1956 Italian Grand Prix
The 1956 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 2 September 1956 at Monza. It was the eighth and final round of the 1956 World Drivers Championship, coming into the race, Juan Manuel Fangio had an eight-point lead over Ferrari team-mate Peter Collins and Jean Behra, driving for Maserati. Fangio retired with a steering arm, while Behra had to pull out. Luigi Musso, driving for Ferrari, was told to hand his car over to Fangio to ensure the Argentines third consecutive title, brit Collins, with the opportunity for his first world championship, sportingly handed his car over to Fangio during a routine pit-stop. Fangio finished second, behind Stirling Moss, giving himself and Collins a share of the points for second place, ron Flockhart scored his first World Championship points and it was the first World Championship race led by Luigi Musso. Shared Drives, Car #26, Peter Collins and Juan Manuel Fangio and they shared the 6 points for second place. Car #22, Juan Manuel Fangio and Eugenio Castellotti, Car #46, Umberto Maglioli and Jean Behra.
Car #34, Luigi Villoresi and Jo Bonnier, debut for Jo Bonnier, Les Leston and Wolfgang von Trips Only World Championship podium for a Connaught car. Drivers Championship standings Note, Only the top five positions are included, Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points, numbers in parentheses are total points scored
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva.
Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven.
It is the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control
Monaco Grand Prix
The Monaco Grand Prix is a Formula One motor race held each year on the Circuit de Monaco. The circuit has been called an exceptional location of glamour and prestige. The race is held on a course laid out in the streets of Monaco, with many elevation changes and tight corners as well as a tunnel. In spite of the low average speeds, it is a dangerous place to race. It is the only Grand Prix that does not adhere to the FIAs mandated 305-kilometre minimum race distance, the event was part of the pre-Second World War European Championship and was included in the first World Championship of Drivers in 1950. It was designated the European Grand Prix two times,1955 and 1963, when title was an honorary designation given each year to one Grand Prix race in Europe. Graham Hill was known as Mr. Monaco due to his five Monaco wins in the 1960s, brazils Ayrton Senna won the race more times than any other driver, with six victories, winning five races consecutively between 1989 and 1993. Fernando Alonso is the driver to have won the race in consecutive years for different constructors, winning for Renault in 2006.
Like many European races, the Monaco Grand Prix predates the current World Championship, the principalitys first Grand Prix was organised in 1929 by Antony Noghès, under the auspices of Prince Louis II, through the Automobile Club de Monaco. Alexandre Noghès, Antonys father, was founding president of the ACM, the ACM made their first foray into motorsport by holding the Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo in 1911. Their application was refused due to the lack of a major event held wholly within Monacos boundaries. The rally could not be considered as it used the roads of other European countries. To attain full national status, Noghès proposed the creation of an automobile Grand Prix in the streets of Monte Carlo, Noghès obtained the official support of Prince Louis II. Noghès gained support for his plans from Monegasque Louis Chiron, Chiron thought that the topography of the location would be well suited to setting up a race track. The first race, held on 14 April 1929, was won by William Grover-Williams driving a Bugatti, the first Grand Prix Automobile de Monaco was an invitation-only event, but not all of those invited decided to attend.
The leading Maserati and Alfa Romeo drivers decided not to compete, Mercedes sent their leading driver Rudolf Caracciola to drive a Mercedes SSK. Caracciola drove a race, bringing his SSK up to second position at the end of the race. The race was won by Williams driving a Bugatti Type 35B painted dark green, another driver who competed using a pseudonym was Georges Philippe, the Baron Philippe de Rothschild
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
The Offy or Offenhauser Racing Engine is a racing engine design that dominated American open wheel racing for more than 50 years and is still popular among vintage sprint and midget car racers. The Offenhauser engine, familiarly known as the Offy, was developed by Fred Offenhauser, originally, it was sold as a marine engine. In 1930, a four-cylinder 151 cu in Miller engine installed in a car set a new international land speed record of 144.895 mph. Miller developed this engine into an overhead cam, four-cylinder, four-valve-per-cylinder 220 cu in racing engine. Variations of this design would be used in midgets and sprints into the 1960s and they and former Miller employee, draftsman Leo Goossen, further developed the Miller engines into the Offenhauser engines. Then in 1946 the name and engine designs were sold to Louis Meyer, Meyer was bought out by Drake, his wife Eve and their son John in 1965. From until Drakes son John sold the shop to Stewart Van Dyne and it was under Meyer and Drake that the engine dominated the Indy 500 and midget racing in the United States.
One of the keys to the Offenhauser engines success and popularity was its power. A251.92 cubic inch DOHC four-cylinder racing Offy with a 15,1 compression ratio, other variants of the engine produced even higher outputs of 3 hp per cubic inch. Another reason for the success was its reliability, its monobloc construction meant it was not vulnerable to head gasket or cylinder stud problems. From 1934, through the 1970s, the Offenhauser engine dominated American open wheel racing, winning the Indianapolis 50027 times, by then, the company had already been sold, right after World War II, to Meyer and Drake, who continued to build the engines. From 1950 through 1960, Offenhauser-powered cars won the Indy 500, outputs over 1,000 bhp could be attained, using around 44.3 psi of boost pressure. The final 2. 65-litre four-cylindar Offy, restricted to 24.6 psi boost, the Offys final victory came at Trenton in 1978, in Gordon Johncocks Wildcat. The Offenhauser shop began to do work for Lockheed in 1940. The last prewar engine was shipped on July 17,1941, after the Pear Harbor attack, the plant worked overtime on hydraulic systems, getting Fred Offenhauser the money and the fatigue to retire.
In 1944, Leo Goossen finally became a full time Offenhauser employee, Offenhauser produced engine blocks in several sizes. These blocks could be bored out or sleeved to vary the cylinder bore, Offenhauser frequently made blocks, pistons and crankshafts to specific customer requests. In their 11 world championship years, the Meyer-Drake Offenhauser engine partnered for at least one race with the following 35 constructors
1956 Monaco Grand Prix
The 1956 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 13 May 1956 at Monaco. It was the round of the 1956 World Drivers Championship. The Owen’s B. R. M. made their first appearance, the other two non-starters were teammates, the too slow Scarlatti and Chiron due to his engine blowing up in practice. Moss, starting from the middle of the front row, took the lead at Gasworks on the first lap, Fangio was not having a good day. He hit the bales on lap 2, causing Schell and Musso to retire when trying to avoid him. He turned the car over to Castellotti after the pit stop to fix the wheel, on lap 54 while second, Collins came in the pit and turned his car over to Fangio. He resumed in third and passed Behra for second on lap 70, shared Drives, Car #26, Peter Collins and Juan Manuel Fangio. They shared the 6 points for second place, Car #20, Juan Manuel Fangio and Eugenio Castellotti. Since Fangio received points for second, only Castellotti received the 1.5 points for the shared fourth, Car #4, Élie Bayol and André Pilette.
Grand Prix debut for, Tony Brooks and Giorgio Scarlatti, last Grand Prix appearance for, Élie Bayol Career Firsts, Peter Collins and Hermano da Silva Ramos, Peter Collins. First time in Championship history with 2 English drivers on the podium, Drivers Championship standings Note, Only the top five positions are included
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
A. J. Watson
A. J. Watson was a car builder and chief mechanic from 1949 through 1984 in the Indianapolis 500, winning the race six times as a car builder. His first win as a car came in 1956 when Pat Flaherty drove the John Zink entry to victory in that years Indy 500. Watson had won the year as a crew chief for Bob Sweikert. A native of southern California, Watson came to Indianapolis in 1948 and he returned the following year with a home-built car that failed to qualify. For the next 11 years, his cars not only qualified but were leaders in many years, from 1955 to 1958 he was associated with the John Zink team, and from 1959 on with Bob Wilke. His cars dominated the race through 1964, although he continued entering cars for another two decades, he was never able to regain the commanding position of his heyday. In 1964, with many teams following Lotuss example and moving to rear-engined funny cars and these worked reasonably well but could not reproduce the success he had with his front-engined roadsters.
He built monocoque rear-engined cars in 1966 and 1967 with ever-decreasing success, from 1969 until 1977, Watson ran Eagles and built a small series of highly derivative new Watson cars in 1977,1978 and again in 1982 based on Lightning and March designs before retiring. He is frequently listed on the Indy 500 entry sheet as the race strategist for PDM Racing and he died on May 12,2014 at the age of 90. He was inducted in the National Sprint Car Hall of Fame in 1993 and he was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1996. Legendary Mechanic Celebrating 50th Year at Indy
1956 Indianapolis 500
The 40th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Wednesday, May 30,1956. The event was part of the 1956 USAC National Championship Trail, the 1956 race was the first to be governed by the United States Automobile Club. AAA withdrew from racing the previous August. Another change would have an immediate effect on the current race. The track had been paved over with asphalt with only about 600 yards of the still remaining brick. The 1956 race is known in Indy 500 lore as Cagles Miracle. Torrential rains pummeled the Speedway in the leading up to the race. The track was full of standing water, access tunnels were flooded. The conditions threatened to postpone or outright cancel the race, Speedway superintendent Clarence Cagle supervised a massive cleanup effort, in which hundreds of thousands of gallons of water were pumped out of the tunnels and the infield. Cagle and his crew worked non-stop for 48 hours straight, some without sleep, time trials was scheduled for four days, but the third day was rained out.
With the new surface, a new record was expected. Pat Flaherty did not disappoint with a speed of 145.596 mph. The second weekend saw heavy rain that completely canceled Saturday and left only a window on Sunday for 4 drivers to fill the field. Nino Farina was one of the left out when he didnt get a chance to qualify his Bardahl-Ferrari. Russo was the first to retire when his failed and his car crashed. At quarter distance due to yellows and the pit stops, Parsons took the lead followed by Freeland, Flaherty had built up such a lead that he was able to make his last pit stop and remain in front. He crossed the line with Hanks the only other car on the lead lap. The only real change in the top cars toward the end was both OConnor and Jim Rathmann having to back with mechanical problems while both drivers were in the top 5