Mislata is a city in the Valencian Community, Spain.. It has borders with the city of Xirivella in the south. In recent decades it has gone from being a village in the Horta region of the Valencian Community, to the most densely populated borough in Spain and one of the ten most densely populated in Europe, with a population of 43,363 spread across 2.1 km². This growth has been assisted by better transport communications including the opening of two stations of the Valencian metro on 20 May 1999 in the town which provide a direct connection to the main railway station and the main shopping area in Carrer de Colón. Further extensions westwards to the València airport and the towns of Quart de Poblet and Manises were completed in 2007. Further construction work, completed on green belt land in 2005 will further increase Mislata's population density; the area has been, in a physical sense swallowed up by the encroaching suburbs of València in recent years. Mislata is well connected with central València.
In addition to several bus routes, Mislata now has two metro stations and Mislata-Almassil. A third station, Nou d'Octubre is nearby. Mislata is the only town outside the city of València to be categorised as "zone A" by the private taxi system. In addition to the famous Falles festival which runs from 15–20 March, numerous other festivals take place such as those in honour of Saint Michael Archangel or Saint Francis of Asisi. Mislata's main places of interest are the church of the "Mare de Déu dels Àngels" and the "Creu Coberta" that separates the town from València. Official site
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
Francisco Franco Bahamonde was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975. This period in Spanish history is known as Francoist Spain. During the 1924–1930 dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, Franco was promoted general at age 33, the youngest in Europe; as a conservative and a monarchist, Franco opposed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a democratic secular republic in 1931. With the 1936 elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin, the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in launching a coup that failed to take control of most of the country and precipitated the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the other generals, Franco became his faction's only leader. Franco gained military support from various authoritarian regimes and groups Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side was supported by Spanish communists and anarchists as well as the Soviet Union and the International Brigades.
In 1939, Franco won the war. He established a military dictatorship and proclaimed himself Head of State and Government under the title El caudillo. In April 1937, Franco merged the fascist and traditionalist political parties in the rebel zone, as well as other conservative and monarchist elements, into FET y de las JONS. At the same time, he outlawed all other political parties, thus Spain became a one-party state. Upon his rise to power, Franco implemented policies that repressed political opponents and dissenters, as many as 400,000 of whom died through the use of forced labor and executions in the concentration camps his regime operated. During World War II, he espoused neutrality as Spain's official wartime policy. However, he provided military support to the Axis in numerous ways: he allowed German and Italian ships and submarines to use Spanish harbors and ports, the Abwehr operated in Spain, the Blue Division fought alongside the Axis against the Soviet Union until 1944. Scholars consider it as conservative and authoritarian, rather than fascist.
Historian Stanley G. Payne states, "scarcely any of the serious historians and analysts of Franco consider the Generalissimo to have been a core fascist."Spain was isolated by many other countries for nearly a decade after World War II. By the 1950s, the nature of his regime changed from being totalitarian and using severe repression to an authoritarian system with limited pluralism. During the Cold War, Franco was one of the world's foremost anti-Communist figures: his regime was assisted by the West, it was asked to join NATO. After chronic economic depression in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Franco presided over the Spanish miracle, abandoning autarky and pursuing economic liberalization, delegating authority to liberal ministers. Franco died in 1975 at the age of 82, he restored the monarchy before his death, which made King Juan Carlos I his successor, who led the Spanish transition to democracy. Franco was born on 4 December 1892 at 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra in Galicia, he was baptised thirteen days at the military church of San Francisco, with the baptismal name Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo.
His father was of Andalusian ancestry. After relocating to Galicia, the family was involved in the Spanish Navy, over the span of two centuries produced naval officers for six uninterrupted generations, down to Franco's father Nicolás Franco y Salgado Araújo, his mother was María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade and she was an upper middle-class Roman Catholic. His parents married in 1890; the young Franco spent much of his childhood with his two brothers, Nicolás and Ramón, his two sisters, María del Pilar, María de la Paz. The latter died in infancy. Nicolás was a naval officer and diplomat who in time married María Isabel Pascual del Pobil y Ravello. Ramón was a pioneer aviator, a Freemason with leftist political leanings, killed in an air accident on a military mission in 1938. María del Pilar married Alonso Jaráiz y Jeréz. Francisco was to follow his father into the Navy, but as a result of the Spanish–American War the country lost much of its navy as well as most of its colonies. Not needing any more officers, the Naval Academy admitted no new entrants from 1906 to 1913.
To his father's chagrin, Francisco decided to try the Spanish Army. In 1907, he entered the Infantry Academy in Toledo. At 19, Franco was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant in June 1912. Two years he obtained a commission to Morocco. Spanish efforts to occupy their new African protectorate provoked the protracted Rif War with native Moroccans, their tactics resulted in heavy losses among Spanish military officers, provided an opportunity to earn promotion through merit. It was said. Franco gained a reputation as a good officer. In 1913, Franco transferred into the newly formed regulares: Moroccan colonial troops with Spanish officers, who acted as shock troops; this transfer into a perilous role m
The Cortes Españolas, known informally as the Cortes franquistas, was the name of the legislative institution promulgated by the Caudillo of Spain Francisco Franco, established on 17 July 1942, opened its first session on 17 March 1943. The Cortes sought to present itself as the highest organisational body for the Spanish people and to participate in the work of the State, its members were known as procuradores. The main function of the Cortes was the development and adoption of laws, but under its subsequent sanction reserved to the Head of State. To identify itself as a continuation of the Spanish parliamentary tradition, the Cortes was seated at the Palace of the Cortes, Madrid. However, this institution had greater similarity with the corporate system of Italian Fascism, its members represented the various elements of Spanish society. The Spanish Cortes were not intended as the repository of national sovereignty, since the whole sovereign power was concentrated in the head of state, in the absence of separation of powers.
The government was not responsible to it. It had no power over government spending. Franco himself rejected any identification with liberal democracy. Instead, he conceived his system as a solvent ideology of national unity between social classes and territories. Prosecutors were ex officio members, appointed by the Head of State or chosen from corporate entities, until 1967 did not materialize the way of choosing a "third family". Two family representatives from each region, elected by those who appear on the Electoral heads of households and married women in the manner established by the law. Elections were held in July to cover that portion of the Deputies in the Cortes in 1967 and 1971. Cortes Generales Fundamental Laws of the Realm List of Presidents of the Congress of Deputies of Spain Esteban de Bilbao Eguía
The peseta was the currency of Spain between 1868 and 2002. Along with the French franc, it was a de facto currency used in Andorra; the name of the currency comes from pesseta, the diminutive form of the word peça, a Catalan word that means piece or fraction. The first non-official coins which contained the word "peseta" were made in 1808 in Barcelona. Traditionally, there was never a single symbol or special character for the Spanish peseta. Common abbreviations were "Pt", "Pta", "Pts" and "Ptas", sometimes using superior letters: "Ptas". Common earlier Spanish models of mechanical typewriters had the expression "Pts" on a single type head, as a shorthand intended to fill a single type space in tables instead of three. Spanish models of IBM electric typewriters included the same type in its repertoire; when the first IBM PC was designed in 1980, it included a "peseta symbol" "Pts" in the ROM of the Monochrome Display Adapter and Color Graphics Adapter video output cards' hardware, with the code number 158.
This original character set chart became the MS-DOS code page 437. Some spreadsheet software for PC under MS-DOS, as Lotus 1-2-3, employed this character as the peseta symbol in their Spanish editions. Subsequent international MS-DOS code pages, like code page 850 and others, deprecated this character in favour of some other national characters. In order to guarantee the interchange with previous encodings such as code page 437, the international standard Unicode includes this character as U+20A7 PESETA SIGN in its Currency Symbols block. Other than that, the use of the "peseta symbol" standalone is rare, has been outdated since the adoption of the euro in Spain. In the version 1.0 of Unicode the character ₧ U+20A7 PESETA SIGN had two reference glyphs: a "Pts" ligature glyph as in IBM code page 437 and an erroneous P with stroke. In Unicode 2.0 the reference glyph P with stroke was erroneously displayed as the only symbol for peseta and was latter corrected to the Pts ligature and a separate character code was added for the peso sign.
The peseta was subdivided into 100 céntimos or, informally, 4 reales. The last coin of any value under one peseta was a 50-céntimo coin issued in 1980 to celebrate Spain's hosting of the 1982 FIFA World Cup; the last 25-céntimo coin was dated 1959, the ten céntimos dated 1959. The 1-céntimo coin was last minted in 1913 and featured King Alfonso XIII; the 1⁄2-céntimo coin was last minted in 1868 and featured Queen Isabel II. The peseta was introduced in 1868, at a time when Spain was considering joining the Latin Monetary Union, it replaced the old Spanish peso currency. Spain decided not to formally join the LMU, although it did achieve alignment with the bloc; the Spanish Law of June 26, 1864 decreed that in preparation for joining the Latin Monetary Union, the peseta became a subdivision of the peso with 1 peso duro = 5 pesetas. The peseta replaced the escudo at a rate of 5 pesetas = 1 peso duro = 2 escudos; the peseta was equal to 4.5 grams of silver, or 0.290322 grams of gold, the standard used by all the currencies of the Latin Monetary Union.
From 1873, only the gold standard applied. The political turbulence of the early twentieth century caused the monetary union to break up, although it was not until 1927 that it ended. In 1959, Spain became part of the Bretton Woods System, pegging the peseta at a value of 60 pesetas = 1 U. S. dollar. In 1967, the peseta followed the devaluation of the British pound, maintaining the exchange rate of 168 pesetas = 1 pound and establishing a new rate of 70 pesetas = 1 U. S. dollar. The peseta was replaced by the euro in 2002, following the establishment of the euro in 1999; the exchange rate was 1 euro = 166.386 pesetas. At least 1252–1284 there was a 1 obolo brass coin – plated with silver – stamped. Colnect shows a first 1 Maravedí-coin made of copper having been edited since 1454; the bigger silver coin 1 Real came out 1786. The latter two currency units were used until the Peseta came in 1868. Note: From 1868 to 1982, a unique dating system for Spanish coins was employed; this would be adopted and sometimes abandoned intermittently during various times, continued through to be used through the first years of the Juan Carlos I reign.
Although a common "authorization date" will be found on all coins of this period on the obverse of each coin, the actual date for many coins can be found inside a small six pointed star on the reverse of each coin, but sometimes the front. Therefore, the obverse date does not always reflect the actual date of mintage but rather a restriking off of older obverse coin die designs. So, if the coin date shows 1959 up front but a tiny "64" is depicted in the six pointed star on the back the actual date of issue is in fact 1964 rather than the date depicted in front; this dating system would be abandoned in the early 1980s anticipating a one by one redesign of each coin denomination. No coins were issued by the short lived First Republic. In 1869 and 1870, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 céntimos, 1, 2 and 5 pesetas; the lowest four denominations were struck in copper, with the 20, 50 céntimos, 1 and 2 pesetas struck in.835 silver and the 5 pesetas struck in.900 silver.
5 and 10 céntimos coins were nicknamed as perra chica and perra gorda as people were unable to recognize the shape of the lion in them, mistaking it for a dog. The 5-peseta coin was nicknamed duro. 5-peseta coins were called duros by every gene
La Vanguardia is a Spanish daily newspaper, founded in 1881. It is printed in Spanish and, since 3 May 2011 in Catalan, it is Catalonia's leading newspaper. La Vanguardia, despite being distributed in Catalonia, has Spain's fourth-highest circulation among general-interest newspapers, trailing only the three main Madrid dailies – El País, El Mundo and ABC, all of which are national newspapers with offices and local editions throughout the country, its editorial line leans to the centre of politics and is moderate in its opinions, although under Franco it followed Francoist ideology and to this day has Catholic sensibilities and strong ties to the Spanish nobility through the Godó family. La Vanguardia's newspaper history began in Barcelona on 1 February 1881 when two businessmen from Igualada and Bartolomé Godó, first published the paper, it was defined as a Diario político de avisos y notícias, intended as a means of communication for a faction of the Liberal Party that wanted to gain control over the Barcelona city council.
On 31 December 1887, the paper published its last edition as a party organ, the next day, 1 January 1888, the first day of the Universal Exposition of Barcelona, it presented a new, politically independent format with morning and afternoon editions. It is one of the oldest papers in Spain, is the only Catalan newspaper that has survived all the Spanish regime changes, from the restoration of Alfonso XII to the 21st century. La Vanguardia is part of the Grupo Godó. Carlos Godó Valls took over the business in 1931, his death was one year after the death of his wife, Montserrat Muntañola Trinxet, succeeding as President his son Javier Godó Muntañola in 1987. From 1939 to 1978 its title included the word Española in order to better accommodate the new state ideology; the paper was one of two major dailies in Spain during the Franco regime together with ABC. In the late 1970s and 1980s La Vanguardia had close connections with Union alliance. In 1987 La Vanguardia received the second largest amount of state aid.
La Vanguardia was published in berliner format until 2 October 2007 when it began to use tabloid format. The daily was awarded the World's Best Designed Newspaper for 1994 by the Society for News Design; the circulation of La Vanguardia was 221,451 copies in February 1970 and 218,390 copies in February 1975. Five years the circulation of the paper was 188,555 copies in February 1980. In 1993 La Vanguardia had a circulation of 208,029 copies, making it the fifth best selling newspaper in Spain. In 1994 it was the fourth best selling newspaper in the country with a circulation of 207,112 copies. La Vanguardia had a circulation of 205,000 copies in 2001, its circulation was 203,000 copies in 2003. Between June 2006 and July 2007 the daily had a circulation of 209,735 copies; the 2008 circulation of the paper was 213,413 copies. It was 196,824 copies in 2011; the newspaper prints daily in two parallel editions, one in Spanish and, since 3 May 2011, another one in Catalan. The Spanish name La Vanguardia is used for both editions.
Before the birth of the Catalan edition, letters to the editor submitted in Catalan were always left untranslated. John Carlin Julià Guillamon Quim Monzó Fernando Krahn Pedro Madueño Sergi Pàmies Pilar Rahola Xavier Sala-i-Martin Gaziel Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers pp 334–37 La Vanguardia newspaper website
The Turia or Túria is a Spanish river which has its source in the Montes Universales in the mountain ranges of the northwesternmost end of the Sistema Ibérico, Teruel province. From its source to the city of Teruel, it is called Guadalaviar river, it runs through the provinces of Teruel and Valencia, discharges into the Mediterranean sea near the city of Valencia. The river is notorious for its floods; the flood which occurred on 14 October 1957, known as the Great Flood of Valencia, flooded large part of the city of Valencia, produced a great deal of damage to both life and property. To prevent this from happening in the future, a diversion project was devised, completed in 1969, the river was divided in two at the western city limits. During floods, most of the water is diverted southwards along a new course that skirts the city, until it meets the Mediterranean; the old course of the river has been turned into a central green-space for the city, a cultural attraction known as the garden of the Turia.
Not unlike the LA River man-made diversion channel south of the city is found dry, since water flows during periods of flooding. Under ordinary flow rates the waters are directed through irrigation channels to help cultivate the fertile plain of Valencia. Throughout history the water of the River Turia has been used to irrigate the region. In modern times, a complex network of irrigation has been created, with the main axis centred on the diversion project. Beyond irrigation, these channels take runoff and surplus waters from the Turia to the wetlands and marshes around Valencia; the old riverbed is now a verdant sunken park that allows cyclists and pedestrians to traverse much of the city without the use of roads. The park, called the'Garden of the Turia' boasts numerous ponds, fountains, football pitches, cafés, climbing walls, an athletics track, a zen garden and more; the many bridges overhead carry traffic across the park. Towards the park's eastern end is the Gulliver Park, a children's adventure playground featuring a huge fibreglass model of Lemuel Gulliver tied to the ground with ropes.
The model is constructed such. In addition, Gulliver's clothes form ladders on which to play. Towards the eastern end of the river course is the Valencian Music Palace. Marking the park's eastern extreme is Valencia's new City of Arts and Sciences. Two Metrovalencia stations lie beneath the riverbed, with entrances on either bank: Túria and Alameda. List of rivers of Spain Flight over River Turia video River Turia information with maps