The 1958 FIFA World Cup, the sixth staging of the World Cup, was hosted by Sweden from 8 to 29 June. The tournament was won by Brazil, who beat Sweden 5–2 in the final in the Stockholm suburb of Solna for their first title; the tournament is notable for marking the debut on the world stage of a 17-year-old Pelé. Argentina, Chile and Sweden expressed interest in hosting the tournament. Swedish delegates lobbied other countries at the FIFA Congress held in Rio de Janeiro around the opening of the 1950 World Cup finals. Sweden was awarded the 1958 tournament unopposed on 23 June 1950; the hosts and the defending champions qualified automatically. Of the remaining 14 places, nine were allocated to Europe, three to South America, one to North/Central America, one to Asia/Africa. Aside from the main European zone matches, which finished second in its group behind Czechoslovakia, was drawn into a play-off with Israel after Israel won its group by default because its three opponents, Turkey and Sudan, refused to play.
FIFA had imposed a rule that no team would qualify without playing at least one match, something that had happened in several previous World Cups. Wales won the play-off and qualified for the first, so far only, time. With Northern Ireland making its debut, England and Scotland qualifying, this World Cup was the only one to feature all four of the United Kingdom's Home Nations; this World Cup saw the entry and qualification of the Soviet Union for the first time, while Argentina appeared for the first time since 1934. Until 2018, this FIFA World Cup was the only one. Other teams that failed to qualify included two-time champions and 1954 semifinalists Uruguay, as well as the Spain and Belgium national teams. On 8 February 1958, in Solna, Lennart Hyland and Sven Jerring presented the results of the draw where the qualified teams were divided into four groups. Seeding was geographical rather than by team strength, with each group containing one western European team, one eastern European team, one of the four British teams that had qualified, one from the Americas.
The following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament. The format of the competition changed from 1954: 16 teams still competed in four groups of four, but this time each team played each of the other teams in its group at least once, without extra time in the event of a draw. Two points were awarded for one point for a draw. If the first two teams finished on equal points goal average would decide, placed first and second; as in 1954, if the second and third placed teams finished on the same points there would be a play-off with the winner going through. If a play-off resulted in a draw, goal average from the group games would be used to determine who went through to the next round. If the goal averages were equal lots would have been drawn; these arrangements had not been finalised by the time the tournament started and were still being debated as it progressed. Some teams complained that a play-off match, meaning three games in five days, was too much, before the second round of group matches FIFA informed the teams that goal average would be used before resorting to a play-off.
This was overturned when the Swedish Football Association complained, ostensibly that it was wrong to change the rules mid-tournament, but because it wanted the extra revenue from playoff matches. This was the first time, it was used to separate the teams finishing second in one of the groups. However, all three playoffs finished with decisive results and so it was not needed to separate the teams involved in a tied playoff. All the matches kicked off in each of the three rounds of the group phase, as did the quarter-finals and semi-finals; the exceptions were Sweden's three group matches. Apart from these, one match per round was televised, relayed across Europe by the European Broadcasting Union. Many Swedes bought their first television for the World Cup; the official ball was the "Top-Star VMbollen 1958" model made by Sydsvenska Läder & Remfabriks AB in Ängelholm. It was chosen from 102 candidates in a blind test by four FIFA officials. In Group 4, Pelé did not play against the Soviet Union.
He failed to score. They had drawn 0–0 with England in what was the first goalless game in World Cup history; the Soviet Union and England went to a playoff game, in which Anatoli Ilyin scored in the 67th minute to knock England out, while Austria had been eliminated. The English side had been weakened by the Munich air disaster earlier in the year, which killed three internationals on the books of Manchester United, including England's young star Duncan Edwards. Playoffs were needed in Group 1 and Group 3. Hungary had become a spent force after their appearance in the final of the previous tournament, they had lost their best players two years before, when they fled in the wake of the failed uprising against the communist regime. In a rather restrictive sense, from the 1954 team, only goalkeeper Gyula Grosics, defender Jozsef Bozsik and
Stencilling produces an image or pattern by applying pigment to a surface over an intermediate object with designed gaps in it which create the pattern or image by only allowing the pigment to reach some parts of the surface. The stencil is pattern and the intermediate object. In practice, the stencil is a thin sheet of material, such as paper, wood or metal, with letters or a design cut from it, used to produce the letters or design on an underlying surface by applying pigment through the cut-out holes in the material; the key advantage of a stencil is that it can be reused to and produce the same letters or design. Although aerosol or painting stencils can be made for one-time use they are made with the intention of being reused. To be reusable, they must remain intact after a design is produced and the stencil is removed from the work surface. With some designs, this is done by connecting stencil islands to other parts of the stencil with bridges. Stencil technique in visual art is referred to as pochoir.
A related technique is aerography, in which spray-painting is done around a three-dimensional object to create a negative of the object instead of a positive of a stencil design. This technique was used in cave paintings dating to 10,000 BC, where human hands were used in painting handprint outlines among paintings of animals and other objects; the artist sprayed pigment around his hand by using a hollow bone, blown by mouth to direct a stream of pigment. Screen printing uses a stencil process, as does mimeography; the masters from which mimeographed pages are printed are called "stencils". Stencils can be made with one or many colour layers using different techniques, with most stencils designed to be applied as solid colours. During screen printing and mimeography, the images for stenciling are broken down into color layers. Multiple layers of stencils are used on the same surface to produce multi-colored images. Hand stencils, made by blowing pigment over a hand held against a wall, are found from over 35,000 years ago in Asia and Europe, prehistoric dates in other continents.
After that stenciling has been used as a historic painting technique on all kinds of materials. Stencils may have been used to color cloth for a long time. In Europe, from about 1450 they were used to color old master prints printed in black and white woodcuts; this was the case with playing-cards, which continued to be colored by stencil long after most other subjects for prints were left in black and white. Stencils were used for mass publications. Stencils were popular as a method of book illustration, for that purpose, the technique was at its height of popularity in France during the 1920s when André Marty, Jean Saudé and many other studios in Paris specialized in the technique. Low wages contributed to the popularity of the labor-intensive process; when stencils are used in this way they are called "pochoir". In the pochoir process, a print with the outlines of the design was produced, a series of stencils were used through which areas of color were applied by hand to the page. To produce detail, a collotype could be produced which the colors were stenciled over.
Pochoir was used to create prints of intense color and is most associated with Art Nouveau and Art Deco design. Aerosol stencils have many practical applications and the stencil concept is used in industrial, artistic and recreational settings, as well as by the military and infrastructure management. A template is used to create an outline of the image. Stencils templates can be made from any material which will hold its form, ranging from plain paper, plastic sheets and wood. Stencils are used by official organizations, including the military, utility companies, governments, to and label objects and locations. Stencils for an official application can be customized, or purchased as individual letters and symbols; this allows the user to arrange words and other labels from one set of templates, unique to the item being labeled. When objects are labeled using a single template alphabet, it makes it easier to identify their affiliation or source. Stencils have become popular for graffiti, since stencil art using spray-paint can be produced and easily.
These qualities are important for graffiti artists where graffiti is illegal or quasi-legal, depending on the city and stenciling surface. The extensive lettering possible with stencils makes it attractive to political artists. For example, the anarcho-punk band Crass used stencils of anti-war, anarchist and anti-consumerist messages in a long-term graffiti campaign around the London Underground system and on advertising billboards. There has been a semi-recent trend in making multi-layered stencils with different shades of grey for each layer creating a more detailed stenciled image. Well known for their use of stencil art is Blek le Rat and Jef aerosol from France, British artist Banksy, New York artist, world traveling artist Tavar Zawacki f.k.a.'ABOVE', Shepard Fairey's OBEY, Pirate & Acid from Hollywood, California. A common tradition for stencils is in home decorating and arts & crafts
The Pine Grove Iron Works was a southcentral Pennsylvania smelting facility during the Industrial Revolution. The works is notable for remaining structures that are historical visitor attractions of Pine Grove Furnace State Park, including the furnace stack of the Pine Grove Furnace; the site was listed on the National Register of Historical Places on April 13, 1977 for its significance in architecture and industry. It includes seven contributing buildings, two structures, fourteen sites, two objects; the works occupied the small area around the furnace stack a "quarter of a mile from the" quarry. Notable geographic points near the works include the Mountain Creek distributary point for the furnace water race on the west, the wash race distributary point from Tom's Run, the confluence of the furnace's water race with the creek. To the east and southeast were the railroad bridge over the creek and the "east workings" with the limestone quarry and Pine Grove bank No. 1. Pine Grove was the village/town associated with the iron works, village structures included the Methodist Episcopal Church and residences north of the east-west road through the area.
By 1886 the village had a post office, the schoolhouse and c. 1790 Pine Grove Cemetery were south of the village and the iron works. A local store provide goods. Pine Grove Furnace was built the second of nine Cumberland County furnaces, it was built and operated by Robert Thornburg and John Arthur, in the interest of George Stevenson, who owned Laurel Forge downstream on Mountain Creek. The furnace smelted iron ore to produce colonial cast iron products such as wagon wheel iron, fireplace backs, iron kettles, ten plate stoves, in the late 19th century, Baldwin Locomotive parts; the Pine Grove Furnace facilities were identified as "Pine Grove Iron-Works" by 1782, in addition to water raceways and charcoal hearths, support facilities were built near the works, e.g. the 1829 L-shaped iron master mansion. A saw mill was built c. 1777, the Pine Grove No. 1 bank was used for limonite iron ore while two quarries provided limestone. The 1870 South Mountain RR, with offices at Pine Grove, connected the furnace to limestone pits and three operating ore mines.
The charcoal-fired furnace was deactivated in 1874, the engine house continued pumping the ore pit to keep reduced water levels. The cold blast furnace had been converted to hot blast by 1877, remodelling in the 1877-8 winter including changes to allow alternate fuels. Connellsville coke was first used on March 22/23, 1879. A rail extension to the Wild Cat pits, 2.5 miles west of Pine Grove, was considered in 1880 but not completed. Net iron output in the peak year of 1883 was 6,000 short tons; the SMRR-succeeding 1891 Hunter's Run and Slate Belt Railroad and 1910 Gettysburg and Harrisburg Railway operated to the Pine Grove Railroad Station and the nearby Pine Grove Park. Iron production ended in 1895, the Pine Grove Iron Works was sold on September 12, 1913, as part of 3 tracts which became the majority of the Pine Grove Division of the South Mountain Forest and, by 1931, the Pine Grove Furnace State Park; the ownership chain of the Pine Grove Iron Works was published in 1886, a history by one of the superintendents was published in 1934.
The Ironmaster's Mansion was restored by 1985 and renovated from 2010 until April 5, 2011. In 1991, Railroads to Pine Grove Furnace was published. Flower, Lenore Embick. History of Pine Grove Furnace. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Cumberland County Historical Association. Retrieved 2011-05-20
Edward Skorek is a former Polish volleyball player, a member of Poland men's national volleyball team in 1964–1976, Olympic Champion 1976, World Champion 1974, silver medalist of the World Cup 1965, bronze medalist of the European Championship 1967. Following his successful player career, Skorek has tried his luck as a coach in various European Leagues. In 1998 received a state award - Officer's Cross of Polonia Restituta for outstanding contributions to the Polish Olympic movement, for his contribution to the development of physical culture, for sporting achievements. 1998 Officer's Cross of Hilary. "Edward Skorek". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC
John Christopher Torpey is an American academic and historian best known for his scholarship on the state and contemporary politics. Torpey is a professor of sociology and history at the Graduate Center, CUNY and director of the Graduate Center's Ralph Bunche Institute for International Studies. From 2016 to 2017, Torpey served as the president of the Eastern Sociological Society. Torpey received his bachelor of arts degree from Amherst College in 1981 in political science, before completing his Ph. D. in sociology at University of California, Berkeley in 1992. At Berkeley, Torpey wrote his dissertation under the guidance of Jerome Karabel, Robert Bellah, Martin Jay, which became the foundation of his first book Intellectuals and Dissent: The East German Opposition and its Legacy. Torpey has held permanent teaching positions at the University of California, the University of British Columbia, at the Graduate Center, CUNY. In 2010, Torpey was the Fulbright Distinguished Chair in American Studies at the Karl-Franzens-University in Graz, Austria.
In addition to teaching, Torpey sits on the editorial boards of the journals Theory and Society and Journal of Human Rights. Torpey has written extensively on the role of the state in shaping modern social life. In Intellectuals and Dissent, Torpey examined the role of intellectuals within the German Democratic Republic, their role in the Republic's eventual collapse, as well as their aspirations for reform. Torpey has received significant attention for his book The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance and the State, which examines the institution of the modern passport. In The Invention of the Passport, Torpey borrows from sociologist Max Weber, arguing that states hold a “monopolization of the legitimate means of movement” and that the passport functions as a way of displacing and amplifying their administrative power. Torpey's most recent scholarship focuses on religion in modern society. Alongside Christian Joppke, Torpey has written on the legal and cultural integration of Islam into Western liberal democracies, comparing the United States, Germany and Canada.
He has been a contributor to the axial age debate. Torpey, John C.. The Three Axial Ages: Moral, Mental. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0813590516. Torpey, John C.. Making Whole What has Been Smashed: On Reparations Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0813592237. Torpey, John C.. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521634939. Torpey, John C.. Intellectuals and Dissent: The East German Opposition and its Legacy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0816625673. Joppke, Christian. Legal Integration of Islam: A Transatlantic Comparison. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674072848. Gorski, Philip; the Post-Secular in Question: Religion in Contemporary Society. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814738726. Levy, Daniel. Old Europe, New Europe, Core Europe: Transatlantic Relations after the Iraq War. New York: Verso. ISBN 978-1844675203. Torpey, John, ed.. Politics and the Past: On Repairing Historical Injustices.
Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0742517998. Caplan, Jane. Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691009124. Ralph Bunche Institute for International Studies at the Graduate Center
The Vanni chieftaincies or Vanni principalities was a region between Anuradhapura and Jaffna, but extending to along the eastern coast to Panama and Yala, during the Transitional and Kandyan periods of Sri Lanka. This land was a collection of chieftaincies of principalities that were a collective buffer zone between the Jaffna Kingdom, in the north of Sri Lanka, the Sinhalese kingdoms in the south; the emergance of these chieftaincies were a direct result of the breakdown of central authority and the collapse of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa in the 13th century, as well as the establishment of the Jaffna Kingdom in the Jaffna Peninsula. Control of this area was taken over by dispossessed Sinhalese nobels and chiefs of the South Indian military of Māgha of Kalinga, whose 1215 invasion of Polonnaruwa led to the kingdom's downfall. Sinhalese chieftaincies would lay on the northern border of the Sinhalese kingdom while the Tamil chieftaincies would border the Jaffna Kingdom and the remoter areas of the eastern coast, outside of the control of either kingdom.
The chieftains, who were known as Vanniars, would function like feudal lords in their territories. During much of the Transitional period where the island was politically unstable, depending on the situation at the time, the chieftains would owe their allegiance to one or the other kingdom, they offered military protection to those. Vanniars referred to a broad category of people who could have been appointees of the Sinhalese kings, who administered outlying districts or autonomous rulers of large, sparsely populated and undeveloped lands; the Vanniars in general paid tribute to the Kingdom of Kotte and to the Kingdom of Kandy, apart from a few that were close to the Jaffna Kingdom. Vanniar or Vanniyar was a title used by tribute-paying feudal chiefs in medieval Sri Lanka, it was recorded as the name of a caste amongst Sri Lankan Tamils in the Vanni District of northern Sri Lanka during the early 1900s. The Vannimai ruling class arose from a multi-caste background. According to primary sources such as the Yalpana Vaipava Malai, some were descended from Vanniyar caste immigrants from modern Tamil Nadu, whereas others were of Mukkuvar, Karaiyar and other caste origins.
Some scholars conclude the Vanniyar title as a rank of a local chieftain, introduced by the Velaikkarar mercenaries of the Chola dynasty. Some Sri Lankan historians derive the title Vannimai from the Tamil word vanam, meaning "forest", with Vannia or Wannia meaning "person from the forest", Vannimais being large tracts of forested land. Tamil chronicles such as the 18th-century Yalpana Vaipava Malai and stone inscriptions like the Konesar Kalvettu recount that the Chola royal Kankan, a descendant of the legendary King Manu Needhi Cholan of Thiruvarur, Chola Nadu, restored the Koneswaram temple at Trincomalee and the Kantalai tank after finding them in ruins. Kankan visited the Munneswaram temple on the west coast of Sri Lanka, before settling in the east of the island. According to the chronicles, he extensively expanded the shrine. In addition to this reconstruction, Kulakottan paid attention to agriculture cultivation and economic development in the area, inviting the Vanniar chief Tanniuna Popalen and other families to a newly founded town in the Thampalakamam area to maintain the Kantalai tank and the temple itself.
As a result of his policies, the Vanni region flourished. The Vanniar claim descent from this chief. Modern historians and anthropologists agree as factual the connection of the Vanniars with the Konesar temple, some cite epigraphical evidence to date Kullakottan's renovations to 432-440 AD. Others cite poetic and inscriptional evidence to date his renovations to as early as 1589 BC. After the re-rise of the Tamil kingdoms and the demise of the Rajarata after the twelfth century AD, many petty chiefs took power in the buffer lands between the northern Jaffna Kingdom and the southern kingdoms of Kotte and Kandy; these petty chefs paid tribute to the Jaffna Kingdom. Sometimes they were independent of any central control, or were subdued by the southern kingdoms for strategic advantages, before being restored. Many kings and chiefs with titles such as Vannian or Vannia ruled in northern areas of modern Sri Lanka during the Jaffna era; some of the Vanni chieftains were immigrants from southern India, ruled over a populace known as rate-atto in Sinhalese.
The Vanni chieftains ruled following local custom, supported by a coterie of local officials. Their rule had a noticeable influence on the language of the local populace. Among the medieval Vanni chieftaincies, those of Panankamam, Mulliyavalai, Karrikattumulai and Trincomalee in the north of the island were incorporated into the Jaffna Kingdom. Hence the Vanni just south of the Jaffna peninsula and in the eastern Trincomalee district paid an annual tribute to the northern kingdom instead of taxes; the tribute was in cash, honey and ivory. The annual tribute system was enforced due to the greater distance from Jaffna; the arrival of the Portuguese to the island caused a brief loss of some of Jaffna's territory. Queirós, an historian of Portuguese origin, says of the Jaffna kingdom: "This modest kingdom is not confined to the little district of Jaffnapatnam because to it are added the neighboring lands and those of the Vanni, said to be name of the lordship which they held before we obtained pocession of them, separated from the proceeding by a salty river and connected only in the extremity or isthamus of Pachalapali within which the lands of Baligamo and Pachalapali forming that peninsula and outsid