Swiss Grand Prix
The Swiss Grand Prix was the premier auto race of Switzerland. In its years it was a Formula One race, Grand Prix motor racing came to Switzerland in 1934, to the Bremgarten circuit, located just outside the town of Bremgarten, near Bern. Conditions at this circuit were similar to that of the Nürburgring in West Germany, the first Swiss Grand Prix was a non-championship race, it was won by Hans Stuck in an Auto Union, British driver Hugh Hamilton died in a horrific accident in his Maserati. Despite this occurrence, the Swiss Grand Prix counted toward the European Championship from 1935 to 1939, Grand Prix racing returned after World War II, and the Bremgarten track remained the home of the Swiss Grand Prix. This event saw veteran Italian racer Achille Varzi die during practice in an Alfa Romeo, helmets were not compulsory in those days, and Varzi, whose Alfa had overturned during the accident, was crushed by the car and had no chance. The race saw Swiss Christian Kautz die in a Maserati after going off the road and crashing into an embankment at the second Eymatt corner, frenchman Maurice Trintignant was nearly killed in another accident after crashing and being thrown out of his car and landing unconscious on the track.
Three drivers including Nino Farina went off and crashed while trying to avoid the motionless Frenchman- who survived after multiple serious injuries,1950 saw the Swiss Grand Prix being inducted as part of the new Formula One World Championship. This race was won by Italian Nino Farina, who would go on to be the first Formula One world champion, ascari won his second drivers championship at that event. 1954 saw Fangio lead from start to finish in rainy weather, in 1955, the Swiss Grand Prix at Bremgarten was to be no more. The ban has not been lifted since, and Bremgarten was abandoned and was never used again for motor racing, the Swiss Grand Prix returned in 1975 as a non-Championship Grand Prix just across the border, at the Dijon-Prenois circuit, France. Swiss Clay Regazzoni won the race and it was Rosbergs first Formula One victory. On 6 June 2007 Swiss Parliament voted to lift the ban of racing in Switzerland,97 in favor and 77 opposed. However, the legislation was not ratified by the Swiss Council of States.
Events which were not part of the Formula One World Championship are indicated by a pink background, a cream background indicates an event which was part of the pre-war European Championship
1952 Belgian Grand Prix
The 1952 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 22 June 1952 at Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps. It was the round of the 1952 World Drivers Championship. Maseratis new A6GCM was still not ready, and, to compound this and this meant that Ferrari were once again favoured for success in the race, with their driver lineup consisting of Alberto Ascari, Nino Farina and Piero Taruffi. There were two privateer Ferrari entries, local driver Charles de Tornaco of Ecurie Francorchamps, and Louis Rosier, the Gordini team expanded their lineup to include Belgian driver Johnny Claes, alongside Behra and Bira. American Robert OBrien drove a Simca-Gordini for this race, HWM recruited a pair of Belgian drivers — Paul Frère and Roger Laurent — who raced alongside regular drivers Peter Collins and Lance Macklin. Stirling Moss switched from HWM to ERA for this race, a handful of other privateer entrants took part, including future World Champion Mike Hawthorn, who made his debut in a Cooper-Bristol. Ascari headed an all-Ferrari front row, with teammates Farina and Taruffi in second and third, respectively.
The Gordinis of Manzon and Behra made up row two, while the third row consisted of Hawthorn, Ken Wharton, and Frère, who was the highest qualifier of the five Belgian drivers on the grid. Taruffi started badly in the rain, dropping to ninth by the end of the first lap, Moss started well, before his car broke down half way through the first lap. Behras lead was short-lived, as both Ascari and Farina overtook him on the lap, subsequently holding first and second for the remainder of the race. Behra dropped to fourth when the recovering Taruffi passed him on lap 13, on the following lap Taruffi spun at Malmédy and Behra hit him, causing both to retire. Manzon overtook Hawthorn to assume what was now third place, despite suffering from fuel leakage problems, Hawthorn was able to maintain fourth place until the end of the race. His fellow debutant Paul Frère finished in the points, in fifth, ascaris win, and Taruffis retirement, meant that the two now shared the lead of the Championship, on nine points each.
Indianapolis 500 winner Troy Ruttman was in third, while Farinas second-place finish raised him to fourth in the standings, Drivers Championship standings Note, Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
Cooper Car Company
The Cooper Car Company was founded in December 1947 by Charles Cooper and his son John Cooper. Together with Johns boyhood friend, Eric Brandon, they began by building racing cars in Charless small garage in Surbiton, England, in 1946. The first cars built by the Coopers were single-seat 500-cc Formula Three racing cars driven by John Cooper and Eric Brandon, since materials were in short supply immediately after World War II, the prototypes were constructed by joining two old Fiat Topolino front-ends together. According to John Cooper, the stroke of genius that would make the Coopers an automotive legend—the location of the engine behind the driver—was merely a matter at the time. Because the car was powered by an engine, they believed it was more convenient to have the engine in the back. In fact there was nothing new about mid engined racing cars, Cooper built up to 300 single-and twin-cylinder cars during the 1940s and 1950s, and dominated the F3 category, winning 64 of 78 major races between 1951 and 1954.
Though Schell retired in the first lap, this marked the first appearance of a racer at a Grand Prix event since the end of WWII. The front-engined Formula Two Cooper Bristol model was introduced in 1952, until the company began building rear-engined sports cars in 1955, they really had not become aware of the benefits of having the engine behind the driver. Based on the 500-cc cars and powered by a modified Coventry Climax fire-pump engine, jack Brabham raised some eyebrows when he took sixth place at the 1957 Monaco Grand Prix in a rear-engined Formula 1 Cooper. The next year,1959, Brabham and the Cooper works team became the first to win the Formula One World Championship in a rear-engined car, both team and driver repeated the feat in 1960, and every World Champion since has been sitting in front of his engine. The little-known designer behind the car was Owen Maddock, who was employed by Cooper Car Company, Maddock was known as The Beard by his workmates, and Whiskers to Charles Cooper.
Describing how the revolutionary rear-engined Cooper chassis came to be, Maddock explained and he kept saying Nah, thats not it, try again. Finally, I got so fed up I sketched a frame in which every tube was bent, meant just as a joke, I showed it to Charlie and to my astonishment he grabbed it and said, Thats it. Maddock pioneered one of the first designs for a monocoque stressed skin composite chassis. Arriving at the Speedway 5 May 1961, the little car from Europe was mocked by the other teams. It took a few years, but the Indianapolis establishment gradually realized the writing was on the wall, beginning with Jim Clark, who drove a rear-engined Lotus in 1965, every winner of the Indianapolis 500 has had the engine in the back. The revolution begun by the little chain-driven Cooper 500 was complete, the Cooper teams decline was accelerated when John Cooper was seriously injured in a road accident in 1963 driving a twin-engined Mini, and Charles Cooper died in 1964. After the death of his father, John Cooper sold the Cooper Formula One team to the Chipstead Motor Group in April 1965
William John Bill Vukovich, Sr. was a Serbian American automobile racing driver. He won the 1953 and 1954 Indianapolis 500 plus two more American Automobile Association National Championship races, several drivers of his generation have referred to Vukovich as the greatest ever encountered in American motorsport. He was known variously as Vuky and The Mad Russian for his driving style. He was referred to as the Fresno Flash in Floyd Clymers Indy yearbooks, before he began Indy racing, Vukovich drove midget cars for the Edelbrock dirt track racing team. He raced on the West Coast of the United States in the URA, Vukovich won the 1948 Turkey Night Grand Prix at Gilmore Stadium, and six of the last eight races at the stadium track before it was closed for good. He won the 1950 AAA National Midget championship, Vukovich was known for racing midgets powered by Drake engines. The Drake was a Harley V-twin with specially built Drake water cooled heads and his last Drake powered midget was a Kurtis-Kraft that was built by Ed and Zeke Justice, the Justice Brothers, in their shop in Glendale from a Kurtis kit.
Previous to this car Vukovich drove a Frame Rail midget that was powered by a Drake engine. He returned to win the race in years,1953 and 1954. He led an astounding 71. 7% of laps that he drove in competition at the track, Vukovich was killed in a chain-reaction crash while holding a 17-second lead on the 57th lap of the 1955 Indianapolis 500. He was exiting the turn, trailing three slower cars—driven by Rodger Ward, Al Keller, and Johnny Boyd—when Wards car swerved as the result of a gust of wind. Keller, swerving into the infield to avoid Ward, lost control and slid back onto the track, striking Boyds car, Vukovichs car struck Boyds, became airborne, and landed upside down after going over the outside backstretch retaining wall and somersaulting four-and-a-half times, bursting into flames. As the car burned Ed Elisian stopped his car and raced towards Vukovich in an attempt to save him. It did not matter, Vukovich had perished instantly, Vukovich was the second defending Indy 500 champion to die during the race, following Floyd Roberts in 1939, and the only former winner to have been killed while leading.
Roberts car was thrown over the backstretch fence after exiting the second turn in his fatal accident. Since the 1955 race was counted as part of the Formula One World Championship, Vukovich was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1991. He was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1992 and he was inducted in the National Midget Auto Racing Hall of Fame in 1990. His son, Bill Vukovich II, and his grandson, Bill Vukovich III, competed in the Indianapolis 500, with Vukovich II taking second in 1973, the Indianapolis 500 was part of the World Drivers Championship from 1950 through 1960
John Michael Hawthorn was a British racing driver. Hawthorn won the 195524 Hours of Le Mans, but was haunted by his involvement in the crash that marred the race. Hawthorn died in an accident six months after retiring, he was suffering from a terminal illness at the time. His father owned the Tourist Trophy Garage in Farnham, franchised to supply and service several high performance brands including Jaguar and his father raced motorcycles and supported his sons racing career, when he died in a road accident, in 1954, Mike Hawthorn inherited the business. Mike Hawthorn made his debut in his 1934 Riley Ulster Imp, KV9475. In 1951, driving a 1½-litre T. T. Riley, he entered the Motor Sport Brooklands Memorial Trophy and he won the Ulster Trophy Handicap at Dundrod and the Leinster Trophy at Wicklow that year. By 1952, he had switched to single-seaters and during that season won his first race in a Formula Two Cooper-Bristol T20 at Goodwood, further successes followed which brought him to the attention of Enzo Ferrari who offered him a works drive.
He made his Formula One debut at the 1952 Grote Prijs van Belgie on the legendary Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps, finishing in fourth place. By the end of the season, he had secured his first podium, with a third place at the RAC British Grand Prix. This and two podium finishes helped him end the season fourth overall. He won the BRDC International Trophy and the Ulster Trophy as well as the 24 Heures de Spa Francorchamps with Ferrari team-mate Giuseppe Farina, in January 1955, Hawthorn joined the Jaguar racing team, replacing Stirling Moss, who had left for Mercedes. Hawthorn won the 1955 les 24 Heures du Mans following what has been described as a drive in which he set a lap record of 122.388 mph during a three-hour duel with Fangio in the early stages. The impact shattered the front end of the car, which somersaulted high, pitching debris into the spectator area, the debris, including bonnet and front axle, which separated from the frame, flew through the crowd. Eight hours later, while leading the race 1, the French press carried photographs of Hawthorn and Ivor Bueb celebrating their win with the customary champagne but treated them with scorn.
The official inquiry into the accident ruled that Hawthorn was not responsible for the crash, the death of the spectators was blamed on inadequate safety standards for track design. The Grandstand and pit areas were demolished and rebuilt soon after, the death toll led to a ban on motorsports in France, Switzerland and other nations, until the tracks could be brought to a higher safety standard. Another change of team for 1956 – this team to BRM - was a failure, in 1957, Hawthorn rejoined the Ferrari factory team, and soon became friends with Peter Collins, a fellow Englishman and Ferrari team driver. During the 1957 and 1958 racing seasons, the two Englishmen became engaged in a rivalry with Luigi Musso, another Ferrari driver, for prize money
Piero Taruffi, was a racing driver from Italy, and the father of lady racer Prisca Taruffi. Taruffi began his career racing motorcycles. He won the 1932 500cc European Championship on a Norton and in 1937 set the land speed record at 279.503 km/h. Taruffi drove a newly introduced 2-litre, 4-cylinder Ferrari, which placed third in the 360 kilometre race Grand Prix de Bari at Bari, Italy and he finished behind Juan Manuel Fangio and Froilán González with a time of 2 hours 58 minutes 40 3/5 seconds. Taruffi and Alberto Ascari participated in the Carrera Panamericana in the mountains of Mexico in November 1951 and they placed first and third respectively over the course from Mexico City to León, Guanajuato, a 267-mile leg. Taruffi led second-placed Troy Ruttman by more than four minutes, Taruffi trimmed 15 minutes on the Mexico City-Leon leg and another 21 minutes between Leon and Durango. In the process he climbed from 12th to third overall, Taruffi won the race on 25 November, with a time of 21,57,52, over mountains and plains of the southeastern tip of Mexico.
He had a speed of 87.6 mph. Taruffi set a record for 50 miles in an auto of 22 cubic centimetre displacement in January 1952. He attempted a 100-mile record but his motor burned out after 98 miles, Taruffi was in a two-litre Ferrari for the running of the third Grand Prix de France, in Paris in May 1952. He captured first place with a time of three hours over a distance of 285 miles and his average speed was 95 mph. Taruffi placed second to Fangio in the 1953 Carrera Panamericana, with a time of 18,18,51 in a Lancia and his time was better than the previous year when he was victorious. In March 1954, Taruffi lost the Florida International Grand Prix with an hour to go and he pushed it to the pits and team mechanics began working on it with diligence. Taruffi was still out of the car when the O. S. C. A, shared by Stirling Moss and Bill Lloyd crossed the finish line. Taruffi had averaged 81.1 miles per hour before he retired, Taruffi won the 1, 080-kilometre Tour of Sicily in April 1954. His time of 10 hours 24 minutes 37 seconds established a record for an event which opened Italys sports car racing season and it was 14 years old at the time.
He averaged 64.4 miles per hour in a Lancia 3300, Taruffi and Harry Schell placed fifth overall in the 1955 Florida Grand Prix, driving a Ferrari. Taruffi claimed first place in a Ferrari, at the 1955 Tour of Sicily, with an time of 10 hours 11 minutes 19.4 seconds
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is an automobile racing circuit located in Speedway, Indiana, in the United States. It is the home of the Indianapolis 500 and the Brickyard 400 and it is located on the corner of 16th Street and Georgetown Road, approximately six miles west of Downtown Indianapolis. Constructed in 1909, it is the original speedway, the first racing facility so named and it has a permanent seating capacity estimated at 235,000 with infield seating raising capacity to an approximate 400,000. It is the highest-capacity sports venue in the world, considered relatively flat by American standards, the track is a 2. 5-mile-long rectangular oval with dimensions that have remained essentially unchanged since its construction. A modern infield road course was completed in 2000, incorporating part of the oval, including the mainstretch, in 2008, and again in 2014, the road course layout was modified to accommodate motorcycle racing, as well as to improve competition. Altogether, the current grounds have expanded from an original 320 acres on which the speedway was first built to cover an area of over 559 acres.
Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, in addition to the Indianapolis 500, the speedway hosts NASCARs Brickyard 400 and Lilly Diabetes 250. From 2000 to 2007, the hosted the Formula One United States Grand Prix. On the grounds of the speedway is the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum, which opened in 1956, the museum moved into its current building located in the infield in 1976. Also on the grounds is the Brickyard Crossing Golf Resort, which opened as the Speedway Golf Course in 1929. The golf course has 14 holes outside of the track, along the backstretch, the speedway served as the venue for the opening ceremonies for the 1987 Pan American Games. Fisher began thinking of a means of testing cars before delivering them to consumers. At the time, racing was just getting started on horse tracks, Fisher noticed how dangerous and ill-suited the makeshift courses were for racing and testing. He argued that spectators did not get their moneys worth, Fisher proposed building a circular track 3 to 5 miles long with smooth 100–150-foot-wide surfaces.
Such a track would give manufacturers a chance to test cars at sustained speeds, Fisher predicted speeds could reach up to 120 mph on a 5-mile course. He visited the Brooklands circuit outside London in 1907, and after viewing the banked layout, in December 1908, he convinced James A. Allison, Arthur Newby, and Frank W. Wheeler to join him in purchasing the property for $72,000. Construction of the started in March 1909. Fisher had to downsize his planned 3-mile oval with a 2-mile road course to a 2. 5-mile oval to leave room for the grandstands
The Offy or Offenhauser Racing Engine is a racing engine design that dominated American open wheel racing for more than 50 years and is still popular among vintage sprint and midget car racers. The Offenhauser engine, familiarly known as the Offy, was developed by Fred Offenhauser, originally, it was sold as a marine engine. In 1930, a four-cylinder 151 cu in Miller engine installed in a car set a new international land speed record of 144.895 mph. Miller developed this engine into an overhead cam, four-cylinder, four-valve-per-cylinder 220 cu in racing engine. Variations of this design would be used in midgets and sprints into the 1960s and they and former Miller employee, draftsman Leo Goossen, further developed the Miller engines into the Offenhauser engines. Then in 1946 the name and engine designs were sold to Louis Meyer, Meyer was bought out by Drake, his wife Eve and their son John in 1965. From until Drakes son John sold the shop to Stewart Van Dyne and it was under Meyer and Drake that the engine dominated the Indy 500 and midget racing in the United States.
One of the keys to the Offenhauser engines success and popularity was its power. A251.92 cubic inch DOHC four-cylinder racing Offy with a 15,1 compression ratio, other variants of the engine produced even higher outputs of 3 hp per cubic inch. Another reason for the success was its reliability, its monobloc construction meant it was not vulnerable to head gasket or cylinder stud problems. From 1934, through the 1970s, the Offenhauser engine dominated American open wheel racing, winning the Indianapolis 50027 times, by then, the company had already been sold, right after World War II, to Meyer and Drake, who continued to build the engines. From 1950 through 1960, Offenhauser-powered cars won the Indy 500, outputs over 1,000 bhp could be attained, using around 44.3 psi of boost pressure. The final 2. 65-litre four-cylindar Offy, restricted to 24.6 psi boost, the Offys final victory came at Trenton in 1978, in Gordon Johncocks Wildcat. The Offenhauser shop began to do work for Lockheed in 1940. The last prewar engine was shipped on July 17,1941, after the Pear Harbor attack, the plant worked overtime on hydraulic systems, getting Fred Offenhauser the money and the fatigue to retire.
In 1944, Leo Goossen finally became a full time Offenhauser employee, Offenhauser produced engine blocks in several sizes. These blocks could be bored out or sleeved to vary the cylinder bore, Offenhauser frequently made blocks, pistons and crankshafts to specific customer requests. In their 11 world championship years, the Meyer-Drake Offenhauser engine partnered for at least one race with the following 35 constructors
Maserati in motorsport
One of the first Maseratis the Tipo 26 driven by Alfieri Maserati with Guerino Bertocchi acting as riding mechanic won the Targa Florio 1,500 cc class in 1926, finishing in ninth place in overall. Maserati was very successful in pre-war Grand Prix racing using a variety of cars with 4,6,8 and 16 cylinders, other notable pre-war successes include winning the Indianapolis 500 twice, both times with Wilbur Shaw at the wheel of a 8CTF. Maserati won the Targa Florio in 1937,1938,1939 and 1940, the first two wins were achieved by Giovanni Rocco with a Maserati 6CM and the last two by Luigi Villoresi with a 6CM in 1939 and a 4CL in 1940. Maseratis post-war factory effort in car racing in 1954 for the second season of the World Sportscar Championship. The factory raced as Officine Alfieri Maserati, in the 1954 World Sportscar Championship season Maserati entered the Maserati A6GCS finishing 5th in the Manufacturers Championship. In the 1955 World Sportscar Championship season Maserati finished 4th in the Manufacturers Championship, in the 1956 World Sportscar Championship season Maserati finished 2nd in the Manufacturers Championship including a win at the 1000 km Buenos Aires and the 1000 km at the Nürburgring.
The win at 19561000 km Buenos Aires was a Maserati 300S sports car driven by Stirling Moss, in the 1957 World Sportscar Championship season Maserati again finished 2nd in the Manufacturers Championship. This time with wins at Sebring and Rabelöfsbanan In the 1959 World Sportscar Championship season Maserati finished 4th in the Manufacturers Championship, in the 1960 World Sportscar Championship season Maserati finished 3rd in the Manufacturers Championship. With a win at the ADAC1000 km Nürburgring for a Maserati Tipo 61 driven by Stirling Moss, in the 1961 World Sportscar Championship season Maserati finished 2nd in the Manufacturers Championship. With a repeat win at the ADAC1000 km Nürburgring for a Maserati Tipo 61 this time driven by Lloyd Casner, list of Maserati sports and GT racing cars Maserati A6GCS Sports Car Maserati 350S Sports Car. The cars for the 1987 World Touring Car Championship season were entered by Pro Team Italia/Imberti, the car was in Group A Division 3 competing against the Ford Sierra RS Cosworth and in the season Ford Sierra RS500.
The car was driven by Bruno Giacomelli, Armin Hahne, Marcello Gunella, Mario Hytten, Nicola Tesini, for the British Touring Car Championship the cars were entered by Trident Motorsport. This was for the 1988 and 1989 seasons, the car was driven by Nick May, John Lepp and Vic Lee. A former 1987 WTCC car was bought by Adriano Dece who converted it for used on road rallies, Maserati participated in Formula One motor racing during the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s. Its works Formula One programme was successful, providing a total of 9 Grand Prix wins for the factory team. Maserati designed three Formula One cars, the Maserati 4CLT, the Maserati A6GCM and the Maserati 250F, due to financial difficulties in the late 1950s the team had to withdraw from Formula One in 1958 despite the 250F still being successful. Privateers continued to use the 250F until 1960, the last year F1 allowed front-engine race cars, in the 1960s, Maserati supplied engines to British Formula One team Cooper. The most successful car of that collaboration was the Cooper-Maserati T81 and it won the 1966 Mexican Grand Prix and the 1967 South African Grand Prix, driven by John Surtees and Pedro Rodríguez respectively
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company
Firestone soon saw the huge potential for marketing tires for automobiles. The company was a pioneer in the production of tires. Harvey Firestone had a friendship with Henry Ford, Firestone used this relationship to become the original equipment supplier of Ford Motor Company automobiles, and was active in the replacement market. In 1988, the company was sold to the Japanese Bridgestone Corporation, Firestone was originally based in Akron, the hometown of its archrival, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, and another two mid-sized competitors, General Tire and Rubber and BF Goodrich. Founded on August 3,1900, the company initiated operations with 12 employees, together and Goodyear were the largest suppliers of automotive tires in North America for over 75 years. In 1906 Henry Ford chose Firestone for Model T original equipment tires, in 1918, Firestone Tire and Rubber Company of Canada was incorporated in Hamilton, Ontario and in 1922, the first Canadian-made tire rolled off the line on September 15.
During the 1920s, Firestone produced the Oldfield tire, named for racing driver Barney Oldfield, in 1926, the company opened one of the worlds biggest rubber plantations in Liberia, West Africa, spanning more than 1 million acres. 1926 was the year that the company opened its first Firestone Complete Auto Care store, in 1927, Henry Ford and tire maven Harvey Firestone took a trip to Los Angeles to select locations for their new factories. Friends say Ford wanted to be near the ocean and picked Long Beach and suggested Firestone go to South Gate, the tiny community southeast of Downtown was mostly agriculture at the time and Firestone found 40 acres of beanfield to house his new manufacturing plant. A year after the plant opened in 1928 it doubled in size, by 1954, when they added the Corporal guided missile to their offerings, the plant was nearly a million square feet. The town grew around Firestone, they named the main boulevard through town after Harvey, by the mid-1970s Ford and GM had massive layoffs as Firestone and other manufacturers opened new plants in non-union locales like Wilson, North Carolina.
After much downsizing the end came in 1980 when 1,300 workers were laid off, east Los Angeles College has proposed a new satellite campus at the site. In 1928 the company built a factory in Brentford, England, in 1936 the company opened a plant in Memphis, Tennessee. With a work force exceeding 3,000 employees, the Memphis plant was the largest tire manufacturer in the companys worldwide operation, on July 1,1963, the company celebrated the production of 100 million tires in Memphis. The plant was closed in 1982, during World War II the company was called on by the U. S. Government to make artillery shells, aluminum kegs for food transport and rubberized military products. Firestone ranked 55th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts, in the 1940s, Firestone was given a defense contract to produce plastic helmet liners. While outproduced by Westinghouse Electric they still made a fair amount for the M1 Helmet, in 1951, Firestone was given the defense contract for the MGM-5 Corporal missile.
Firestone was given a total of US$6,888,796 for the first 200 Missiles and this missile was known as the Embryo of the Army and was a surface-to-surface guided missile which could deliver a high-explosive warhead up to 75 nautical miles
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
Alberto Ascari was an Italian racing driver and twice Formula One World Champion. He was a racer who completed in motorcycle racing before switching to cars. Back to back World titles in 1952 and 1953 sandwiched an appearance in the Indianapolis 500 in 1952, Ascari won the legendary Mille Miglia in 1954. When Alberto was a child, his father, who was a racing driver. Alberto once admitted that he warned his children not to become close to him because of the risk involved in his profession. So this proved when he was killed during a test session for Scuderia Ferrari at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza and he was preparing for the Supercortemaggiore 1000 kilometre race that he was to have run with his protégé Eugenio Castellotti on the weekend that followed the accident. The son of one of Italys great pre-war drivers, Alberto Ascari went on to one of Formula One racings most dominant. His unexplained fatal accident – at the age as his fathers, on the same day of the month. Born in Milan, Ascari was the son of Antonio Ascari, such was his passion to become a racing driver like his father, twice he ran away from school.
He raced motorcycles in his earlier years, at the age of just 19, Ascari was signed to ride for the Bianchi team. He married a girl the same year. When Italy entered World War II, the garage, now run by Alberto, was conscripted to service. It was during this period, he established a transport business. His partner in the enterprise was a racing driver, Luigi Villoresi. The pair did survive being capsized in Tripoli harbour along with a shipment of lorries, as their business supported the Italian war effort, it made them exempt from being called up during the war. Following the end of World War II Alberto Ascari began racing in Grands Prix with Maserati 4CLT and his teammate was Villoresi, who would become a mentor and friend to Ascari. The pair were successful on the circuits in the North of Italy, soon he was bestowed with the nickname Ciccio, meaning Tubby. Formula One regulations were introduced by the FIA in 1946, with the aim of replacing the pre-war Grand Prix structure