Pembroke College, Oxford
Pembroke College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England, located in Pembroke Square. The college was founded in 1624 by King James I of England / VI of Scotland, using in part the endowment of merchant Thomas Tesdale, was named after William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, Lord Chamberlain and then-Chancellor of the University. Like many of Oxford's colleges, Pembroke admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, having accepted men only; as of 2018, Pembroke had an estimated financial endowment of £58.5 million. Pembroke offers the study of all the courses offered by the university. Dame Lynne Brindley, former head of the British Library, has been Master of the College since 2013. In the early seventeenth century, the endowment of Thomas Tesdale—a merchant from nearby Abingdon – and Rev. Richard Wightwick, the parish priest of Donnington, Shropshire – enabled the conversion of Broadgates Hall, a University hostel for law students since its construction in the fifteenth century, to form the basis of a fully-fledged college.
The letters patent to found the college were signed by King James I in 1624, with the college being named after William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, Lord Chamberlain, Chancellor of the University, rumoured patron of William Shakespeare. The arms of Pembroke College were granted by the College of Heralds on 14 February 1625, the formal blazon describing it as: “Per pale azure and gules three Lyons rampant and one, Argent, in a Cheife party per pale Argent and Or, in the first a Rose Gules, seeded or, barbed vert in second a Thistle of Scotland proper”. Both James I, as founder of the college, the Earl of Pembroke are commemorated in the arms; the former, representing the union of the crowns as James I of England and James VI of Scotland, is symbolised by the rose and the thistle. The three lions rampant are taken from the Earl’s personal coat arms. Following its foundation, the college proceeded to expand around Broadgates, building what is now known as "Old Quad" in the 1600s. Built in stages through the seventeenth century out of the local Cotswold limestone, space restrictions saw the south-side of the Quad built directly on top of the old City Wall.
A Chapel was built in 1732, the introduction of further accommodation in 1846, the Hall in 1848 to designs by Exeter-based architect John Hayward created "Chapel Quad"—widely considered one of the most beautiful Quads in the University. The Chapel was designed and built by William Townsend, although the interior was redesigned by Charles Kempe—a Pembroke graduate—in 1884. Pembroke alumnus Dr. Damon Wells is a significant benefactor of the college over many years; the Chapel, still used for regular worship bears his name. Further expansion of the college came in the 1960s, after the closure of Beef Lane to the north of Chapel Quad; the private houses north of the closed road were acquired by the college in a piecemeal fashion and reversed so that access was only possible from the rear. The area is now known as "North Quad" and was formally opened in 1962. In April 2013 the Duke of Kent opened two new quadrangles named for the lead donor Chris Rokos The new buildings include a 170-seat multi-purpose auditorium, a new cafe, art gallery, teaching and function rooms.
The development is physically joined to the college's existing city-centre site via a new bridge crossing Brewer Street and the original medieval city wall, and'landing' in the old fellows' garden adjacent to Chapel Quad. Having been one of the university's physically smaller colleges, following the opening of the new building, undergraduates are now able to live in college premises for all years of study. A modern annexe, built near to college on the banks of the Isis at Grandpont, provides accommodation for thirty six graduates and around forty undergraduates. Named the Geoffrey Arthur Building, the building was named for the diplomat Sir Geoffrey Arthur — a former master of the college. Pembroke offers a broad range of courses, covering all the subject areas offered by the university. In particular, the college has had a strong involvement with Economics, as well as Management Studies, being the first traditional Oxford college to appoint a Fellow in the field; the college has maintained a close relationship with the Saïd Business School.
In March 2002 two Pembroke fellows resigned after allegations that they had offered a place to the fictional child of an undercover reporter in return for a donation to the college library. The journalist alleged that he had taped a conversation where he posed as the father of a fictitious son. Pembroke runs its own access schemes entitled'Pem-Brooke' and'Pembroke North' which work with disadvantaged students from London and areas of the North; these schemes provide students with long-term academically intensive programmes, which will give students important skills that will support them with both Oxbridge applications but Russell Group university applications. This type of approach is seen as atypical within widening participation work in Oxford. Pembroke is home to a Junior Common Room notable for its artistic sporting prowess; the JCR is the wealthiest in Oxford due to the purchase and sale of a Francis Bacon painting in the early 20th century. The JCR has used those funds to support a progressive student support sc
Woodford (UK Parliament constituency)
Woodford was a parliamentary constituency in Essex which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1945 until it was renamed for the 1964 general election. The constituency's only Member of Parliament for its entire existence was Sir Winston Churchill of the Conservative Party, he represented the Woodford seat during his second tenure as Prime Minister, continued to hold it until he retired aged 89 at the 1964 general election. He was the Father of the House for the last five years of his tenure in the seat. A statue of him was unveiled on Woodford Green in the constituency in 1959. 1945-1955: The Municipal Borough of Wanstead and Woodford, the Urban District of Chigwell. 1955-1964: The Municipal Borough of Wanstead and Woodford. The constituency's boundaries were subject to a radical change in 1955, when the new Chigwell constituency was created, removing the less urbanised parts of the seat; the new Wanstead and Woodford constituency was subject to minor boundary changes reflecting alterations to the Municipal Borough of Wanstead and Woodford since the last general redistribution of parliamentary seats in 1955.
The pre and post 1964 seats comprised the whole municipal borough, within its 1955 and 1964 boundaries respectively. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "W" Notes
1959 United Kingdom general election
The 1959 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 8 October 1959. It marked a third consecutive victory for the ruling Conservative Party, now led by Harold Macmillan. For the second time in a row, the Conservatives increased their overall majority in Parliament, to 101 seats over the Labour Party led by Hugh Gaitskell; the Liberal Party led by Jo Grimond again returned only six MPs to the House of Commons, but managed to increase their overall share of the vote to 5.9%. To date, the 1959 general election marks the only occasion since the Second World War when a government has managed to increase its overall majority while seeking a third term in government. However, despite this electoral success; this election marks the beginning of Labour's domination of Scottish seats at Westminster, which lasted until the rise of the Scottish National Party at the 2015 general election. Both future Liberal leader Jeremy Thorpe and future Conservative Party leader and eventual Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher first entered the House of Commons at this election.
After the Suez Crisis in 1956, Anthony Eden, the Conservative Prime Minister, became unpopular. He resigned early in 1957, was succeeded by Chancellor of the Exchequer Harold Macmillan. At that point, the Labour Party, whose leader Hugh Gaitskell had succeeded Clement Attlee after the 1955 general election, enjoyed large leads in opinion polls over the Conservative Party, it looked as if Labour could win; the Liberal Party had a new leader, Jo Grimond, so all three parties contested the election with a new leader at the helm. However, the Conservatives enjoyed an upturn in fortunes as the economy improved under Macmillan's leadership, his personal approval ratings remained high. By September 1958, the Conservatives had moved ahead of Labour in the opinion polls. All the three main parties had changed leadership since the previous election; the Conservatives fought under the slogan "Life is better with the Conservatives, don't let Labour ruin it" and were boosted by a pre-election economic boom.
Macmillan effectively "summed up" the mood of the British public when he said that most of the people had "never had it so good". Macmillan was popular, was described as a politician of the centre ground; the first week of polling put the Conservatives ahead of Labour by over 5%, but this narrowed as the campaign continued. The Labour Party fought a effective campaign, with television broadcasts masterminded by Tony Benn under the umbrella of their manifesto entitled Britain Belongs to You, which accused the Conservatives of complacency over the growing gap between rich and poor. Hugh Gaitskell made a mistake in declaring that a Labour government would not raise taxes if it came to power—even though the Labour manifesto contained pledges to increase spending; this led voters to doubt Labour's spending plans, is cited as a key reason for their defeat. Early on election night it became clear that the Conservative Party had been returned to government with an increased majority. However, there were swings to Labour in parts of north-west England, in Scotland.
The Labour domination of Scottish seats would last for another 56 years, until the rise of the Scottish National Party in the wake of the 2014 Scottish independence referendum. James Callaghan believed that the Conservatives increased their majority in part because working-class Labour voters were still angry at the party for opposing the Suez conflict. For the fourth general election in a row, the Conservatives increased their number of seats, despite experiencing a slight decrease in their share of the vote. For Labour, the result was disappointing. Future Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was elected to the House of Commons for the first time as the MP for Finchley. While the Liberal Party earned more than twice as many votes as in the previous general election, this was the result of them nominating nearly double the amount of candidates that they did four years prior. Future party leader Jeremy Thorpe was elected to Parliament for the first time, as the MP North Devon; the Daily Mirror, despite being a staunch supporter of the Labour Party, wished Macmillan "good luck" on its front page following his election victory.
The BBC's election coverage, presented by Richard Dimbleby, was shown on BBC Parliament on 9 October 2009 to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the election. All comparisons are with the 1955 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party; such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1959; such circumstances are marked with a †. MPs elected in the UK general election, 1959 United Kingdom election results—summary results 1885–1979 The Next Five Years, 1959 Conservative Party manifesto Britain Belongs to You: The Labour Party's Policy for Consideration by the British People, 1959 Labour Party manifesto People Count, 1959 Liberal Party manifesto
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under Prime Ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition Prime Minister and Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party.
Historian Martin Pugh in The Oxford Companion to British History argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system. Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland; the government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. It was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Liberal Democrats diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge; the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures; as early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade.
For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party; this was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government.
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis
John Enoch Powell was a British politician, classical scholar, linguist, soldier and poet. He served as a Conservative Member of Parliament Ulster Unionist Party MP, was Minister of Health. Before entering politics, Powell was a classical scholar, becoming a full professor of Ancient Greek at the age of 25 in Australia. During World War II, he served in both staff and intelligence positions, reaching the rank of brigadier in his early thirties, he wrote poetry, as well as many books on classical and political subjects. Powell attracted widespread attention following his 20 April 1968 address to the General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Centre, which became known as the "Rivers of Blood" speech, it criticised current rates of immigration into the UK from the New Commonwealth, opposed the then-proposed anti-discrimination legislation Race Relations Bill being mooted at the time. In response, Conservative Party leader Edward Heath sacked Powell from his position as Shadow Defence Secretary in the Conservative opposition.
The speech was considered by many as a blatant demonstration of racism, drawing sharp criticism from his own party and from the press. While Powell did not consider himself a racist, The Economist claimed in an editorial on the 50th anniversary of the speech that his rhetoric had a "lasting and malign effect... on the way in which race and migration are discussed, or not discussed". In the aftermath of the Rivers of Blood speech, several polls suggested that between 67% and 82% of the UK population agreed with Powell's opinions, his supporters claimed that the large public following which Powell attracted helped the Conservatives to win the 1970 general election, cost them the February 1974 general election, when Powell turned his back on the Conservatives by endorsing a vote for Labour, who returned as a minority government in early March following a hung parliament. Powell was returned to the House of Commons in October 1974 as the Ulster Unionist Party MP for the Northern Irish constituency of South Down.
He represented the constituency. John Enoch Powell was born in Stechford, Warwickshire, on 16 June 1912, he lived there for the first six years of his life before his parents moved to Kings Norton in 1918, where he lived until 1930. He was the only child of Albert Enoch Powell, a primary school headmaster, his wife, Ellen Mary. Ellen was the daughter of Henry Breese, a Liverpool policeman and his wife Eliza, who had given up her own teaching career after marrying, his mother did not like his name, as a child he was known as'Jack'. At the age of three, Powell was nicknamed'the Professor' because he used to stand on a chair and describe the stuffed birds his grandfather had shot, which were displayed in his parents' home; the Powells were of Welsh descent and from Radnorshire, having moved to the developing Black Country during the early 19th century. His great-grandfather was a coal miner, his grandfather had been employed in the iron trade. Powell read avidly from a young age. Despite the Powell family having to budget their income, they always had enough money for books and their home included a room known as the'library'.
Powell was influenced by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Powell was a pupil at King's Norton Grammar School for Boys before moving to King Edward's School, where he studied classics, was one of the few pupils in the school's history to attain 100% in an end-of-year English examination, he studied at Trinity College, from 1930 to 1933, during which time he fell under the influence of the poet A. E. Housman Professor of Latin at the university, he began to study German as many prominent classics scholars were German. He took no part in politics at university. Whilst studying at Cambridge, Powell became aware that there was another classicist who signed his name as'John U. Powell'. In deciding how to distinguish his work from his own, Powell decided to use his middle name and from that moment on always referred to himself as "Enoch Powell". While at university, in one Greek prose examination lasting three hours, he was asked to translate a passage into Greek. Powell walked out after one and a half hours, having produced translations in the styles of Plato and Thucydides.
For his efforts, he was awarded a double starred first in Latin and Greek, this grade being the best possible and rare. As well as his education at Cambridge, Powell took a course in Urdu at the School of Oriental Studies, now the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, because he felt that his long-cherished ambition of becoming Viceroy of India would be unattainable without knowledge of an Indian language. Powell went on to learn other languages, including Welsh, modern Greek, Portuguese. After graduating from Cambridge with a double first, having won several classics prizes, including the Porson Prize and the Browne Medal, Powell stayed on at Trinity College as a fellow, spending much of his time studying ancient manuscripts in Latin and producing academic works in Greek and Welsh. In 1937, he was appointed Professor of Greek at the University of Sydney aged 25. Among his students was future Prime Minister of Australia Gough Whitlam, he revised Stuart-Jones
National Health Service
The NHS in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, the affiliated Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland were established together in 1948 as one of the major social reforms following the Second World War. The founding principles were that services should be comprehensive and free at the point of delivery; each service provides a comprehensive range of health services, free at the point of use for people ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom, apart from dental treatment and optical care. Dr Somerville Hastings, President of the Socialist Medical Association proposed a resolution at the 1934 Labour Party Conference that the party should be committed to the establishment of a State Health Service. Conservative MP and Health Minister, Henry Willink, first proposed the National Health Service in 1944 with the publication of a White Paper "A National Health Service", distributed in full and short versions as well as in newsreel by Henry Willink himself. Henry Willink's National Health Service received cross party support and became Westminster legislation for England and Wales from 1946 and Scotland from 1947, the Northern Ireland Parliament's Public Health Services Act 1947.
NHS Wales was split from NHS in 1969 when control was passed to the Secretary of State for Wales before transferring to the Welsh Executive and Assembly under devolution in 1999. Calls for a "unified medical service" can be dated back to the Minority Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor Law in 1909, but it was following the 1942 Beveridge Report's recommendation to create "comprehensive health and rehabilitation services for prevention and cure of disease" that cross-party consensus emerged on introducing a National Health Service of some description; when Clement Attlee's Labour Party won the 1945 election he appointed Aneurin Bevan as Health Minister. Bevan embarked upon what the official historian of the NHS, Charles Webster, called an "audacious campaign" to take charge of the form the NHS took; the NHS was born out of the ideal that good healthcare should be available to all, regardless of wealth. Although being accessible regardless of wealth maintained Henry Willink's principle of free healthcare for all, Conservative MPs were in favour of maintaining local administration of the NHS through existing arrangements with local authorities fearing that an NHS which owned hospitals on a national scale would lose the personal relationship between doctor and patient.
Conservative MPs voted in favour of their amendment to Bevan's Bill to maintain local control and ownership of hospitals and against Bevan's plan for national ownership of all hospitals. The Labour government defeated Conservative amendments and went ahead with the NHS as it remains today. Bevan's principle of ownership with no private sector involvement has since been diluted, with Labour governments implementing large scale financing arrangements with private builders in private finance initiatives and joint ventures. At its launch by Bevan on 5 July 1948 it had at its heart three core principles: That it meet the needs of everyone, that it be free at the point of delivery, that it be based on clinical need, not ability to pay. Three years after the founding of the NHS, Bevan resigned from the Labour government in opposition to the introduction of charges for the provision of dentures and glasses; the following year, Winston Churchill's Conservative government introduced prescription charges.
These charges were the first of many controversies over reforms to the NHS throughout its history. From its earliest days, the cultural history of the NHS has shown its place in British society reflected and debated in film, TV, cartoons and literature; the NHS had a prominent slot during the 2012 London Summer Olympics opening ceremony directed by Danny Boyle, being described as "the institution which more than any other unites our nation". Each of the UK's health service systems operates independently, is politically accountable to the relevant government: the Scottish Government. NHS Wales was part of the same structure as that of England until powers over the NHS in Wales were firstly transferred to the Secretary of State for Wales in 1969 and thereafter, in 1999, to the Welsh Assembly as part of Welsh devolution; some functions may be performed by one health service on behalf of another. For example, Northern Ireland has no high-security psychiatric hospitals and depends on hospitals in Great Britain at Carstairs hospital in Scotland for male patients and Rampton Secure Hospital in England for female patients.
Patients in North Wales use specialist facilities in Manchester and Liverpool which are much closer than facilities in Cardiff, more routine services at the Countess of Chester Hospital. There have been issues about cross-border payments. Taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015–16 employed around 1.6 million people with a combined budget of £136.7 billion. In 2014 the total health sector workforce across the UK was 2,165,043; this broke down into 1,789,586 in England, 198,368 in Scotland, 110,292 in Wales and 66,797 in Northern Ireland. In 2017, there were 691,000 nurses registered in the UK, down 1,783 from the previous year. However, this is the first time nursing numbers have fallen since 2008. Although there has been increasing policy divergence between the four National Health Services in the UK, it can b