Arturo Frondizi Ercoli was an Argentine politician and lawyer, President of Argentina from 1 May 1958 until 29 March 1962, for the Intransigent Radical Civic Union, which he led until 1986. Under his program of "Developmentalism", he encouraged increased foreign investment in heavy industry, including motor vehicle production, he was a law professor who became active in left-wing politics as a young man, joining the Radical Civic Union. He was first elected to the Argentine Chamber of Deputies in 1946. In the 1950s he founded the Intransigent Radical Civic Union, he was elected following the military coup d'etat that overthrew Juan Perón, was deposed in turn by a coup in 1962. Frondizi was born in Corrientes Province. Arturo was one of 11 sons; the family relocated to Concepción del Uruguay in 1912, in 1923 to Buenos Aires. Frondizi enrolled in the UBA in 1926. Frondizi graduated from the UBA Law School with honors in 1930, he entered politics following the coup against President Hipólito Yrigoyen, the longtime leader of the centrist UCR, the first Argentine President elected via universal suffrage.
Arrested in 1931, after jail he became an editor of a number of UCR-leaning journals, formally joined the party the following year. He earned a juris doctor in 1932. In July of that year, he was among those, his first case as an attorney was representing 300 political prisoners detained in his native Paso de los Libres for their support of the banned UCR. Frondizi married the former Elena Luisa María Faggionato in 1933, they built a summer cottage in 1935 at the then-secluded seaside resort town of Pinamar. After the birth in 1937 of their daughter, the Frondizis named the cottage Elenita, he led the Argentine League for the Rights of Man, the nation's first recorded human rights organization, upon its founding in 1936. In December of that year, he narrowly escaped an assassination attempt while addressing a crowd. Frondizi drafted a progressive platform alternative for the UCR before the February 1946 elections, he was elected to the Argentine Chamber of Deputies in 1946. He founded the Intransigence and Renewal Movement faction of the UCR, stood for Vice President on Ricardo Balbín's UCR ticket for the 1951 elections.
They lost overwhelmingly to President Juan Perón. Parting ways with Balbin, Frondizi formed an "intransigent" wing of the UCR; the UCRI separated from the more conservative and anti-Perónist Ricardo Balbín at the UCR's 1956 convention. At the time, Perónists included a left-wing element. Perón's government was overturned by a military coup d'état in September 1955, he went into exile in Paraguay. Before the next election, Frondizi's closest collaborator, businessman Rogelio Frigerio, obtained the exiled Perón's endorsement. With support from proscribed Justicialist Party voters, the UCRI won the February 1958 elections; as president, Frondizi struggled with conservative and military interference over much domestic and international policy. Because of economic problems in the country and a steep rise in consumer prices, the military forced him to impose harsh austerity measures in 1959, which resulted in civil unrest. Better able to maneuver after the 1959 recession, Frondizi began to see results from his economic policies.
He tried to lift the electoral ban on Peronism. In addition, he met with Che Guevara and Fidel Castro to aid in mediating their dispute with the United States; this led the military to withdraw their support from his administration, as it opposed leftist populist movements and Communism. In this period, most Perónists feared being associated with left-wing figures, sided with the military in their opposition to the left. Military pressure on Frondizi did not relent, he signed the Conintes Plan in 1960, which banned Communism and suspended civil liberties, but he eschewed doing any implementation. Frondizi tried to negotiate an entente between the U. S. and Cuba with a secret meeting in August 1961 at the Quinta de Olivos residence with the Cuban envoy Che Guevara. The military scuttled any future talks, Frondizi adopted a neutral stance afterwards. In 1962 Frondizi lifted the ban on the Perónist Party, they gained significant victories in the elections in March 1962: notably Andrés Framini was elected as Governor of Buenos Aires Province.
The news triggered a constitutional crisis. Frondizi as president annulled the results of the election, but he was deposed by a coup d'état on March 29, 1962. Frondizi sought to strengthen the economy by solving the main economic problems that had haunted Argentina over the last twenty years; these included insufficiency in oil production, inadequate steel production, the lack of electricity, the insufficiency and obsolescence of transport. He had inherited economic problems from Perón's 1946-55 administration, characterized by budget
Radical Civic Union
The Radical Civic Union is a centrist social-liberal political party in Argentina. The party has been ideologically heterogeneous; the UCR is a member of the Socialist International. Founded in 1891 by radical liberals, it is the oldest political party active in Argentina after the Liberal Party of Corrientes. For many years the party was either in opposition to Peronist governments or illegal during military rule; the UCR's main support comes from the middle class. Throughout its history the party has stood for free elections, supremacy of civilians over the military and liberal democratic values. During the 1970s and 1980s it was perceived as a strong advocate for human rights. By May 2014, the UCR had 14 Senators; the party was a breakaway from the Civic Union, led by Bartolomé Mitre and Leandro Alem. The term'radical' in the party's name referred to its demand for universal male suffrage, considered radical at the time, when Argentina was ruled by an exclusive oligarchy and government power was allocated behind closed doors.
The party unsuccessfully led an attempt to force the early departure of President Miguel Juárez Celman in the Revolution of the Park. A compromise was reached with Juárez Celman's government. Hardliners who opposed this agreement founded the current UCR, led by Alem's nephew, the young and charismatic Hipólito Yrigoyen. In 1893 and 1905 the party led unsuccessful revolutions to overthrow the government. With the introduction of free and confidential voting in elections based on universal adult male suffrage in 1912 the Party managed to win the general elections of 1916, when Hipólito Yrigoyen became president; as well as backing more popular participation, UCR's platform included promises to tackle the country's social problems and eradicate poverty. Yrigoyen's presidency however turned out to be rather dictatorial; the Radical Civic Union remained in power during the next 14 years: Yrigoyen was succeeded by Marcelo T. de Alvear in 1922 and again by himself in 1928. The first coup in Argentina's modern history occurred on September 6, 1930 and ousted an aging Yrigoyen amid an economic crisis resulting from the United States' Great Depression.
From 1930 to 1958 the Radical Civic Union was confined to be the main opposition party, either to the Conservatives and the military during the 1930s and the early 1940s or to the Peronists during the late 1940s and early 1950s. It was only in 1958 that a faction of the party allied with banned Peronists came back to power, led by Arturo Frondizi; the growing tolerance of Frondizi towards his Peronist allies provoked unrest in the army, which ousted the president in March 1962. After a brief military government, presidential elections took place in 1963 with the Peronist Party banned; the outcome saw the candidate of the People's Radical Civic Union Arturo Illia coming first but with only 25% of the votes. Although Argentina experienced during Illia's presidency one of the most successful periods of history in terms of economic performance, the president was ousted by the army in June 1966. Illia's peaceful and ordered style of governing — sometimes considered too "slow" and "boring" - was being criticized at the time.
During the 1970s Peronist government, the Radical Civic Union was the second-most supported party, but this didn't grant the party the role of being the political opposition. In fact, the Peronist government's most important criticisms came from the same Peronist Party; the UCR's leader in those times, Ricardo Balbín, saluted Peron's coffin with the famous sentence "This old adversary salutes a great friend", thus marking the end of the Peronist-radical rivalry that had marked the pace of the Argentine political scene until then. The growing fight between left-wing and right-wing Peronists took the country into chaos and many UCR members were targeted by both factions; the subsequent coup in 1976 ended Peronist rule. During the military regime many members of the UCR were "disappeared", as were members of other parties. Between 1983 and 1989 its leader, Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín, was the first democratically elected president after the military dictatorship headed by generals such as Jorge Videla, Leopoldo Galtieri and Reynaldo Bignone.
Alfonsín was succeeded by Carlos Saúl Menem of the Peronist Justicialist Party. In 1997 the UCR participated in elections in coalition with Front for a Country in Solidarity, itself an alliance of many smaller parties; this strategy brought Fernando de la Rúa to the presidency in the 1999 elections. During major riots triggered by economic reforms implemented by the UCR government, President de la Rúa resigned and fled the country to prevent further turmoil. After three consecutive acting presidents assumed and resigned their duties in the following weeks, Eduardo Duhalde of the PJ took office until new elections could be held. After the 2001 legislative elections it became the second-largest party in the federal Chamber of Deputies, winning 71 of 257 seats, it campaigned in an alliance with the smaller, more leftist FREPASO. The party has subsequently declined markedly and its candidate for President in 2003 gained just 2.34% of the vote, beaten by three Peronis
1854 Argentine presidential election
The Argentine presidential election of 1854 was held on 20 February to choose the first president of the Argentine Confederation for the period 1854-1860. Justo José de Urquiza was elected president by a wide margin, it was the first presidential election after the unification of the country in 1852, after Justo José de Urquiza defeated Juan Manuel de Rosas at the Battle of Caseros on 3 February 1852. The State of Buenos Aires seceded on 11 September 1852 and did not participate in elections until 1862. Congreso General Constituyente de la Confederación Argentina - Sesión de 1852-54. Buenos Aires: Imprenta del Orden. 1871. Pp. 405–409. Barreto Constantín, Ana María. Vida de un Caudillo. Buenos Aires: Editorial Dunken. P. 48. ISBN 978-9870276968. Lorenzo, Celso Ramón. Manual de Historia Constitucional Argentina, Volumen 2. Rosario: Editorial Juris. P. 228. ISBN 950-817-064-6. "Historia Electoral Argentina, p. 58". Www.mininterior.gov.ar. Ministry of the Interior. December 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2017
1898 Argentine presidential election
The Argentine presidential election of 1898 was held on 10 April to choose the president of Argentina. Julio Argentino Roca was elected president for a second period. Having obtained the aging Luis Sáenz Peña's resignation in favor of Vice President José Evaristo Uriburu, Roca once again carried the PAN standard in 1898; the UCR, which had lost its founder, Leandro Alem, to suicide in 1896, was divided between those who backed Senator Bernardo de Irigoyen's drive to form coalitions with more conservative parties, those who supported the party's new leader, Hipólito Yrigoyen. Public debate was heated on the eve of the January 30 elections to a constitutional assembly entrusted to increase the number of congressmen and cabinet members, as well before the April 10, 1898, general election; the electoral college yielded no surprises and Roca was returned to the presidency. Diario de Sesiones de la Cámara de Senadores - Período de 1898. Buenos Aires: Imprenta del "Boletín Oficial". 1898. P. 220. Duhalde, Eduardo Luis.
Acción Parlamentaria de John William Cooke. Buenos Aires: Colihue. P. 232. ISBN 978-950-563-460-6. "Historia Electoral Argentina, p. 58". Www.mininterior.gov.ar. Ministry of the Interior. December 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2017
Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous Argentinian province. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be part of the province and the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since in spite of bearing the same name, the province does not include the national capital city proper, though it does include all other localities of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area surrounding it; the current capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882. The province is the only within the whole Argentina to be divided into partidos and furtherly into localidades, borders the provinces of Entre Ríos to the northeast. Uruguay is just near the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the entire province is part of the Pampas geographical region. The province has a population of 39 % of Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater Buenos Aires; the area of the province, 307,571 km2, makes it the largest in Argentina with around 11% of the country's total area.
The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and the Querandíes. Their culture was lost over the next 350 years, they were subjected to Eurasian plagues from. The survivors joined other tribes or have been absorbed by Argentina's European ethnic majority. Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile; the city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires. Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region.
Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite frequent malones; the end to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert in which the aboriginals were completely exterminated. After the independence from Spain in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, over the Port of Buenos Aires fueled periodic hostilities; the province was declared independent on September 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires.
Concessions gained in the 1859 Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, administratively separated from the province. La Plata was founded in 1882 by Governor Dardo Rocha for the purpose of becoming the provincial capital; the equivalent of a billion dollars of British investment and pro-development and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914; this era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices and led to a halt in the flow of investment funds between nations.
The new Concordance and Perón governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, schools and massive regional hospitals. The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires; these suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Governor Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more, more orderly, development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people, it did not address worsening pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made itself evident since aroun
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a constitutional-type document. The constituent assembly is a subset of a constitutional convention elected by popular vote; as the fundamental document constituting a state, a constitution cannot be modified or amended by the state's normal legislative procedures. A constituent assembly is set up for its specific purpose, which it carries out in a short time, after which the assembly is dissolved. A constituent assembly is a form of representative democracy. Unlike forms of constitution-making in which a constitution is unilaterally imposed by a sovereign lawmaker, the constituent assembly creates a constitution through "internally imposed" actions, in that members of the constituent assembly are themselves citizens, but not the rulers, of the country for which they are creating a constitution; as described by Columbia University Social Sciences Professor Jon Elster: Constitutions arise in a number of different ways.
At the non-democratic extreme of the spectrum, we may imagine a sovereign lawgiver laying down the constitution for all generations. At the democratic extreme, we may imagine a constituent assembly elected by universal suffrage for the sole task of writing a new constitution, and there are all sorts of intermediate arrangements. Right after the 1948 Costa Rican Civil War that overthrow Rafael Angel Calderón Government, the leaders of the victorious side call for an election of a Constituent Assembly in the same year; the Assembly drafted and approved the current Costa Rican Constitution. The Danish Constituent Assembly established the Constitution of Denmark in 1849. During the French Revolution a National Constituent Assembly was formed when representatives assembled at the only location available – a tennis court – and swore the Tennis Court Oath on June 20, 1789, promising that they would not adjourn until they had drafted a new constitution for France. Louis XVI recognized the validity of the National Constituent Assembly on June 27, 1789.
See French Constituent Assembly election, 1848 On 27 November 2010, Iceland held an election for a constitutional assembly, with 522 people vying for 25 delegate seats. The constitutional assembly, in session for four months from early April until late July 2011, drafted a new constitution and passed it unanimously with 25 votes against zero with no abstentions. Parliament put the bill to a national referendum 20 October 2012 in which 67% of the voters declared their support for the bill. Further, 67% of the voters declared their support for equal voting rights and 83% declared their support for national ownership of natural resources, two key provisions of the bill. Parliament has failed to ratify the bill, inviting accusations that the political class is trying to thwart the will of the people by disrespecting the result of the 2012 constitutional referendum; the Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India, served as its first Parliament as an independent nation.
It was set up as a result of negotiations between the leaders of the Indian independence movement and members of the British Cabinet Mission. The constituent assembly was elected indirectly by the members of the Provincial legislative assembly, which existed under the British Raj, it first met on December 1946, in Delhi. On August 15, 1947, India became an independent nation, the Constituent Assembly started functioning as India's Parliament. Dr. Ambedkar drafted the Constitution of India in conjunction with the requisite deliberations and debates in the Constituent Assembly; the Assembly approved the Constitution on November 26, 1949, it took effect on January 26, 1950 — a day now commemorated as Republic Day in India. Once the Constitution took effect, the Constituent Assembly became the Provisional Parliament of India The Constitutional Assembly of Indonesia was established to draw up a permanent constitution, its membership was elected in November 1955, it met for the first time in November 1956.
After four sessions, it failed to agree on the fundamental basis for the state. It was dissolved in 1959, the original constitution imposed by presidential decree; the Constituent Assembly of Italy was established in 1946 in the wake of Fascist Italy's defeat during World War II. It was elected with universal suffrage with a referendum about the adoption of Republic or the continuation of monarchy. Voters chose Republic, the new assembly had the task to approve the new republic governments, as well as to write a new constitution; this was approved on 22 December 1947. It was dissolved on 31 January 1948. Nepal has had two Constituent assemblies, the current one being elected after its predecessor failed to deliver a constitution, despite multiple extensions, it serves as the country's parliament. Nepal had made constitution with 89% majority. Nepal is adopting Federal states soon; the Russian Constituent Assembly was established in Russia in the wake of the October Revolution of 1917 to form a new constitution after the overthrow of the Russian Provisional Government.
The Sri Lankan Parliament approved the creation of a Sri Lankan Constitutional Assembly on March 9, 2016 proposed by Prime Minister
María Eva Duarte de Perón was the wife of Argentine President Juan Perón and First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952. She is referred to as Eva Perón or Evita, she was born in poverty in the rural village of Los Toldos, in the Pampas, as the youngest of five children. At 15 in 1934, she moved to the nation's capital of Buenos Aires to pursue a career as a stage and film actress, she met Colonel Juan Perón there on 22 January 1944 during a charity event at the Luna Park Stadium to benefit the victims of an earthquake in San Juan, Argentina. The two were married the following year. Juan Perón was elected President of Argentina in 1946, she ran the Ministries of Labor and Health and ran the charitable Eva Perón Foundation, championed women's suffrage in Argentina, founded and ran the nation's first large-scale female political party, the Female Peronist Party. In 1951, Eva Perón announced her candidacy for the Peronist nomination for the office of Vice President of Argentina, receiving great support from the Peronist political base, low-income and working-class Argentines who were referred to as descamisados or "shirtless ones".
Opposition from the nation's military and bourgeoisie, coupled with her declining health forced her to withdraw her candidacy. In 1952, shortly before her death from cancer at 33, Eva Perón was given the title of "Spiritual Leader of the Nation" by the Argentine Congress, she was given a state funeral upon her death, a prerogative reserved for heads of state. Eva Perón has become a part of international popular culture, most famously as the subject of the musical Evita. Cristina Álvarez Rodríguez claims that Evita has never left the collective consciousness of Argentines. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, the first woman elected President of Argentina, claims that women of her generation owe a debt to Eva for "her example of passion and combativeness". Eva's autobiography, La Razón de mi Vida, contains no dates or references to childhood occurrences, does not list the location of her birth or her name at birth. According to Junín's civil registry, a birth certificate shows that one María Eva Duarte was born on 7 May 1922.
Her baptismal certificate lists the date of birth as 7 May 1919 under the name Eva María Ibarguren. It is thought that in 1945 the adult Eva Perón created a forgery of her birth certificate for her marriage. Eva Perón spent her childhood in Buenos Aires province, her father, Juan Duarte, was descended from French Basque immigrants. Her mother Juana Ibarguren, was descended from Spanish Basque immigrants. Juan Duarte, a wealthy rancher from nearby Chivilcoy had a wife and family there. At that time in rural Argentina, it was not uncommon for a wealthy man to have multiple families; when Eva was a year old, Duarte returned permanently to his legal family, leaving Juana Ibarguren and her children in penury. Ibarguren and her children were forced to move to the poorest area of Junín. Los Toldos was a village in the dusty region of Las Pampas, with a reputation as a desolate place of abject poverty. To support herself and her children, Ibarguren sewed clothes for neighbors; the family was stigmatized by the abandonment of the father and by the illegitimate status of the children under Argentine law, was somewhat isolated.
A desire to expunge this part of her life might have been a motivation for Eva to arrange the destruction of her original birth certificate in 1945. When Duarte died and his mistress and their children sought to attend his funeral, there was an unpleasant scene at the church gates. Although Juana and the children were permitted to enter and pay their respects to Duarte, they were promptly directed out of the church. Mrs. Juan Duarte did not want her husband's mistress and children at the funeral and, as those of the legitimate wife, her orders were respected. Prior to abandoning Juana Ibarguren, Juan Duarte had been her sole means of support. Biographer John Barnes writes that, after this abandonment, all Duarte left to the family was a document declaring that the children were his, thus enabling them to use the Duarte surname. Soon after, Juana moved her children to a one-room apartment in Junín. To pay the rent on their single-roomed home and daughters took up jobs as cooks in the houses of the local estancias.
Owing to Eva's older brother's financial help, the family moved into a bigger house, which they transformed into a boarding house. During this time, young Eva participated in school plays and concerts. One of her favorite pastimes was the cinema. Though Eva's mother had a few plans for Eva, wanting to marry her off to one of the local bachelors, Eva herself dreamed of becoming a famous actress. Eva's love for acting was reinforced in October 1933, when she played a small role in a school play called Arriba estudiantes, which Barnes describes as "an emotional, flag-waving melodrama." After the play, Eva was determined to become an actress. In her autobiography, she explained that all the people from her own town, to the big cities described them as "marvelous places, where nothing was given but wealth". In 1934, at the age of 15, Eva escaped her poverty-stricken village when she ran off with a young musician to the nation's capital of Buenos Aires; the young couple's relationship ended as as it had begun, but Eva remained in Buenos Aires.
She began to pursue jobs on the stage and the radio, became a film actress. Eva had a series of relationships and via some of these men she did acquire a number of her modeling appoi