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1948 World Series

The 1948 World Series saw the Cleveland Indians against the Boston Braves. The Braves had won the National League pennant for the first time since the "Miracle Braves" team of 1914, while the Indians had spoiled a chance for the only all-Boston World Series by winning a one-game playoff against the Boston Red Sox for the American League flag. Though superstar pitcher Bob Feller failed to win either of his two starts, the Indians won the Series in six games to capture their second championship and their first since 1920, it was the first World Series to be televised beyond the previous year's limited New York-Schenectady-Philadelphia-Baltimore-Washington network and was announced by famed sportcasters Red Barber, Tom Hussey and Van Patrick. This was the second appearance in the Fall Classic for both teams, with the Indians' lone previous appearance coming in a 1920 win against the Brooklyn Dodgers and the Braves' lone previous appearance coming in a 1914 win against the Philadelphia Athletics.

This was the first, to date only, World Series in which both participating teams had played in, but not yet lost, a previous World Series. This phenomenon can only be repeated if either the Miami Marlins or the Arizona Diamondbacks play against either the Toronto Blue Jays or the Los Angeles Angels in a future World Series. Television coverage of the World Series increased this year, but due to the medium still being in its infancy coverage was regional. Games played in Boston could only be seen in the Northeast, while when the series shifted to Cleveland those games were the first to be aired in Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Louis and Toledo; this was the only World Series from 1947 to 1958 not to feature a New York team, the last World Series until 1957 not won by a New York team. The teams would meet again in the 1995 World Series won by the Braves—by relocated to Atlanta; this was the last until 2016 where the series score was even. AL Cleveland Indians vs. NL Boston Braves Braves pitcher Johnny Sain and Indians pitcher Bob Feller were engaged in a scoreless pitchers' duel when the Braves came to bat in the bottom of the eighth inning.

Feller walked Braves catcher Bill Salkeld to open the inning. Braves manager, Billy Southworth replaced the slow-footed Salkeld with Phil Masi, who entered the game as a pinch runner. Mike McCormick followed with a sacrifice bunt. Feller issued an intentional walk to Eddie Stanky, replaced by Sibby Sisti. Feller tried to pick off Masi at second base. Indians' shortstop Lou Boudreau appeared to tag Masi out. Tommy Holmes proceeded to hit a single that allowed Masi to score the only run of the game, giving the Braves a 1–0 victory; the umpire's controversial ruling touched off heated debates among the media and fans after Associated Press photographs of the play were published. Although Feller allowed only two hits, he took the loss in what would be the closest he came to winning a World Series game. Upon his death in 1990, Masi's will revealed that he was out on the pick-off play; the second game made television history when a live broadcast of the Indians–Braves matchup was shown aboard the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's Marylander passenger train travelling between Washington, D.

C. and New York City, using a receiver operated by Bendix Corporation technicians. An Associated Press reporter observing the demonstration said, "Technically, it was good." The Braves scored a run in the first off Bob Lemon on Bob Elliott's RBI single with two on, but Lemon held them scoreless for the rest of the game. After three shutout innings, Lou Boudreau hit a leadoff double in the fourth off Warren Spahn scored on Joe Gordon's single with Gordon advancing to second on the throw to home. One out Larry Doby's RBI single put the Indians up 2–1. Next inning, Dale Mitchell hit a leadoff single, moved to second on a sacrifice bunt and scored on Boudreau's single; the Indians scored one more run in the ninth off Nels Potter when Jim Hegan reached on an error, moved to third on two groundouts and scored on Bob Kennedy's single. The series was tied 1–1 heading to Cleveland. For the third straight game, no home runs were hit by either team; this would not happen again in a World Series until 2014.

The game's two runs came on Larry Doby's groundout in the third after a double and walk and Jim Hegan's RBI single after a single and walk in the fourth, both off Vern Bickford. Gene Bearden pitched a complete shutout, allowing five hits while striking out four, as the Indians took a 2–1 series lead. Steve Gromek of the Indians and Johnny Sain of the Braves pitched complete games each; the Indians struck first when Dale Mitchell hit a leadoff single in the first and scored on Lou Boudreau's double added to their lead on Larry Doby's home run in the third. Marv Rickert's leadoff home run in the seventh cut the Indians' lead to 2–1, but they held on to take a 3–1 series lead. Satchel Paige appeared for the Indians, becoming the first black pitcher to take the mound in World Series history; the previous day's single-game attendance record was broken with 86,288 fans. After two leadoff singles, Bob Elliott's three-run home run in the first off Indians starter Bob Feller made it 3–0 Braves. Dale Mitchell's leadoff home run in the bottom half off Nels Potter put the Indians on the board.

Elliott's second home run of the game in the third made it 4–1 Braves, but in the fourth after a leadoff single and walk, Wally Judnich's RBI single made it 4–2 Braves one out Jim Hegan's three-run

Traquero

A traquero is a railroad track worker, or "section hand" a Mexican or Mexican American railroad track worker. The word derives from "traque", Spanglish for "track". While the U. S. railroad track force in the Southwest and Midwest had always included some Mexican and Mexican American workers, their numbers were increased following the exclusion of the Chinese and the recruitment and training of Mexican rail workers in Mexico as part of the construction of railroads in Mexico, financed by U. S. railroad companies, in particular, the Santa Fe, the Denver and Rio Grande Western and the Southern Pacific. The peak of traquero employment programs took place between 1880 and 1915, right before the Mexican Revolution and federal restrictions placed on Mexican immigration by the 1930s; the Pacific Electric interurban system in the Los Angeles area was constructed and maintained by a workforce, made up of traqueros. Many traqueros lived in characteristic shanty towns of old boxcars which could be seen throughout the U.

S. Southwest and Midwest, as far north as Chicago; some of these could still be seen during the middle of the 20th century. Other communities of traqueros were founded as mobile tent camps, subsequently improved by the construction of more permanent dwellings, sometimes with the assistance of the railroad companies, but more not; the Watts section of Los Angeles originated as a traquero settlement at the intersection of the two major lines of the Pacific Electric. Another known community sprouted from its traquero origins was Perris, about 30 miles south of Riverside, California; the twin cities of Coachella and Indio in Southern California were founded by traqueros in the early 1900s. Black historian and journalist Thomas Fleming began his career as a bellhop and spent five years as a cook for the Southern Pacific Railroad. In a weekly series of articles, he wrote of his memories of the Mexican section hands in the 1920s and 1930s, he recalled that the Southern Pacific gave them a place to sleep: old boxcars converted into two-room cabins.

The company would take old boxcars, remove the wheels, lay them alongside the tracks. He remembers that the workers had a lot of children who attended the public schools, but the ones he met during his childhood were "kind of meek, took a lot of abuse from the other kids". Fleming says, he suggests that they may have been the only ones who wanted to do the job because they got the lowest pay of any railroad workers, only about $40 a month. Chicano Gandy dancer Mexican Repatriation Chinese railroad workers

1969 Ballon d'Or

The 1969 Ballon d'Or, given to the best football player in Europe as judged by a panel of sports journalists from UEFA member countries, was awarded to the Italian midfielder Gianni Rivera on 23 December 1969. There were 26 voters, from Austria, Bulgaria, Denmark, East Germany, Finland, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Republic of Ireland, Soviet Union, Sweden, Turkey, West Germany and Yugoslavia. Rivera became the second Italian to win the award after the Omar Sívori win in 1961, he was the first Milan player to win the trophy. France Football Official Ballon d'Or page