the new Molde Municipality is larger; the municipality is named after the strait that flows between the islands of Otrøya and Midøya, the Midsundet. The first element of the name Miðja means "middle" and the second element sund means "strait" or "sound"; the coat of arms was granted on 15 May 1987. The arms show two silver triangles on a blue background, representing Otrøya and Midøya islands in the ocean; these two main islands in the municipality are separated by the Midsund. The geographical situation is symbolised in the arms; the Church of Norway had one parish within the municipality of Midsund. It is part of the Molde domprosti in the Diocese of Møre; the islands of Midsund Municipality are separated from the mainland by the 2-kilometre wide Julsundet strait to the east and the 3-kilometre wide Midfjorden to the south. To the north are many smaller islands including Gossa and Harøya, Sandøya, Orta.

To the west lie the islands of Fjørtofta, Skuløya, Haramsøya. The three largest islands of the community lie in a line from ENE to WSW; the island of Magerøya lies between Midøya and Otrøya and a bridge connects it to the latter. Tautra lies in southeast of Otrøya. Otrøya is the main island of the community; the southern coasts of Otrøya, Midøya, Dryna rise from the fjord as sheer 800-metre tall cliffs. At Oppstad, the cliff is feared to collapse. On the southern coast of Otrøya the following small villages can be found: Solholmen, Nord-Heggdal, Oppstad, Sør-Heggdal, Klauset; the north has the following villages: Ræstad, Rakvåg, Tangen and Uglvik. On the western side of Otrøya, facing the bay that separates it from Midøya, lies the village of Midsund, the largest settlement in the community; the Midsund Bridge connects it with Midøya. Dryna and Midøya are connected with a bridge. Ferries run between the mainland. There is a ferry from Solholmen across the Julsundet to Molde Municipality and from the island of Dryna to the village of Brattvåg.

The larger three islands' interior is wilderness, but the rims are used for keeping cattle and small farming. All municipalities in Norway, including Midsund, are responsible for primary education, outpatient health services, senior citizen services and other social services, economic development, municipal roads; the municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The municipality falls under the Frostating Court of Appeal; the municipal council of Midsund is made up of 17 representatives that are elected to four year terms. The party breakdown for the final municipal council was as follows: The community has 1,939 inhabitants, with 50.3% male. The percentage of people older than 67 is 18.3%. Unemployment is 2.3%. Population growth is stable. Most inhabitants are small farmers; the newspaper Øyavis was published in Midsund from 1983 to 2016. List of former municipalities of Norway Municipal fact sheet from Statistics Norway

Charlie Chaplin (singer)

Richard Patrick Bennett OD, better known by the stage name Charlie Chaplin, is a Jamaican dancehall and ragga deejay and singer. It was common for Jamaican deejays of the era to name themselves after film characters. Bennett, had been nicknamed after the comedian since his youth, his career began in 1980. He became popular throughout Jamaica, memorable for his focus on cultural and social themes instead of the "slack" lyrics that were popular at the time, his popularity as a live performer prompted Roy Cousins to produce some recording sessions with the young DJ. Chaplin's debut album was the Cousins-produced Presenting Charlie Chaplin in 1982, with several albums following for the producer over the next three years; the contrast between Chaplin's "culture" lyrics and the other major deejays of the day led to the 1984 "clash" album with Yellowman Slackness Vs Pure Culture. Que Dem, was produced by George Phang and he continued recording, working with Bunny Roots, Josey Wales, Sly & Robbie, Henry "Junjo" Lawes, Roots Radics and Doctor Dread.

In 2013, Bennett was awarded the Order of Distinction by the Jamaican government. Bennett started his own Crown Production label. An album, Armageddon, is set for release in Summer 2016. Presenting Charlie Chaplin, Kingdom Red Pond, Tamoki Wambesi Chaplin Chant, Tamoki Wambesi One of a Kind, Trojan Fire Burn Them Below, Power House Roots & Culture, Vista Sounds Sound System, Arrival Que Dem, Sonic Sounds Quenchie, Tamoki Wambesi Yellowman Meets Charlie Chaplin, Power House - with Yellowman Live at Maypen Clarendon, Tamoki Wambesi Two Sides of Charlie Chaplin, RAS Take 2, RAS Cry Blood, RAS Old and New Testament, RAS Kings of the Dancehall, VP - with Josey Wales Too Hot to Handle, RAS The Negril Chill, Shellshock - with Yellowman Gwaan U Ways, P. O. T. Free Africa, Sonic SoundsCompilations 20 Super Hits, Sonic Sounds Dance Hall Rockers, Sunset Dance Hall Rockers vol. 2, Harry J Ras Portraits, RAS Face to Face, Cactus Respect Due, Creole DJ Roll Call, RAS Kings of Reggae, Nocturne Bradley, Lloyd.

This is Reggae. New York: Grove Press. Chang, Kevin O'Brien and Wayne Chen. Reggae Routes. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Weber and Brian Jahn. Reggae Island: Jamaican Music in the Digital Age. New York: Da Capo Press. Discography at Roots Archives

CU Scarborough

CU Scarborough is a Higher Education institute owned and governed by Coventry University. CU Scarborough launched in 2015 and operates in the North East coastal town, Scarborough; the first cohort of students studied classes in Scarborough Spa, before moving into a £14 million purpose-built campus in Scarborough. Facilities include a mock law court. CU Scarborough is part of the Scarborough £50 million education and sport campus, with the neighbouring Sports Village operated by Everyone Active, offering an Olympic Legacy swimming pool, a four-court sports hall, a multi-activity room, 60-station fitness suite and a community football stadium home to Scarborough Athletic Football Club. CU Scarborough offers a diverse range of subjects. Students can study degree programmes, Foundation Years, Access to Higher Education courses or Degree Apprenticeships. Degree subjects include: Adult Nursing Business Management & Leadership Computing Science Counselling: Integrative Theory & Practice Cyber Security Early Childhood Development & Learning Electro-Mechanical Engineering Health & Social Care Law & Practice Policing Primary Education & Teaching Studies Public Health & Community StudiesFoundation Year subjects include: Business Engineering Health & Social CareAccess to Higher Education courses are available in a range of courses, allowing people to re-enter education after time away, without traditional qualifications.

Health & Human Sciences Social Sciences In 2018, students at CU Scarborough celebrated their first graduation ceremony at an event held in the Grand Hall, at Scarborough Spa. Sir Alan Ayckbourn, CBE, received an Honorary Doctor of Letters in recognition of his impact on theatre in Scarborough and his contributions to the creative industries