Ralph F. Gates
Ralph Fesler Gates was the 37th Governor of the U. S. state of Indiana from 1945 to 1949. After leaving office he remained active as a leader in the state Republican Party until his death, Ralph Gates was born in Columbia City, Indiana, on February 24,1893, the first son of Benton E. and Alice Fesler Gates. Gates had three brothers, John and Benton. His father was a banker, an attorney, and chaired the county Republican Party for ten years. To earn an income as a boy, Gates delivered newspapers and became acquainted with Thomas R. Marshall, Gates attended public school in Columbia City and graduated from high school in 1911. He attended the University of Michigan where he earned a degree in 1915. After the United States entered World War I, Gates enlisted in the United States Navy in September 1917 and he was mustered in as an ensign and assigned to the Pay Corps, which was responsible to managing the payroll of the navy. In December he was promoted to lieutenant and transferred overseas to work in the War Risk Insurance Bureau based in Ireland where he was employed to sell bonds to insure government war assets and he personally sold over $1 million in bonds, almost entirely to naval personal.
In April 1919 he was transferred to France where he was placed in command of an airbase that was being constructed. The base was finished just as the war ended and Gates was offered a position in the Belgian relief effort, after he returned to Indiana, he began practicing law in his fathers firm. He soon met Helene Edwards of South Whitley, a school teacher in Muncie. The couple was married on October 30,1919 and purchased a home in Columbia City where they lived the rest of their lives and they had two children and Patricia. Gates father soon brought him into the banking business where he served as a manager in the Farmers Loan. Gates first became involved in politics in 1920 when he became the attorney for Whitley County and he became the town attorney for South Whitley in 1922, a position he held until 1944. He served as attorney for Columbia City from 1927 through 1929, the Klan was exposed in a scandal in 1927 that led to a near collapse of the state Republican Party. With the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, the bank entered a period of financial difficulty.
Gates and his brothers were able to meet with each of the banks depositors. Thanks to their cooperation, the family was able to preserve the bank, in 1928 he succeeded his father as the chairman of the Whitley County Republican Party and served as a delegate to the Republican National Convention
1946 Indianapolis 500
The 30th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Thursday, May 30,1946. This was the first Indianapolis 500 presided over by new track owner Tony Hulman, the track had closed in late 1941 due to World War II, and over the next four years, the facility fell into a terrible state of disrepair. Hulman purchased the Speedway in November 1945, and quickly went to work cleaning up the grounds, the Speedway re-opened, and the 1946 race was considered a rousing success. Race winner George Robson would be killed in a crash just months after the victory. The 1946 running of the 500 was the first of consecutive years that featured popular fixture Tom Carnegie on the Speedway public address system. During the pre-race ceremonies, James Melton performed the song Back Home Again in Indiana and it was the first time the traditional song had been performed before the start of the race. On December 7,1941, the attack on Pearl Harbor launched the United States into World War II, the Speedway gates were locked, and the facility was abandoned.
The race would not be held from 1942 to 1945, during the period in which the track was closed, it fell into a terrible state of disrepair. Grass and weeds overwhelmed the brick racing surface, and the old wooden grandstands became frail, after World War II was over in the summer of 1945, Eddie Rickenbacker was mostly uninterested in reviving the Speedway, due to other commitments, including his involvement with Eastern Air Lines. He was looking to sell the property, perhaps to developers, Wilbur Shaw and Homer H. Cochran helped consummate a deal for Tony Hulman of Terra Haute, Indiana to purchase the track. On November 14,1945 at the Indianapolis Athletic Club, Hulman signed the deal, hulmans first official duty was to name Wilbur Shaw the president and general manager. Pop Myers was retained as vice-president, and Joseph R. Cloutier was named treasurer, Hulman himself was appointed the chairman of the board, and Leonard Marshall became the secretary. Tony Hulman announced that renovation of the Speedway would begin immediately, within days, the Speedways administrative offices at 444 North Capitol Avenue in downtown Indianapolis was reopened, and staff was hired, many rehired from before the war years.
The AAA Contest Board subsequently announced that the specifications and rules would remain unchanged from 1941. In mid-December, Indiana Lieutenant Governor Richard T. James, while on a trip to Europe. The deadline for entries to be received was midnight on May 1, as had been customary, the track was made available for practice beginning May 1. Some teams, began arriving and setting up at the track as early as mid-March, due to the ongoing renovations and construction, spectators were not allowed through the gates until May 11. Only participants and members of the press were allowed to enter the gates up to that point, in addition, practice over the first ten days of May was limited to 4,00 p. m. to 7,00 p. m. daily
Indianapolis 500 pace cars
The Indianapolis 500 auto race has used a pace car every year since 1911. The pace car is utilized for two primary purposes, at the start of the race, the pace car leads the assembled starting grid around the track for a predetermined number of unscored warm-up laps. Then if the officials deem appropriate, it releases the field at a speed to start the race. In addition, during yellow flag caution periods, the car enters the track and picks up the leader. Prior to the first 500 in 1911, in the interest of safety, nearly all races at the time, as well as all Formula One races even to the present, utilize a standing start. In almost every year since 1936, it has been a tradition that the winner of the Indianapolis 500 be presented one of that years pace cars. In most years since 1911, the driver of the car at the start of the race has been an invited celebrity. Historically, the honor of supplying the pace car was, and continues to be, an honor by the respective automobile manufactures. The pace car was used to take the field on one unscored lap.
The invited driver was given the honor of pacemaker, and manufacturers used the honor of providing the car as marketing exposure, during his tenure as Speedway president, Tony Hulman rode in the pace car nearly every year, immediately after giving the command to start engines. His primary duty was to marshal the start and in some years, dating back to the very early years, the pace cars were often painted with special liveries complete with logos, lettering and other decorative markings. In addition, sometimes flagpoles and other motoring paraphernalia were installed to further identify the pace car, most manufacturers used the opportunity to showcase their higher end or luxury models. Since in the years, the pace car was only used for one lap at the start. In many years, the car was a convertible, which along with increasing the luxury status of the vehicle. In most years through the early 1950s, the car led the field around the track for one warm up lap. The pace lap concept was popular with fans, as many drivers commonly waved at the fans, by 1957, the procedure was changed so the pace car led the field for two warm up laps.
This allowed the fans on the mainstretch to see the entire field parade by one time before the start, previously only fans on other parts of the track got to actually see the grid go by for photographs and waving. For the 1957–1958 races, the grid was lined up and exited single-file from the newly constructed pit lane, the two laps allowed the field to properly form up, however, in practice it turned out to be difficult and both races saw incidents at the start
George W. Mason
George Walter Mason was an American industrialist. During his career Mason served as the Chairman and CEO of the Kelvinator Corporation, Chairman and CEO of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation, George W. Mason was born in Valley City, North Dakota. Mason had worked for local garages in his youth and upon receiving his degree from Michigan, Mason changed employers several times before entering military service during World War I. In 1921, Mason secured a position with Walter P, Chrysler at Maxwell-Chalmers, which Chrysler had reorganized and would use to develop Chrysler brand automobiles. From Maxwell-Chalmers, Mason went to Copeland Products of Detroit in 1926 before becoming the President of the Kelvinator Corporation, under Mason, Kelvinator quadrupled its profits and became second only to General Motors Frigidaire product line in home refrigeration sales despite the effects of the Great Depression. When Charles W. Nash, founder of Nash Motors began looking for his successor, Nash saw merit in this idea, General Motors owned Frigidaire, Borg-Warner owned Norge Appliance, and Chrysler operated its own air conditioning division, Airtemp.
Nash and Mason came to terms and the deal announced in November 1936, the two firms merged to form Nash-Kelvinator Corporation with Mason as its CEO. By 1940, Mason continued to grow Kelvinator’s market share and returned Nash to profitable status, continuing Charles Nashs decades of success by building cars embodying honest worth. A price level which held out possibilities of a wide market. Mason began exploring the possibilities of aerodynamics for automobile designs and used of wind tunnel tests during World War II, Nash’s Chief of engineering, Nils Erik Wahlberg, worked with Theodore Ulrich in the development of Nashs all-new and radically styled 1949 Airflyte models. This was an adoption of aerodynamic principles in a low-priced mass-produced post-war automobile. The Airflytes design extended its body over cars front wheels, Mason was a large and gregarious man, standing well more than six feet tall and weighing over 300 pounds. Despite his large size, he was fascinated with small cars, especially the concept of a small, inexpensive car and Nash’s marketing.
Nash-Healey – the first American sports car after the Great Depression and developed with partners in Great Britain, Nash Metropolitan – a subcompact car built in cooperation with Great Britains Austin Motors. General Motors responded by doing the same, with the market flooded by inexpensive cars, Packard, Hudson, Kaiser Motors, and Nash were all unable to sell their vehicles at loss leader prices to keep up with Ford and GM. The frantic 1953–54 Ford/GM price war devastated the remaining independent automakers, the smaller automakers responded to their shrinking market shares by conducting formal and informal merger talks. Willys and Kaiser merged in 1953, Mason brought together Nash and the Hudson Motor Car Company to cut costs and strengthen their sales organizations to meet the intense competition from the Big Three. This merger occurred on May 1,1954 to form American Motors Corporation, at the same time, he tried to bring Studebaker and Packard into AMC
Indianapolis 500 traditions
Due to the longevity of the Indianapolis 500, numerous traditions surrounding the race have developed over the years. Traditions include procedures for the running of the race, for many fans, these traditions are an important aspect of the race, and they have often reacted quite negatively when the traditions are changed or broken. As part of the Memorial Day holiday weekend, the ceremonies of the Indianapolis 500 feature several patriotic songs. The most noteworthy and most popular traditions are the singing of Back Home Again in Indiana. The race has always been scheduled in conjunction with Memorial Day, through 1970, the race was held on Memorial Day proper, regardless of the day of the week, unless it fell on Sunday. In those cases it was scheduled for Monday May 31, after the Uniform Monday Holiday Act took effect in 1971, the race was scheduled as part of the three-day Memorial Day weekend instead, either the Saturday, the Sunday, or the Monday. Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend, Sundays were avoided for scheduling race activity dating all the way back to pre-500 races in 1909 and 1910.
In early decades, Sundays were occasionally used for practice and/or qualifying, in some early years, practice may have been permitted on Sundays, but the gates might not be open to the public. When Tony Hulman bought the Speedway after World War II, Speedway management continued to refuse to schedule the race on a Sunday and practice, were regularly held on Sundays during those years, with no days closed to spectators. From 1971-1972, the race was scheduled for the Saturday of Memorial Day weekend, in 1973, the race was scheduled for Memorial Day Monday. However, rain delayed it until Wednesday, since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend. The 1986 race was held the weekend after the federal holiday because of two rainouts. The race was held the following Saturday, May 31, the date of the race if May 30 was a Sunday. The 1997 race was similar to 1973 in having two rain delays, nearly as unique as 1986 and it was scheduled for Sunday, May 25, but heavy rain washed out the day.
The race began the day, on Memorial Day. The race was halted after 15 laps, and could not be restarted, short of the 101 laps needed for an official race, track officials elected to resume the race on the following day. The race was run to completion, as laps 16-200 were completed on Tuesday, armed Forces Day falls during the month of May, and usually coincides with one of the weekends of time trials. Since 1978 at the Speedway, that weekend is filled with activities honoring the U. S. military
1948 Indianapolis 500
The 32nd International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Monday, May 31,1948. For the second year in a row, the Blue Crown Spark Plug teammates Mauri Rose, Rose became the second driver to win the Indianapolis 500 in consecutive years. Unlike the previous race, no controversy surrounds the results. Coupled with his co-victory in 1941, Rose became the third winner at Indy. Fourth place finisher Ted Horn completed a record of nine consecutive races from 1936-1948 completing 1,799 out of a possible 1,800 laps. His nine consecutive finishes of 4th or better is the best such streak in Indy history, the only lap he missed in 1940 was due to being flagged for a rain shower. Duke Nalons third-place finish would be the result for the popular Novi engine. First alternate, Johnny Shackleford The race was carried live on the Mutual Broadcasting System, the broadcast was sponsored by Perfect Circle Piston Rings and Bill Slater served as the anchor. The broadcast feature live coverage of the start, the finish, sid Collins, from WIBC, joined the crew for the first time, serving as a turn reporter at the south end of the track
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Racing flags are traditionally used in auto racing and similar motorsports to indicate track condition and to communicate important messages to drivers. Typically, the starter, sometimes the grand marshal of a race, track marshals are stationed at observation posts along the race track in order to communicate both local and course-wide conditions to drivers. Alternatively, some race tracks employ lights to supplement the primary flag at the start/finish line, while there is no universal system of racing flags across all of motorsports, most series have standardized them, with some flags carrying over between series. For example, the flag is commonly used across all of motorsport to signify the end of a session. Status flags are used to all drivers of the general status of the course during a race. In addition, the green and red flags described below may be augmented or replaced by lights at various points around the circuit, the solid green flag is usually displayed by the starter to indicate the start of a race.
During a race, it is displayed at the end of a period or a temporary delay to indicate that the race is restarting. The waving of a flag is almost universally supplemented with the illumination of green lights at various intervals around the course. If the race is not under caution or delayed, it is said to be under green-flag conditions, the flag itself is typically not continuously waved by the starter. No flag displayed at the starters stand implies safe, green-flag conditions, at all times, the green lights remain lit. When shown at a marshalling post, a green flag may indicate the end of a local yellow-flag zone, a separate green flag displayed at the entrance to the pit area indicate that the pits are open. In NASCAR, a green and yellow flag waved at the time indicates that the race is being started or restarted under caution. This is sometimes called a yellow and usually occurs when a track is drying after a rain delay. In 1980, USAC flagman Duane Sweeney started a tradition at the Indianapolis 500 of waving twin green flags for added visual effect at the start of the race, green flags waved at restarts were single.
Since roughly the 1990s, some races on occasion invite celebrity guests to wave the flag at the start of the race. The solid yellow flag, or caution flag, universally requires drivers to slow due to a hazard on the track, typically an accident. However, the procedures for displaying the yellow flag vary for different racing styles, in Formula One racing, a yellow flag displayed at the starters stand or a marshal station indicates that there is a hazard downstream of the station. This informs the driver that there may be marshals on the track and to prepare to stop, when shown at a station, drivers are prohibited from passing until either the hazard or the next flag station displaying a green flag is passed
The Indianapolis 500 is an automobile race held annually at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana, an enclave suburb of Indianapolis, Indiana. The event is held over Memorial Day weekend, which is typically the last weekend in May and it is contested as part of the Verizon IndyCar Series, the top level of American Championship Car racing, an open-wheel formula colloquially known as Indy Car Racing. The name of the race is often shortened to Indy 500, the event, billed as The Greatest Spectacle in Racing, is considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, which comprises three of the most prestigious motorsports events in the world. The official attendance is not disclosed by Speedway management, but the permanent seating capacity is upwards of 250,000, the inaugural running was won by Ray Harroun in 1911. The race celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011, and the 100th running was held in 2016, alexander Rossi is the defending champion. The most successful drivers are A. J. Foyt, Al Unser, the active driver with the most victories is Hélio Castroneves, with three.
Rick Mears holds the record for most career pole positions with six, the most successful car owner is Roger Penske, owner of Team Penske, which has 16 total wins and 17 poles. For a list of races and winners, see List of Indianapolis 500 winners, the Indianapolis 500 is held annually at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, a 2.5 mile oval circuit. Drivers race 200 laps, counterclockwise around the circuit, for a distance of 500 miles, since its inception in 1911, the race has always been scheduled on or around Memorial Day. Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend and time trials are held in the two weeks leading up to the race. Traditionally, the field consists of 33 starters, aligned in a grid of eleven rows of three cars apiece. The event is contested by Indy cars, a formula of professional-level, single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel, as of 2015, all entrants utilize 2.2 L V6, twin-turbocharged engines, tuned to produce a range of 550–700 horsepower. Chevrolet and Honda are the current engine manufacturers involved in the sport, which has a deep history in the sport, dating back to the first 500, is the exclusive tire provider.
The race is the most prestigious event of the IndyCar calendar and it has been avouched to be the largest single-day sporting event in the entire world. Likewise, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway itself is regarded as the worlds largest sporting facility in terms of capacity, the total purse exceeded $13 million in 2011, with over $2.5 million awarded to the winner, making it one of the richest cash prize funds in sports. Due to safety issues, the race is not held in wet conditions, in the event of a rain delay, the race will be postponed until rain showers cease, and the track is sufficiently dried. If rain falls during the race, officials can end the race, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway complex was built in 1909 as a gravel-and-tar track and hosted a smattering of small events, including ones for motorcycles. The first long distance event, in conditions, was the 100-lap Prest-O-Lite Trophy in 1909
Rex Houston Mays, Jr. is a former AAA Championship Car race driver from Riverside, California. He was a two-time AAA champion and won 8 points-scoring races and he made his Indianapolis 500 debut in 1934 and won the pole in 1935,1936, and again in 1940 and finished second, he returned the next year and finished second again. Mays won the AAA National Championship in 1940 and 1941, World War II suspended racing until 1946, denying Mays of what likely would have been the peak of his career. After the war, Mays again won the Indy pole in 1948 but was knocked out by a mechanical problem. He was killed at the age of 36 in a crash during the only Champ Car race held at Del Mar Fairgrounds race track in Del Mar, in this accident, Mays swerved to miss a car that had crashed in front of him. His car went out of control and flipped, throwing Mays to the track surface, in a race at Milwaukee, a fellow driver, Duke Dinsmore, was thrown from his car during an incident in the south turn. Rex Mays was leading the race and saw Dinsmores body lying in the middle of the south turn, Rex spun his car into the wall, got out of the car, and pulled the unconscious Duke Dinsmore to safety.
Because of his selfless action, the June race at the Milwaukee Mile was named the Rex Mays Classic. In addition, the racing course just outside his hometown of Riverside held, from 1967 to 1969. He was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1995, Mays was inducted in the National Sprint Car Hall of Fame in the first class in 1990. Rex Mays at The Greatest 33 Rex Mays at Champ Car Stats Indys unluckiest legends, Part 1 - Racer, Robin Miller,20 May 2013
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is an automobile racing circuit located in Speedway, Indiana, in the United States. It is the home of the Indianapolis 500 and the Brickyard 400 and it is located on the corner of 16th Street and Georgetown Road, approximately six miles west of Downtown Indianapolis. Constructed in 1909, it is the original speedway, the first racing facility so named and it has a permanent seating capacity estimated at 235,000 with infield seating raising capacity to an approximate 400,000. It is the highest-capacity sports venue in the world, considered relatively flat by American standards, the track is a 2. 5-mile-long rectangular oval with dimensions that have remained essentially unchanged since its construction. A modern infield road course was completed in 2000, incorporating part of the oval, including the mainstretch, in 2008, and again in 2014, the road course layout was modified to accommodate motorcycle racing, as well as to improve competition. Altogether, the current grounds have expanded from an original 320 acres on which the speedway was first built to cover an area of over 559 acres.
Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, in addition to the Indianapolis 500, the speedway hosts NASCARs Brickyard 400 and Lilly Diabetes 250. From 2000 to 2007, the hosted the Formula One United States Grand Prix. On the grounds of the speedway is the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum, which opened in 1956, the museum moved into its current building located in the infield in 1976. Also on the grounds is the Brickyard Crossing Golf Resort, which opened as the Speedway Golf Course in 1929. The golf course has 14 holes outside of the track, along the backstretch, the speedway served as the venue for the opening ceremonies for the 1987 Pan American Games. Fisher began thinking of a means of testing cars before delivering them to consumers. At the time, racing was just getting started on horse tracks, Fisher noticed how dangerous and ill-suited the makeshift courses were for racing and testing. He argued that spectators did not get their moneys worth, Fisher proposed building a circular track 3 to 5 miles long with smooth 100–150-foot-wide surfaces.
Such a track would give manufacturers a chance to test cars at sustained speeds, Fisher predicted speeds could reach up to 120 mph on a 5-mile course. He visited the Brooklands circuit outside London in 1907, and after viewing the banked layout, in December 1908, he convinced James A. Allison, Arthur Newby, and Frank W. Wheeler to join him in purchasing the property for $72,000. Construction of the started in March 1909. Fisher had to downsize his planned 3-mile oval with a 2-mile road course to a 2. 5-mile oval to leave room for the grandstands