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1948 Winter Olympics

The 1948 Winter Olympics known as the V Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated in 1948 in St. Moritz, Switzerland; the Games were the first to be celebrated after World War II. From the selection of a host city in a neutral country to the exclusion of Japan and Germany, the political atmosphere of the post-war world was inescapable during the Games; the organizing committee faced several challenges due to the lack of financial and human resources consumed by the war. These were the first of two winter Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström. There were 28 nations that marched in the opening ceremonies on January 30, 1948. Bibi Torriani played for the Switzerland men's national ice hockey team, became the first ice hockey player to recite the Olympic Oath on behalf of all athletes. Nearly 670 athletes competed in 22 events in four sports; the Games featured two demonstration sports: military patrol, which became the biathlon, winter pentathlon, discontinued after these Games.

Notable performances were turned in by figure skaters Dick Button and Barbara Ann Scott and skier Henri Oreiller. Most of the athletic venues were in existence from the first time St. Moritz hosted the Winter Games in 1928. All of the venues were outdoors, which meant the Games were dependent on favorable weather conditions; the IOC selected St. Moritz to host the 1948 Games at the 39th general session in Lausanne, Switzerland, in September 1946; the selection process consisted of two bids, saw St. Moritz be selected ahead of Lake Placid, United States. St. Moritz was selected because it was located in Switzerland, which had remained neutral during the war, because it had hosted a Winter Games in 1928; this made the organization of the Games more economical. Despite the existence of many of the venues, it was still a difficult task to organize a Winter Olympic Games in less than 18 months; the Comite Olympique was composed of local dignitaries and members of the Swiss National Olympic Committee.

They decided to separate into several sub-committees responsible for various aspects of the Games. These committees included housing and maintenance, venue construction and media and advertising; the local committees worked closely with the Swiss federal government and the IOC to ensure that the organization of the Games proceeded without hindrance. Since no athletes' village existed from the previous Games, the athletes and officials were housed in hotels around the city, it was important for the committees to draw upon their experiences from the 1928 Olympics. Their selection of locations for the various events was contingent on the weather conditions as all the events were held outdoors. Over 800 people were involved in reporting the news of the Games to the world. Nearly 500 press credentials were issued by the Press Commission for the Games. Television would not make its Olympic debut until 1956; the coverage of the 1948 Games was split between newspapers and radio broadcasts. The organizing committee had to provide technology, such as long distance telephone lines and telegraph services, to assist the press in communicating with their constituents.

Over 2,200 people were needed to provide all the services for the press and athletes at the Games. These services included sanitation and care of the venues. Accommodating the influx of people into St. Moritz was a difficult task for the organizing committee, it was complicated by the mountainous region. A massive project to improve the village's transportation infrastructure had to be completed prior to the Games; this included widening roads for vehicular traffic. Several train stations were built to accommodate the increased demands for public transit, they had to increase the capacity of the city's sewers. All of the projects had to be approved by the Swiss government, justified by its impact on the success of the Games. To aid the organizing committee the IOC demanded that all participating nations provide lists of their athletes several months prior to the Games; the Swiss knew how many athletes and officials to plan for. Since these Games were the first since World War II they were given the name "The Games of Renewal."

Japan and Germany were not invited to these Games because they were still ostracized by the international community for their role in World War II. Their absence was short-lived though, as they returned to Olympic competition in 1952; the Soviet Union did not send athletes to the St. Moritz Games of 1948, but they did send ten delegates as observers of the Games to determine how successful the Soviet athletes would have been had they competed. Sapporo, Japan had been the choice for the 1940 Winter Games. In 1938, the Japanese decided to decline the invitation to host the Games claiming that preparations for the Olympic Games were draining the country's resources; the IOC turned to the host of the 1936 Games, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, which would make it the only city to host consecutive Games. This became impractical when Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Finland believed it could host the Games and extended an invitation to the IOC, but the Soviet Union's invasion of Finland ended all hope of an Olympic Games in 1940.

The 1944 Winter Olympics had been awarded to Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy in 1939. As the war continued, this proved to be impractical and the second consecutive olymp


Platycleis is a genus of katydids described by Fieber in 1852, belonging to the subfamily Tettigoniinae. The species of this genus are present in Asia. Studies conducted in 2010 at the University of Derby by Karim Vahed, Darren Parker and James Gilbert found that the tuberous bushcricket has the largest testicles in proportion to body mass of any animal recorded, they are thought to enable a fast re-mating rate. Fieber, 1853: Synopsis der europäischen Orthopteren mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die in Böhmen vorkommenden Arten als Auszug aus dem zum Drucke vorliegenden Werke. Die europäischen Orthoptera. Lotos, 3, p.|138–154. Physorg

Charit Tingsabadh

Charit Tingsabadh is an economist and director of the Centre for European Studies at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok. Tingsabadh was educated at Strathallan School near Perth, Scotland, he graduated from Magdelene College, Cambridge with an economics tripos in 1971. That year he entered the University of Birmingham, graduating with a Master of Social Science in national economic planning in 1974. From 1976 to 1981 he studied for a PhD in development planning at University College London. In-between postgraduate degree courses Tingsabadh worked as an economist in the Regional Planning Division of the National Economic and Social Development Board in Thailand. In 1975 he began lecturing in the Faculty of Economics, he continues to lecture at Chulalongkorn University. Tingasabadh served as assistant director of the Social Research Institute at Chulalongkorn from 1981 to 1984. In 1986 he was appointed assistant professor in the Faculty of Economics. From 1987 to 1991 he was the deputy director of the Social Research Institute and from 1991 to 1995 he was deputy director of the Environmental Research Institute.

In 1996 he was appointed director of the Centre for Ecological Economics in the Faculty of Economics at Chulalongkorn. He became a member of the Research Subcommittee on Forestry and Multipurpose Trees with the National Research Council. Since 2000 he has served as director of the Centre for European Studies at Chulalongkorn, he is an advisor to the editor of the Journal of European Studies, published by the Centre for European Studies. Tingsabadh is a member of the advisory committee to the ASEAN Energy Market Integration Initiative. Tingasbadh has numerous publications to his name. Charit Tingsabadh, ed.. Fostering economic growth through low carbon initiatives in Thailand. Bangkok: Chula Global Network, Chulalongkorn University. ISBN 9786165513814. Francoise Nicolas and Charit Tingsabadh, eds.. Unemployment in East Asia and Europe: a CAEC Task Force report Volume 2 of Cahiers d'Asie. Centre asie ifri, Institut français. ISBN 2865921468. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Zainal Mantaha and Charit Tingsabadh, eds..

6th ASEF University: Asia and Europe - Towards Greater Inter-Cultural Exchanges. Bangkok: ASEF, Centre for European Studies, Chulalongkorn University. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Charit Tingsabadh, ed.. King Chulalongkorn's visit to Europe: reflections on significance and impacts. Bangkok: Centre for European Studies, Chulalongkorn University. ISBN 9747313197. Charit Tingsabadh. Economic Study on Artificial Recharge. A & R Consultant. Charit Tingsabadh and Kobkul Phutaraphorn. Socioeconomic Impacts of MPTS Biotechnologies on Small Farmers in the Philippines and Thailand. Winrock International. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter Charit Tingsabadh. Employment effects of reforestation programs. Thailand Development Research Institute. Charit Tingsabadh. Maximising development benefits from labour migration: Thailand. Asian Employment Programme, International Labour Organization. C. R. Jagannathan, Charit Tingsabadh and Tata Research Energy Institute. India and Thailand: social and economic effects of petroleum development.

International Labour Office. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter Charit Tingsabadh; the Location of Manufacturing Industry in Thailand, 1972-1976. Bangkok: Social Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University

Wim Jansen

Wilhelmus Marinus Anthonius Jansen is a Dutch former footballer and manager. Jansen won 65 international caps with the Netherlands national football team and played in the Dutch teams that reached the 1974 and 1978 World Cup Finals, he spent most of his playing career with his hometown team, between 1965 and 1980. At Feyenoord, Jansen won four League Championships, one Dutch Cup, one UEFA Cup in 1974, the European Cup in 1970 when Feyenoord defeated Celtic 2–1 in Milan. Jansen signed for the American side Washington Diplomats in 1980, but after playing 27 games for them, he returned to the Netherlands to sign for Ajax, on the advice of Johan Cruyff, who played together with Jansen at the Washington Diplomats. Jansen would play as libero and fill a gap in the Ajax defence after the departure of Ruud Krol in the summer of 1980. By November 1980, after 13 rounds of the Eredivise Ajax were 8th, by the end of the season they had picked up form and finished as runners-up behind AZ and in front of FC Utrecht.

The next season Ajax went on to win the Eredivisie with Jansen in the team. Feyenoord fans didn't like former player Jansen playing for their main rivals Ajax. On his Ajax debut a snowball was thrown at his eye and Jansen had to leave the field for treatment. Jansen stayed at Ajax until summer 1982 when he retired at age 35, he began his management career at his old club Feyenoord, where he worked as a coach, as assistant manager, between 1983 and 1987. After a season as manager of Belgian club SC Lokeren, he was appointed as Technical Director at second division SVV, where he won the league alongside his manager – future Rangers manager Dick Advocaat. In 1991, he returned to Feyenoord as manager, winning the Dutch Cup in 1991 and 1992 and taking them to the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1991–92, he became Technical Director in 1992, with Hans Dorjee being appointed as manager, but Dorjee became ill and Jansen took over as manager again. Dorjee resigned and was replaced as manager by Jansen's old teammate, Willem van Hanegem.

Feyenoord won the Dutch Championship in 1993 and the Dutch Cup again the following season, but after a dispute with the executives of the club, Jansen left to work as assistant manager of Saudi Arabia alongside Leo Beenhakker. Between 1994 and 1997 he managed Japanese side Sanfrecce Hiroshima. On 3 July 1997, Wim Jansen was appointed as head coach of Celtic, he went on to guide them to their first Scottish league championship in 10 years, ending the hopes of rival Rangers to win a tenth consecutive championship. Despite winning the league and the Scottish League Cup during his only season in charge, Jansen left the club less than 48 hours after the title was secured due to an inability to work with general manager Jock Brown, his most notable transfer was the signing of Henrik Larsson from Feyenoord. At the beginning of the 2008–09 season Jansen took up the position of assistant to the head coach of the Feyenoord first team, Gertjan Verbeek. Wim Jansen has lived in Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht since the 1970s.

FeyenoordEredivisie: 1964–65, 1968–69, 1970–71, 1973–74 KNVB Cup: 1968–69 European Cup: 1969–70 Intercontinental Cup: 1970 UEFA Cup: 1973–74AjaxEredivisie: 1981–82NetherlandsFIFA World Cup Runner-up: 1974, 1978 UEFA European Championship Third place: 1976 FeyenoordKNVB Cup: 1990–91, 1991–92CelticScottish Premier Division: 1997–98 Scottish League Cup: 1997–98IndividualSFWA Manager of the Year: 1997–98 As of 30 November 2013 Wim Jansen at J. League


KXPD-LP was a television station licensed to Eola, Oregon. The station covered the Willamette Valley from Salem to Wilsonville, within the Portland, Oregon television market, it broadcast on UHF channel 52. The station signed on the air on May 20, 2005 as the main signal of KWVT-LP, a local, English-language independent station owned by Northwest Television. On May 8, 2007 Northwest Television sold the broadcast license of KWVT-LP, to Churchill Media of Eugene, Oregon. Programming from Azteca América began August 17, 2007; the call letters were soon after changed to KXPD-LP. In November 2007 the station was being carried by Comcast on digital channel 317 & 617 in the digital basic tier. On December 30, 2009, KXPD-LP went off the air citing "substantial decreases in its revenue flow" over the past three years. In its application to the FCC for special temporary authority to remain silent, the station's license holder claimed that "losses have reached the point that the station no longer generates sufficient funds to pay operating expenses" and that the company was seeking to either sell the station or refinance and return to operation.

However, the station never returned to air, its license was soon cancelled by the FCC

Hawaiian Acres, Hawaii

Hawaiian Acres is a census-designated place in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States located in the District of Puna. The population was 2,700 at the 2010 census, up from 1,776 at the 2000 census. Hawaiian Acres is located on the eastern side of the island of Hawaii at 19°32′56″N 155°3′21″W, it is bordered to the east by Ainaloa and Orchidlands Estates, to the north by Kurtistown, to the northwest by Mountain View, to the west by Fern Acres. To the south is the Puna Forest Reserve; the community is 15 miles south of Hilo. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 19.4 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,776 people, 698 households, 423 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 92.3 people per square mile. There were 843 housing units at an average density of 43.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 51.01% White, 1.41% African American, 0.62% Native American, 9.85% Asian, 8.67% Pacific Islander, 1.35% from other races, 27.08% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.85% of the population. There were 698 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.3% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.22. In the CDP the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, 6.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $30,039, the median income for a family was $35,726. Males had a median income of $30,385 versus $24,375 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,242. About 22.5% of families and 28.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.0% of those under age 18 and 22.0% of those age 65 or over.

Hawaiian Acres Community Association