The 1934 FIFA World Cup was the second FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Italy from 27 May to 10 June 1934; the 1934 World Cup was the first. Thirty-two nations entered the competition, after qualification, 16 teams participated in the finals tournament. Reigning champions Uruguay refused to participate due to the fact that just four European teams had accepted their invitation to the 1930 tournament. Italy became the second World Cup champions and the first European team to win, beating Czechoslovakia 2–1 in the final. Like the Berlin Olympics two years the 1934 World Cup was a high-profile instance of a sporting event being used for overt political gain. Benito Mussolini was keen to use the tournament as a means of promoting fascism; the Federale 102, manufactured in Italy, was the match ball provided for the 1934 World Cup. After a lengthy decision-making process in which FIFA's executive committee met eight times, Italy was chosen as the host nation at a meeting in Stockholm on 9 October 1932.
The decision was taken by the executive committee without a ballot of members. The Italian bid was chosen in preference to one from Sweden. 36 countries applied to enter the tournament, so qualifying matches were required to thin the field to 16. So, there were several notable absentees. Reigning World Cup holders Uruguay declined to participate, in protest at the refusal of several European countries to travel to South America for the previous World Cup, which Uruguay had hosted in 1930; as a result, the 1934 World Cup is the only one. The British Home Nations, in a period of self-imposed exile from FIFA refused to participate though FIFA had offered England and Scotland direct entry to the tournament without qualification. Football Association committee member Charles Sutcliffe called the tournament "a joke" and claimed that "the national associations of England, Scotland and Ireland have quite enough to do in their own International Championship which seems to me a far better World Championship than the one to be staged in Rome".
Despite their role as hosts, Italy were still required to qualify, the first and only time the host nation needed to do so. The qualifying matches. Withdrawals by Chile and Peru meant Brazil qualified without playing a single match. Twelve of the 16 places were allocated to Europe, three to the Americas, one to Africa or Asia. Only 10 of the 32 entrants, four of the 16 qualified teams, were from outside Europe; the last place in the finals was contested between the United States and Mexico only three days before the start of the tournament in a one-off match in Rome, which the United States won. The following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament. 10 of these teams made their first World Cup appearance. This included 9 of the 12 European teams as well as Egypt. Egypt was the first team from Africa in the finals and would not qualify again until the next time the competition was held in Italy, in 1990; the number of supporters travelling from other countries was higher than at any previous football tournament, including 7,000 from the Netherlands and 10,000 each from Austria and Switzerland.
The group stage used in the first World Cup was discarded in favour of a straight knockout tournament. If a match was tied after ninety minutes thirty minutes of extra time were played. If the score was still tied after extra time, the match was replayed the next day; the eight seeded teams – Argentina, Germany, the Netherlands, Austria and Hungary – were kept apart in the first round. All eight first-round matches kicked off at the same time. Hosts and favourites Italy won handsomely, defeating the USA 7–1. Internal disputes meant Argentina's squad for the tournament did not contain a single member of the team which had reached the final in 1930. Against Sweden in Bologna, Argentina twice took the lead, but two goals by Sven Jonasson and a winner by Knut Kroon gave Sweden a 3–2 victory. Fellow South Americans Brazil suffered an early exit. Spain beat them comfortably. For the only time in World Cup history, the last eight consisted of European teams – Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain and Switzerland.
All four non-European teams who made the journey to Italy were eliminated after one match. In the quarter-finals, the first replayed match in World Cup history took place, when Italy and Spain drew 1–1 after extra time; the match was played in a aggressive manner with several players of both sides injured: rough play injured the Spanish goalkeeper Ricardo Zamora in the first match, leaving him unable to participate in the replay, while on the other side rough play by Spaniards broke the leg of the Italian Mario Pizziolo who would not play in the national team again. Italy won the replay 1–0. Italy went on to beat Austria in the semi-finals by the same score. Meanwhile, Czechoslovakia secured their place in the final by beating Germany 3–1; the Stadium of the National Fascist Party was the venue for the final. With 80 minutes played, the Czechoslovaks led 1–0; the Italia
78 Saab were a rock band from Australia that consisted of Ben Nash, Jake Andrews, Garth Tregillgas and Nicholai Danko. The band has stated that it was influenced by acts such as the Rolling Stones, R. E. M. and The Church. After forming in Canberra, during the summer of 1995-6, they relocated to Sydney in February 1997. 78 Saab formed at the Australian National University, with the original members being Nash, Darren Smith and Christovac Thompson. For the purpose of attaining live performance experience, they entered the Australian National Campus Band Competition in 1996, with the band name chosen spontaneously in order to complete the entry form. In a 2007 interview, Nash explained the inspiration for the "last minute" title: "I used to own a 1978 Saab which I bought off my grandparents for around a thousand bucks when I was at university. Anyway, we entered a band competition and we had about three hours to come up with a name. "78 Saab" got thrown in the ring and for better or worse we've stuck with that name."
At the time, the major sponsor of the competition was Troy Horse, a Sydney-based rehearsal studio that operated a record label. The competition's first prize included an EP to be recorded and released by Troy Horse and a tour of Australian university campuses. 78 Saab won the competition and as a result recorded their debut EP, Eastwards By Removal at Troy Horse's studio in Alexandria, Sydney. After its release in 1997, the band prepared for a run of 35 dates to promote the EP. Before the tour began however, Darren Smith made the decision not to continue with the band and Jake Andrews joined 78 Saab as lead guitarist. Soon after the end of the tour Christovac Thompson left 78 Saab and Nicholai Danko replaced him on drums. 78 Saab were among the first bands to work with Winterman & Goldstein, a management company that started their own label, Ivy League Records. Though the label was created to release recordings by the company's founders, 78 Saab were the first band to give them notoriety in a purely management role - a foundation on which Winterman & Goldstein would achieve international success with The Vines and Jet.
Among the first releases on Ivy League were 78 Saab's "Whatever Makes You Happy" single and their second EP, Hello Believers. A re-pressing of the EP featured all seven songs from both recordings. Hello Believers featured Robert F. Cranny on keyboards, who went on to work with Sydney artist Sarah Blasko. Though not a full-length release, Hello Believers was listed at No. 93 in the Oz Music Project's Top 100 Australian Albums of the 90s. In 1999, 78 Saab began working on their debut album with producer Tim Whitten at Sydney's Megaphon Studios, recording the song "Sunshine" as the first single; the remainder of the album was recorded with Greg Wales at Hothouse Studios in Victoria. Picture a Hum, Can't Hear a Sound, was released in 2000 on Ivy League Records, received significant airplay on radio station Triple J, with "Sunshine", "Karma Package Deal", "Smile" and "Jack Frost" all achieving high rotation. Tregillgas was credited as G. Surls on the album and Cranny again featured on keyboards, though these would be his last recordings with the band.
78 Saab's second album, Crossed Lines, was released in October 2004 with Tim Whitten again behind the desk at Megaphon. The album featured more of their signature alternative rock songs, alongside more adventurous arrangements. Singles from the album included "Beat of Your Drum" and "No Illusions", the latter of which gave the band their biggest taste of commercial radio play to date. During this period, 78 Saab's live keyboard player was Luke "Stoltz" Shepherd. 78 Saab's third album, The Bells Line, recorded this time by Wayne Connolly, was released by Ivy league Records on 29 September 2007. The album's title and chief inspiration was described by Nash as coming from the long drives between his Sydney home and his family farm near Orange, New South Wales. Bells Line of Road is the name of the original, pre-freeway route that runs from the outer suburbs of Sydney over the Blue Mountains. "One of These Days" and "Drive" from the album again provided the band with national radio exposure. 78 Saab released their fourth album, Good Fortune, on 15 October 2010, again recorded by Tim Whitten.
A film clip for the song "Warm Jets" was released and the band toured Australia in early 2011 with Kirsten Morley on keyboards. For the first time the album was available on vinyl as well as CD and MP3. In late 2012 18 years after their formation, 78 Saab made the decision to disband; the band performed their final Sydney gig at their spiritual home, the Annandale Hotel, in December of that year. Although this was intended as their swan song, they resurfaced to play in Canberra on 11 March 2013 as part of the capital's 100th anniversary celebrations. 78 Saab said they were proud to share the stage with other bands that had their origins in Canberra such as the Falling Joys and The Church. Nash has collaborated with Adalita Srsen from Magic Dirt and performed live with her during the "Tough Love" tour, which featured 78 Saab supporting Magic Dirt. Danko has performed live For Fuck's Sakes and The Cops, he has recorded with Josh Pyke and Sarah Blasko, with whom he played live in 2003. Tregillgas played bass on three songs with Sydney band Wifey on their Salt Sugar Fat EP released in 2009.
78 Saab's live keyboard player from the Good Fortune era, Kirsten Morley, was a full-time member of the band. Picture a Hum, Can't Hear a Sound Crossed Lines The Bells Line Good Fortune Band profile at
William Alexander "Chauncey" Stuart was a Major League Baseball middle infielder. He played in 1895 and 1899, with the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1895 and the New York Giants in 1899. Stuart was born on August 1873, in Boalsburg, Pennsylvania, he threw and batted right-handed, he was 5'11", 170 pounds and he attended Penn State University where he was a half back for the varsity football team. Stuart died on October 1928, in Fort Worth, Texas, his body was laid to rest in Branch Cemetery in Pennsylvania. Stuart made his big league debut on August 15, 1895, with the Pittsburgh Pirates at the age of 21, playing 19 games that year and hitting.247 with 0 home runs and 10 RBI. He returned to the Major Leagues in 1899 to play for the New York Giants and collected zero hits in three at-bats. Stuart's overall career fielding percentage was unremarkable, at.912. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference