1964 United States presidential election in Texas
The 1964 United States presidential election in Texas was held on November 3, 1964, as part of the United States presidential election of 1964. The Democratic Party candidate, incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson, comfortably won his home state of Texas with 63.32% of the vote against the Republican Party candidate, Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona, who won 36.5%, giving him the state's 25 electoral votes and a victory margin of 26.8%. President Lyndon B. Johnson won the 1964 election in a massive landslide, carrying 44 states plus the District of Columbia, which participated for the first time. Goldwater only carried his home state of Arizona along with five Deep South states, Democratic, but defected to the Republican Party due to the Democratic Party’s support for civil rights; the home state of President Lyndon B. Johnson, Texas was his nineteenth best state in the election and his second best in the South below Kentucky, weighing in around 4.2 percent more Democratic than the national average.
Johnson won every region in the state by wide margins, including those which had begun trending Republican in recent presidential elections such as the Texas Panhandle, the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Metro Houston. Every major city in the state voted for Johnson, including every mid-sized city with the exceptions of Odessa, Midland and Longview, which were won by Goldwater. Two counties in the northern Panhandle and Roberts, gave Goldwater over sixty percent of the vote, further reflecting this region’s trend towards the Republican Party. Given that it was Johnson’s home county, Gillespie County in the Texas Hill Country voted Democratic for the only time since Franklin D. Roosevelt’s landslide in the 1932 election, in which he carried every county; this is the only presidential election between 1952 and 2008 that Dallas and Harris counties voted for the Democratic candidate. Dallas in particular swung towards Johnson due to the city still being in mourning from the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, which had occurred less than a year before the election.
Despite this strong swing, Johnson only carried Dallas County by a 9.6 percent margin. President Johnson carried 238 out of the state’s 254 counties, all twenty-three congressional districts; the 1964 election marks the last time a Democratic candidate for president won Texas with over sixty percent of the vote, won the state with a double-digit margin, carried any counties with over ninety percent of the vote. Webb and Jim Hogg counties stood among the four most Democratic in the nation. Aside from Johnson's home county Gillespie as mentioned above, this remains the last election as of 2018 in which Crane County, Montgomery County, Rusk County, Irion County, Loving County, Martin County, Andrews County, Winkler County, McMullen County, Collin County, Washington County, Kerr County, Comal County, Hemphill County, Deaf Smith County, Hartley County, Lubbock County, Upton County, Schleicher County, Tarrant County, Reagan County, Brazos County, Denton County, Victoria County, Tom Green County, DeWitt County, Cooke County, Potter County, Taylor County, Guadalupe County, Bandera County, Uvalde County, Yoakum County, Dawson County, Kimble County, Sutton County, Sterling County, Austin County, Runnels County voted for the Democratic candidate.
Fort Bend County would not vote Democratic again until 2016
1988 United States presidential election in Texas
The 1988 United States presidential election in Texas took place on November 8, 1988. All fifty states and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1988 United States presidential election. Texas voters chose twenty-nine electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president. Incumbent Vice President George H. W. Bush won his home state against Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis. Bush ran with Indiana Senator Dan Quayle as Vice President, Dukakis ran with Texas Senator Lloyd Bentsen. Texas weighed in for this election as 2% more Republican than the national average; the presidential election of 1988 was a partisan election for Texas, with more than 99 percent of the electorate voting for either the Democratic or Republican parties. This is one of the last elections in Texas where you see many rural counties voting for the Democratic Party, the populated counties, such as Houston's Harris County, voting for the Republican candidate. Since the presidential election of 1996, this demographic trend in Texas has reversed to its current form of "urban Democrats" and "rural Republicans" as it has elsewhere in the United States.
An exception to this lies in a group of entirely Mexican-American counties in South Texas, which were and remained overwhelmingly Democratic. Of these, Zavala and Brooks Counties gave Dukakis over eighty-one percent of the vote and were his four strongest counties outside the District of Columbia, with Starr being his strongest nationwide; as of the 2016 presidential election, despite Bill Clinton's two ensuing nationwide election victories, the 1988 election constitutes the last occasion when Lee County, Calhoun County and San Saba County have supported the Democratic presidential nominee. Bush won his home-state with a solid 12 point landslide; this election marks one of the first times that Texas has proven to be a reliable Republican vote, a decisively large player in Southern politics. The election results in Texas are reflective of a nationwide reconsolidation of base for the Republican Party, which took place through the 1980s. Through the passage of some controversial economic programs, spearheaded by President Ronald Reagan, the mid-to-late 1980s saw a period of economic growth and stability.
The hallmark for Reaganomics was, in part, the wide-scale deregulation of corporate interests, tax cuts for the wealthy. Dukakis ran his campaign on a liberal platform, advocated for higher economic regulation and environmental protection. Bush, ran on a campaign of continuing the social and economic policies of former President Reagan - which gained him much support with social conservatives and people living in rural areas. Gulf War Presidency of George H. W. Bush
1860 United States presidential election in Texas
The 1860 United States presidential election in Texas was held on November 6, 1860. Texas voters chose four electors to represent the state in the Electoral College, which chose the president and vice president. Texas voted for the Southern Democratic nominee John C. Breckinridge, who received 75% of the vote. Texas was Breckinridge's strongest state. Republican Party candidate Abraham Lincoln was not on the ballot in Texas. Douglas supporters had agreed to transfer their allegiance to Constitutional Union candidate John Bell, but Bell carried only three counties in the state and it is sometimes thought that the German-American abolitionists in such counties as Gillespie refrained from visiting the polls
1936 United States presidential election in Texas
The 1936 United States presidential election in Texas took place on November 3, 1936, as part of the 1936 United States presidential election. Texas voters chose twenty-three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Texas was won by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt, running with Vice President John Nance Garner, with 87.08% of the popular vote, against Governor Alf Landon, running with Frank Knox, with 12.32% of the popular vote. By percentage of the popular vote won, Texas was Roosevelt's fifth-best state, behind South Carolina, Mississippi and Georgia
United States presidential election
The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U. S. states or in Washington, D. C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U. S. Electoral College, known as electors; these electors in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; the Electoral College and its procedure are established in the U. S. Constitution by Article II, Section 1, Clauses 2 and 4. Under Clause 2, each of the states casts as many electoral votes as the total number of its Senators and Representatives in Congress, per the Twenty-third Amendment ratified in 1961, Washington, D. C. casts the same number of electoral votes as the least-represented state, three.
Under Clause 2, the manner for choosing electors is determined by each state legislature, not directly by the federal government. Many state legislatures selected their electors directly, but over time all of them switched to using the popular vote to help determine electors, which persists today. Once chosen, electors cast their electoral votes for the candidate who won the plurality in their state, but at least 21 states do not have provisions that address this behavior. In modern times and unpledged electors have not affected the ultimate outcome of an election, so the results can be determined based on the state-by-state popular vote. Presidential elections occur quadrennially with registered voters casting their ballots on Election Day, which since 1845 has been the first Tuesday after November 1; this date coincides with the general elections of various other federal and local races. The Electoral College electors formally cast their electoral votes on the first Monday after December 12 at their respective state capitals.
Congress certifies the results in early January, the presidential term begins on Inauguration Day, which since the passage of the Twentieth Amendment has been set at January 20. The nomination process, consisting of the primary elections and caucuses and the nominating conventions, was not specified in the Constitution, but was developed over time by the states and political parties; these primary elections are held between January and June before the general election in November, while the nominating conventions are held in the summer. Though not codified by law, political parties follow an indirect election process, where voters in the 50 U. S. states, Washington, D. C. and U. S. territories, cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elect their party's presidential nominee. Each party may choose a vice presidential running mate to join the ticket, either determined by choice of the nominee or by a second round of voting; because of changes to national campaign finance laws since the 1970s regarding the disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns, presidential candidates from the major political parties declare their intentions to run as early as the spring of the previous calendar year before the election.
Article Two of the United States Constitution established the method of presidential elections, including the Electoral College. This was a result of a compromise between those constitutional framers who wanted the Congress to choose the president, those who preferred a national popular vote; each state is allocated a number of electors, equal to the size of its delegation in both houses of Congress combined. With the ratification of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in 1961, the District of Columbia is granted a number of electors, equal to the number of those held by the least populous state. However, U. S. territories are not represented in the Electoral College. Constitutionally, the manner for choosing electors is determined within each state by its legislature. During the first presidential election in 1789, only six of the 13 original states chose electors by any form of popular vote. Throughout the years, the states began conducting popular elections to choose their slate of electors.
In 1800, only five of the 16 states chose electors by a popular vote. This gradual movement toward greater democratization coincided with a gradual decrease in property restrictions for the franchise. By 1840, only one of the 26 states still selected electors by the state legislature. Under the original system established by Article Two, electors could cast two votes to two different candidates for president; the candidate with the highest number of votes became the president, the sec
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. sometimes referred to as Henry Cabot Lodge II, was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts and a United States ambassador. He was the Republican nominee for Vice President in the 1960 presidential election alongside incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon; the Republican ticket lost to Lyndon B. Johnson. Born in Nahant, Lodge was the grandson of Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and the great-grandson of Secretary of State Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen. After graduating from Harvard University, Lodge won election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives, he defeated Democratic Governor James Michael Curley in 1936 to represent Massachusetts in the United States Senate. He resigned from the Senate in 1944 to serve in Italy and France during World War II. Lodge remained in the Army Reserve after the war and rose to the rank of major general. In 1946, Lodge defeated incumbent Democratic Senator David I. Walsh to return to the Senate, he led the Draft Eisenhower movement before the 1952 election and served as Eisenhower's campaign manager, ensuring that his candidate triumphed at the 1952 Republican National Convention.
Eisenhower defeated Democratic nominee Adlai Stevenson II in the general election, but Lodge lost his own re-election campaign to John F. Kennedy. Lodge was named as ambassador to the United Nations in 1953 and became a member of Eisenhower's Cabinet. Vice President Richard Nixon chose Lodge as his running mate in the 1960 presidential election, but the Republican ticket lost the election. In 1963, President Kennedy appointed Lodge to the position of Ambassador to South Vietnam, where Lodge supported the 1963 South Vietnamese coup, he continued to represent the United States in various countries under President Lyndon B. Johnson, President Nixon, President Gerald Ford. Lodge led the U. S. delegation that signed the Paris Peace Accords with North Vietnam, leading to the end of the Vietnam War. He died in Beverly, Massachusetts in 1985. Lodge was born in Massachusetts, his father was George Cabot Lodge, a poet, through whom he was a grandson of Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, great-great-grandson of Senator Elijah H. Mills, great-great-great-grandson of Senator George Cabot.
Through his mother, Mathilda Elizabeth Frelinghuysen, he was a great-grandson of Senator Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, a great-great-grandson of Senator John Davis. He had two siblings: John Davis Lodge a politician, Helena Lodge de Streel. Lodge graduated from Middlesex School. In 1924, he graduated cum laude from Harvard University, where he was a member of the Hasty Pudding and the Fox Club. Lodge worked in the newspaper business from 1924–1931, he was elected in 1932, served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1933 to 1936. In November 1936, Lodge was elected to the United States Senate as a Republican, defeating Democrat James Michael Curley, he served from January 1937 to February 1944. Lodge served with distinction during the war. During the war he saw two tours of duty; the first was in 1942 while he was serving as a U. S. Senator; the second was in 1944 -- 5. The first period was a continuation of Lodge's longtime service as an Army Reserve Officer. Lodge was a major in the 1st Armored Division.
That tour ended in July 1942, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered congressmen serving in the military to resign one of the two positions, Lodge, who chose to remain in the Senate, was ordered by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to return to Washington. During this brief service, he led a squadron of American tankers at Gazala. After returning to Washington and winning re-election in November 1942, Lodge went to observe allied troops serving in Egypt and Libya, in that position, he was on hand for the British retreat from Tobruk. Lodge served the first year of his new Senate term but resigned his Senate seat on February 3, 1944 in order to return to active duty, the first U. S. Senator to do so since the Civil War, he saw action in France. In the fall of 1944, Lodge single-handedly captured a four-man German patrol. At the end of the war, in 1945, he used his knowledge of the French language and culture, gained from attending school in Paris to aid Jacob L. Devers, the commander of the Sixth United States Army Group, to coordinate activities with the Army Group's First Army commander, Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, carry out surrender negotiations with German forces in western Austria.
Lodge was decorated with the French Legion of Honor and Croix de Guerre with palm. His American decorations included the Legion of the Bronze Star Medal. After the war, Lodge resumed his political career, he rose to the rank of major general. In 1946 Lodge returned to the Senate, he soon emerged as a spokesman for the internationalist wing of the Republican Party. In late 1951, Lodge helped persuade General Dwight D. Eisenhower to run for the Republican presidential nomination; when Eisenhower consented, Lodge served as his campaign manager and played a key role in helping Eisenhower to win the nomination over Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, the candidate of the party's conservative faction. In March 1950, Lodge sat on a subcommittee of the Government Operations Committee, chaired by Democratic Senator Millard Tydings, which looked into Senator Joseph McCarthy's list of communist State Department employees. Lodge argued in hearings that Tydings demonized