Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
A. J. Watson
A. J. Watson was a car builder and chief mechanic from 1949 through 1984 in the Indianapolis 500, winning the race six times as a car builder. Rodger Ward won 18 races driving Watson cars. A native of southern California, Watson missed the race, he returned the following year with a home-built car. For the next 11 years, his cars not only were leaders in many years. From 1955 to 1958 he was associated with the John Zink team, from 1959 on with Bob Wilke, his first win as a car builder came in 1956 when Pat Flaherty drove the John Zink entry to victory in that year's Indy 500. Watson had won the previous year as a crew chief for Bob Sweikert. Watson's cars dominated the race through 1964. Although he continued entering cars for another two decades, he was never able to regain the commanding position of his heyday. In 1964, with many teams following Lotus's example and moving to rear-engined "funny cars", Watson built a pair of cars based on Rolla Vollstedt's successful car; these worked reasonably well but could not reproduce the success he had with his front-engined "roadsters".
He built monocoque rear-engined cars in 1967 with ever-decreasing success. From 1969 until 1977, Watson ran Eagles and built a small series of derivative new "Watson" cars in 1977, 1978 and again in 1982 based on Lightning and March designs before retiring, he is listed on the Indy 500 entry sheet as the "race strategist" for PDM Racing, though his role with the team is honorary. He died on May 12, 2014 at the age of 90, he was inducted in the National Sprint Car Hall of Fame in 1993. He was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1996. Legendary Mechanic Celebrating 50th Year at Indy
Rodger M. Ward was a WWII P-38 aviator in the United States Air Force, an American race driver with 26 victories in top echelon open-wheel racing in North America, two Indianapolis 500 victories, two USAC National Championships, who conceived the classic tri-oval design and layout of Pocono International Raceway, modeled after his three favorite signature turns, at Trenton and Milwaukee. Ward was born in Beloit, the son of Ralph and Geneva Ward. By 1930, the family had moved to California, he died in California. Ward's father owned an auto wrecking business in Los Angeles. Rodger was 14 years old, he was a P-38 Lightning fighter pilot in World War II. He enjoyed flying so much, he was so good he was retained as an instructor. After the war he was stationed in Texas when a quarter mile dirt track was built, he began racing midget cars in 1946. He finished poorly, his skills improved in 1947 and by 1948 he won the San Diego Grand Prix. He won several races. Ward shocked the midget car racing world when he broke Offenhauser motor's long winning streak by using Vic Edelbrock's Ford 60 "shaker" motor at Gilmore Stadium on August 10, 1950.
The motor was one of the first to feature nitromethane for fuel. Ward and Edelbrock won again. Ward used his midget car in 1959 to beat the top expensive and exotic sports cars in a Formula Libre race at Lime Rock Park. Midget cars were considered competitive for oval tracks only before that time; that same year, Ward entered the United States Grand Prix for Formula One cars with the midget car, under the false belief that it was much quicker through the turns, a fact he found not true at the beginning of practice. He retired from the race after twenty laps with a mechanical failure, he won the 1951 AAA Stock Car championship. The championship gave him an opportunity for a rookie test at the 1951 Indianapolis 500, he qualified for the race. He finished 34 laps, he finished 130 laps in the 1952 Indianapolis 500. His 1953 Indianapolis 500 ended after 170 laps, his 1954 Indianapolis 500 ended after his car stalled on the backstretch, he completed all of the laps for the first time in 1956. In 1959 he joined the Leader Card Racers team with owner Bob Wilke and mechanic A. J. Watson.
Ward won his first Indianapolis 500. He won the USAC National Championship with victories at DuQuoin and the Indy Fairgrounds, his 1959 season ended by competing in the only United States Grand Prix held at Sebring Raceway. Ward battled Jim Rathmann for the lead in the 1960 Indianapolis 500. In one of the epic duels in Indy 500 history and Rathmann exchanged the lead 14 times before Ward slowed on lap 197 to nurse his frayed right front tire to the finish. Rathmann struggling with worn-out tires after such a furious pace, took the lead on lap 197 and the two drivers limped home in what is still regarded as one of the greatest duels for the win in Indianapolis 500 history. Ward led the rest of the race, he won the season championship that year. In the midst of the Lotus-Ford rear-engine invasion in 1964, car owner/chief mechanic A. J. Watson built the first rear-engined Watson, mated to the four-cam Ford, but the night before the 1964 Indianapolis 500, Ward and Watson made a uncharacteristic strategic error.
Going against the strong recommendation from Ford to use gasoline fuel instead of the cooler-burning but less powerful methanol/gasoline. The car was fast. Ward calculated that he had spent two minutes less on the track than winner A. J. Foyt, yet only lost the race by 1 minute. In addition, the horrific second-lap accident, in which his friends Dave MacDonald and Eddie Sachs both perished in a fiery, gasoline-fueled wreck, left an indelible impression on Ward. After a difficult month of May, 1965, Ward suffered the embarrassment of failing to qualify. At the banquet, Ward stood at the podium and made a painful announcement to the crowd: "I always said I'd quit racing when it stopped being fun," he said, he paused. "Today it wasn't fun anymore." He had 26 victories in his 150 starts between 1950 and 1964, he finished in the top ten in more than half of his starts. Ward retired to be a commentator for ABC's Wide World of Sports for NASCAR and Indycars from 1965 to 1970. From 1980-1985, he served as a driver expert for the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network, before retiring in Tustin, California.
In years, he served as public relations director for the new Ontario Motor Speedway, managed the Circus Circus unlimited hydroplane team. He died on July 5, 2004, aged 83. In 1992, he was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, he was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1995. Ward was inducted in the National Midget Auto Racing Hall of Fame in 1995. Ward is a member of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame, he was inducted in the West Coast Stock Car Hall of Fame in 2003. Ward's finishes from 1959 to 1963 and 1960 to 1964 rank as the best and second best five-race finishing streaks in Indianapolis 500 history; the Indianapolis 500 was part of the FIA World Championship from 1950 through 1960. Drivers competing at Indy during those years were credited with World Championship points and
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
1959 Indianapolis 500
The 43rd International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Saturday, May 30, 1959. The event was part of the 1959 USAC National Championship Trail and was race 2 of 9 in the 1959 World Championship of Drivers. Rodger Ward earned the first of two career Indy 500 victories. A record sixteen cars completed the full 500 miles. All cars were required to have roll bars for the first time. Two drivers, Jerry Unser and Bob Cortner, were killed in separate crashes during the month. On May 2, Unser lost control in Turn Four and flipped down the main stretch; the car caught Unser suffered significant burns. On May 19, rookie Cortner crashed in turn three after being pushed by a wind gust, he was killed of head injuries. Time trials was scheduled for four days: Saturday May 16 – Pole Day time trials Sunday May 17 – Second day time trials Saturday May 23 – Third day time trials Sunday May 24 – Fourth day time trials Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lead lap First alternate: Rex Easton Fastest lead lap: Johnny Thomson – 1:01.89 Two drivers, Jerry Unser and Bob Cortner, were killed as a result of accidents during practice for this race.
Bobby Grim qualified 5th and won the Rookie of the Year award despite dropping out of the race before the halfway point. On lap 85, he suffered magneto failure, began coasting to the pits; as was customary for drivers of the time, he raised his arm to signify to the other drivers he had lost power. However, due to the high speed he was still traveling, he dislocated his arm in the process. Visibly in pain, the crew thought he was coming in for relief, Jack Turner jumped behind the wheel, but the car would not run; the first scoring pylon, a famous landmark of the Speedway, was constructed at the south end of the pit area. Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. Points were not awarded in the 500 towards the F1 constructors championship; the race was carried live on the IMS Radio Network. Sid Collins served as chief announcer. Fred Agabashian joined the crew for the first time as "driver expert." The broadcast reached 385 affiliates, including Alaska. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is an automobile racing circuit located in Speedway, Indiana, in the United States. It is the home of the Indianapolis 500 and the Brickyard 400, the home of the United States Grand Prix, it is located on the corner of 16th Street and Georgetown Road six miles west of Downtown Indianapolis. Constructed in 1909, it is the second purpose-built, banked oval racing circuit after Brooklands and the first to be called a'speedway', it has a permanent seating capacity of 257,325. It is the highest-capacity sports venue in the world. Considered flat by American standards, the track is a 2.5-mile-long rectangular oval with dimensions that have remained unchanged since its construction. It has two 5⁄8-mile-long straightaways, four geometrically identical 1⁄4-mile turns, connected by two 1⁄8-mile short straightaways, termed "short chutes", between turns 1 and 2, between turns 3 and 4. A modern, FIA Grade One infield road course was completed in 2000, incorporating part of the oval, including the main stretch and the southeast turn, measuring 2.605 miles.
In 2008, again in 2014, the road course layout was modified to accommodate motorcycle racing, as well as to improve competition. Altogether, the current grounds have expanded from an original 320 acres on which the speedway was first built to cover an area of over 559 acres. Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, it is the only such site to be affiliated with automotive racing history. In addition to the Indianapolis 500, the speedway hosts NASCAR's Brickyard 400 and Lilly Diabetes 250. From 2000 to 2007, the speedway hosted the Formula One United States Grand Prix, from 2008 to 2015 the Moto GP. On the grounds of the speedway is the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum, which opened in 1956, houses the Hall of Fame; the museum moved into its current building located in the infield in 1976. On the grounds is the Brickyard Crossing Golf Resort, which opened as the Speedway Golf Course in 1929; the golf course has 14 holes outside the track, along the backstretch, four holes in the infield.
The speedway served as the venue for the opening ceremonies for the 1987 Pan American Games. The track is nicknamed "The Brickyard", the garage area is famously known as Gasoline Alley. Indianapolis businessman Carl G. Fisher first envisioned building the speedway in 1905 after assisting friends racing in France and seeing that Europe held the upper hand in automobile design and craftsmanship. Fisher began thinking of a better means of testing cars before delivering them to consumers. At the time, racing was just getting started on public roads. Fisher noticed how ill-suited the makeshift courses were for racing and testing, he argued that spectators did not get their money's worth, as they were only able to get a brief glimpse of cars speeding down a linear road. Fisher proposed building a circular track 3 to 5 miles long with smooth 100–150-foot-wide surfaces; such a track would give manufacturers a chance to test cars at sustained speeds and give drivers a chance to learn their limits. Fisher predicted.
He visited the Brooklands circuit outside London in 1907, after viewing the banked layout, it solidified his determination to build the speedway. With dozens of car makers and suppliers in Indiana, Fisher proclaimed, "Indianapolis is going to be the world's greatest center of horseless carriage manufacturer, what could be more logical than building the world's greatest racetrack right here?"Fisher began looking around the Indianapolis area for a site to build his track. In December 1908, he convinced James A. Allison, Arthur Newby, Frank W. Wheeler to join him in purchasing the property for $72,000; the group incorporated the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Company on March 20, 1909, with a capitalization of $250,000, with Fisher and James Allison in for $75,000 apiece and Frank Wheeler and Arthur Newby on board for $50,000 each. Construction of the track started in March 1909. Fisher had to downsize his planned 3-mile oval with a 2-mile road course to a 2.5-mile oval to leave room for the grandstands.
Reshaping of the land for the speedway took 500 laborers, 300 mules and a fleet of steam-powered machinery. The track surface consisted of graded and packed soil covered by 2 inches of gravel, 2 inches of limestone covered with taroid, 1–2 inches of crushed stone chips that were drenched with taroid, a final topping of crushed stone. Workers constructed dozens of buildings, several bridges, grandstands with 12,000 seats, an 8-foot perimeter fence. A white-with-green-trim paint scheme was used throughout the property; the first event held at the speedway was a helium gas-filled balloon competition on Saturday, June 5, 1909, more than two months before the oval was completed. The event drew a reported 40,000 people. Nine balloons lifted off "racing" for trophies; the first motorsport event at the track consisted of seven motorcycle races, sanctioned by the Federation of American Motorcyclists, on August 14, 1909. This was planned as a two-day, 15-race program, but ended before the first da
The Offenhauser Racing Engine, or Offy, is a racing engine design that dominated American open wheel racing for more than 50 years and is still popular among vintage sprint and midget car racers. The Offenhauser engine, familiarly known as the "Offy", was developed by Fred Offenhauser and his employer Harry Arminius Miller, it was sold as a marine engine. In 1930, a four-cylinder 151 cu in Miller engine installed in a race car set a new international land speed record of 144.895 mph. Miller developed this engine into a twin overhead cam, four-cylinder, four-valve-per-cylinder 220 cu in racing engine. Variations of this design would be used in midgets and sprints into the 1960s, with a choice of carburetion or Hilborn fuel injection; when both Miller and the company to whom he had sold much of the equipment and rights went bankrupt in 1933, Offenhauser opened a shop a block away and bought rights to engines, special tooling and drawings at the bankruptcy auction, he and other former Miller employees took over production.
They and former Miller employee, draftsman Leo Goossen, further developed the Miller engines into the Offenhauser engines. In 1946 the name and engine designs were sold to Louis Meyer and Dale Drake. Meyer was bought out by Drake, his wife Eve and their son John in 1965. From until Drake's son John sold the shop to Stewart Van Dyne, the Drake family designed and refined the engine until its final race days, it was under Meyer and Drake that the engine dominated the Indy 500 and midget racing in the United States. One of the keys to the Offenhauser engine's success and popularity was its power. A 251.92 cubic inch DOHC four-cylinder racing Offy with a 15:1 compression ratio and a 4.28125-by-4.375-inch bore and stroke, could produce 420 hp at 6,600 rpm. Other variants of the engine produced higher outputs of 3 hp per cubic inch. Another reason for the engine's success was its reliability. From 1934 through the 1970s, the Offenhauser engine dominated American open wheel racing, winning the Indianapolis 500 27 times.
By the company had been sold, right after World War II, to Meyer and Drake, who continued to build the engines. From 1950 through 1960, Offenhauser-powered cars won the Indy 500 and achieved all three podium positions, winning the pole position in 10 of the 11 years. In 1959 Lime Rock Park held a famous Formula Libre race, where Rodger Ward shocked the expensive and exotic sports car contingent by beating them on the road course in an Offenhauser powered midget car, considered competitive on oval tracks only; when Ford came onto the scene in 1963, the Offy began to lose its domination over Indy car racing, although it remained a competitive winner through the mid-1970s with the advent of turbocharging. Outputs over 1,000 bhp could be attained; the final 2.65-litre four-cylinder Offy, restricted to 24.6 psi boost, produced 770 bhp at 9,000 rpm. The Offy's final victory came at Trenton in Gordon Johncock's Wildcat; the last time an Offy-powered car raced was at Pocono in 1982 for the Domino's Pizza Pocono 500, in an Eagle chassis driven by Jim McElreath, although two Vollstedt chassis with Offenhauser engines failed to qualify for the 1983 Indianapolis 500.
The Offenhauser shop began to do machine work for Lockheed in 1940, as the arms build-up for anticipated war began. The last prewar engine was shipped on July 17, 1941. After the Pearl Harbor attack, the plant worked overtime on hydraulic systems, getting Fred Offenhauser the money and the fatigue to retire. In 1944, Leo Goossen became a full-time Offenhauser employee. Offenhauser produced engine blocks in several sizes; these blocks could be bored out or sleeved to vary the cylinder bore, could be used with crankshafts of various strokes, resulting in a wide variety of engine displacements. Offenhauser made blocks, pistons and crankshafts to specific customer requests. However, certain engine sizes were common, could be considered the "standard" Offenhauser engines: 97 cu in - to meet the displacement rule in many midget series 220 cu in - displacement rule in AAA sprint cars 270 cu in - displacement rule for the Indianapolis 500 under AAA rules 255 cu in - for Indianapolis 252 cu in - displacement rule for Indianapolis under USAC rules 168 cu in - displacement rule for turbocharged engines at Indianapolis 159 cu in - displacement rule for turbocharged engines at Indianapolis See Indianapolis Motor Speedway race results for a more complete list.
In their 11 world championship years, the Meyer-Drake Offenhauser engine partnered for at least one race with the following 35 constructors