General Confederation of Labour (Argentina)
The General Confederation of Labor of the Argentine Republic is a national trade union federation in Argentina founded on September 27, 1930, as the result of the merger of the USA and the COA trade unions. Nearly one out of five employed - and two out of three unionized workers in Argentina - belong to the CGT, one of the largest labor federations in the world; the CGT was founded on September 27, 1930, the result of an agreement between the Socialist Confederación Obrera Argentina and the Revolutionary Syndicalist Unión Sindical Argentina, which had succeeded to the FORA IX. The COA, which included the two unions covering rail transport in Argentina, was the larger of the two with 100,000 members. During the Infamous Decade of the 1930s and subsequent industrial development, the CGT began to form itself as a strong union, competing with the anarchist FORA V. Centered around the railroad industry, the CGT was headed in the 1930s by Luis Cerruti and José Domenech; the CGT became the Argentine affiliate of the International Federation of Trade Unions.
The CGT split in 1935 over a conflict between Socialists and Revolutionary Syndicalists, leading to the creation of the CGT-Independencia and the CGT-Catamarca. The latter reestablished the Unión Sindical Argentina in 1937; the CGT again split in 1942, creating the CGT n°1, headed by the Socialist railroader José Domenech and opposed to Communism. After the coup d'état of 1943, its leaders embraced the pro-working class policies of the Labour Minister, Col. Juan Perón; the CGT was again unified, due to the incorporation of many unionists who were members of the CGT n°2, dissolved in 1943 by the military government. When Perón was separated from the government and confined on Martín García Island, the CGT called for a major popular demonstration at the Plaza de Mayo, on October 17, 1945, succeeding in releasing Perón from prison and in the call for elections. Founding on the same day the Labour Party, the CGT was one of the main support of Perón during the February 1946 elections; the Labor Party merged into the Peronist Party in 1947, the CGT became one of the strongest arms of the Peronist Movement, as well as the only trade union recognized by Perón's government.
Two CGT delegates, the Socialist Ángel Borlenghi and Juan Atilio Bramuglia were nominated Minister of Interior and Minister of Foreign Affairs, respectively. Colonel Domingo Mercante, the military officer with the closest ties to labor, was elected Governor of Buenos Aires; the number of unionized workers grew markedly during the Perón years, from 520,000 to over 2.5 million. His administration enacted or extended numerous landmark social reforms supported by the CGT, including: minimum wages. After the Revolución Libertadora military coup in 1955, which ousted Perón and outlawed Peronism, the CGT was banned from politics and its leadership replaced with government appointees. In response, the CGT began a destabilization campaign to end Perón's proscription and to obtain his return from exile. Amid ongoing strikes over both declining real wages and political repression, AOT textile workers' leader Andrés Framini and President Arturo Frondizi negotiated an end to six years of forced government receivership over the CGT in 1961.
This concession, as well as the lifting of the Peronists' electoral ban in 1962, led to Frondizi's overthrow, however. During the 1960s, the leaders of the CGT attempted to create a "Peronism without Perón" - that is, a form of Peronism that retained the populist ideals set forth by Juan Perón, but rejected the personality cult that had developed around him in the 1940s and 1950s; the chief exponents of this strategy were the Unión Popular, founded by former Foreign Minister Juan Atilio Bramuglia, UOM steelworkers' leader Augusto Vandor, who endorsed the CGT's active participation in elections against Perón's wishes and became the key figure in this latter movement. Vandor and Perón both supported President Arturo Illia's overthrow in 1966, but failed to reach an agreement with dictator Juan Carlos Onganía afterward. While membership in CGT unions remained well below their peak before Perón's 1955 overthrow, they enjoyed unprecedented resources during the 1960s; the CGT diversified their assets through investment
1860 Argentine presidential election
The Argentine presidential election of 1860 was held on 6 February to choose the second president of the Argentine Confederation. Santiago Derqui was elected president; the Buenos Aires Province seceded from the Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires on 11 September 1852 and did not participate in elections until 1862. Cámara de Senadores - Actas de las Sesiones del Paraná Correspondientes al Año de 1860. Buenos Aires: Imprenta de la Nación. 1887. Pp. 8–11. Barreto Constantín, Ana María. Vida de un Caudillo. Buenos Aires: Editorial Dunken. P. 54. ISBN 978-9870276968. Lorenzo, Celso Ramón. Manual de Historia Constitucional Argentina, Volumen 3. Rosario: Editorial Juris. Pp. 4–5. ISBN 950-817-111-1. "Sucedió un 6 de febrero". Facebook Archivo General de la Provincia de Entre Ríos. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2017. "Historia Electoral Argentina, p. 58". Www.mininterior.gov.ar. Ministry of the Interior. December 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2017
Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous Argentinian province. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be part of the province and the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since in spite of bearing the same name, the province does not include the national capital city proper, though it does include all other localities of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area surrounding it; the current capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882. The province is the only within the whole Argentina to be divided into partidos and furtherly into localidades, borders the provinces of Entre Ríos to the northeast. Uruguay is just near the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the entire province is part of the Pampas geographical region. The province has a population of 39 % of Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater Buenos Aires; the area of the province, 307,571 km2, makes it the largest in Argentina with around 11% of the country's total area.
The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and the Querandíes. Their culture was lost over the next 350 years, they were subjected to Eurasian plagues from. The survivors joined other tribes or have been absorbed by Argentina's European ethnic majority. Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile; the city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires. Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region.
Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite frequent malones; the end to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert in which the aboriginals were completely exterminated. After the independence from Spain in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, over the Port of Buenos Aires fueled periodic hostilities; the province was declared independent on September 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires.
Concessions gained in the 1859 Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, administratively separated from the province. La Plata was founded in 1882 by Governor Dardo Rocha for the purpose of becoming the provincial capital; the equivalent of a billion dollars of British investment and pro-development and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914; this era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices and led to a halt in the flow of investment funds between nations.
The new Concordance and Perón governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, schools and massive regional hospitals. The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires; these suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Governor Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more, more orderly, development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people, it did not address worsening pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made itself evident since aroun
1951 Argentine general election
The Argentine general election of 1951, the first to have enfranchised women at the national level, was held on 11 November. Voters chose both the President of Argentina and their legislators and with a turnout of 88.0%, it produced the following results: Note: The 1949 Constitution abolished the Electoral College. President Juan Perón had become President for the first time in June 1946, his popularity was riding high following five years of social reforms and a vigorous public works program, faced intensifying opposition during 1951. His decision to expropriate the conservative La Prensa, though lauded by the CGT labor union, damaged his standing elsewhere at home and his reputation in the World, as did the climate of political liberties: the opposition UCR's nominee, Congressman Ricardo Balbín, had spent much of the previous year as a political prisoner, to name one of many such examples. Economically, the year was an improvement over the 1949-50 recession and saw the completion of a number of landmark public works and the inaugural of Channel 13, the first regular broadcast station in Latin America.
The UCR and other parties in opposition and deprived of access to the media, boycotted a number of Congressional races and all Senate races, as well. The vice president, Hortensio Quijano, had requested leave from the campaign due to failing health and, on August 22, the CGT organized a rally on Buenos Aires' massive Ninth of July Avenue in support of the influential first lady Eva Perón as her husband's running mate, though unbeknownst to the crowd, the popular Evita was, like Quijano and thus refused the acclamation. Quijano reluctantly stayed on; these ill-considered attacks, the Peróns' popularity and their control of much of the media combined to give the Peronist Party a landslide in this, the first Argentine national election in which the vote was extended to women. Todo Argentina Peronist Party: President Juan Perón of Buenos Aires Province Radical Civic Union: Congressman Ricardo Balbín of Buenos Aires Province
Edelmiro Julián Farrell
Edelmiro Julián Farrell Plaul was an Argentine general. He was the de facto president of Argentina between 1944 and 1946. Farrell had a great influence on Argentine history by introducing his subordinate Juan Perón into government and paving the way for Perón's subsequent political career, he was born in 1887 in Villa de los Industriales. He was the tenth son of Juan C. Farrell and Catalina Plaul and the grandson of Matthew Farrell of County Longford, Ireland and Mónica Ibáñez. Farrell graduated from Argentine military school in 1907 as an infantry sub-lieutenant, he served in an Italian alpine regiment in Fascist Italy between 1924 and 1926. He returned to Argentina. After the 1943 coup, Farrell was promoted to Brigadier General and became vice-president during the military government of General Pedro Pablo Ramírez, who had deposed President Arturo Rawson, he was Minister of War. Farrell appointed Juan Perón as his secretary. Ramírez named Farrell as president on February 25, 1944. Farrell appointed Perón as vice-president.
After popular demonstrations in favour of Perón in 1945 made Perón the most influential and important man in the government, Farrell announced presidential elections for 1946, Perón was elected. On June 4, 1946, Farrell was succeeded as president by Perón. Farrell had been his commander. Despite having been brought to power through a coup d'état, Peronist historiography never calls him a dictator, he married on July 1921, to Conrada Victoria Torni, a teacher. They had three children: Nelly Victoria, Jorge Edelmiro, Susana Mabel. A widower, he died in 1980. Farrell, in the movie Evita, is portrayed by British actor Denis Lill. Mendelevich, Pablo. El Final. Buenos Aires: Ediciones B. ISBN 978-987-627-166-0. Short Biography
1886 Argentine presidential election
The Argentine presidential election of 1886 was held on 11 April to choose the president of Argentina. Miguel Juárez Celman was elected president. Confident of his authority following six years of peace and prosperity, President Roca was by known for his shrewdness as "the fox." Enjoying the support of the agricultural elites - as well as of the London financial powerhouse, Barings Bank - Roca daringly fielded his son-in-law, Córdoba Province Governor Miguel Juárez Celman, as the PAN candidate for president. A number of distinguished candidates appeared, including Buenos Aires Governor Dardo Rocha and Foreign Minister Bernardo de Irigoyen. Roca tolerated no opposition against his dauphin, selected nearly unanimously on 11 April 1886. Cámara de Senadores - Sesiones de 1886. Buenos Aires: Cámara de Diputados. 1932. Pp. 267–270. Duhalde, Eduardo Luis. Acción Parlamentaria de John William Cooke. Buenos Aires: Colihue. P. 232. ISBN 978-950-563-460-6. Lorenzo, Celso Ramón. Manual de Historia Constitucional Argentina, Volumen 3.
Rosario: Editorial Juris. P. 12. ISBN 950-817-111-1. Rosa, José María. Historia Argentina, Tomo VIII: El Régimen. Buenos Aires: Editorial Oriente S. A. p. 119. "Historia Electoral Argentina, p. 58". Www.mininterior.gov.ar. Ministry of the Interior. December 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2017
1904 Argentine presidential election
The Argentine presidential election of 1904 was held on 12 June to choose the president of Argentina. Manuel Quintana was elected president. Riding high after another term of prosperity and important diplomatic accomplishments such as the May 1902 Pact with neighboring Chile over a border dispute and Foreign Minister Luis Drago's settlement of imminent war between the German Empire and Venezuela, President Roca enlisted Congressman Manuel Quintana as the PAN standard bearer. Within the PAN itself, some dissent was evident over Roca's dominance; these voices rallied behind José Evaristo Uriburu. The UCR maintained its boycott, the aging Quintana was selected by the electoral college on 12 June 1904; the year's legislative elections were more significant than the headline presidential selection: the Buenos Aires district of La Boca elected Alfredo Palacios, the first Socialist Congressman in the western hemisphere. Diario de Sesiones de la Cámara de Senadores - Período de 1904. Buenos Aires: Establecimiento Tipográfico de El Diario.
1905. Pp. 185–207. Duhalde, Eduardo Luis. Acción Parlamentaria de John William Cooke. Buenos Aires: Colihue. P. 232. ISBN 978-950-563-460-6. Rosa, José María. Historia Argentina, Tomo IX: La agonía del régimen. Buenos Aires: Editorial Oriente S. A. p. 50. "Historia Electoral Argentina, p. 58". Www.mininterior.gov.ar. Ministry of the Interior. December 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2017