Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps
The Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps motor-racing circuit is the venue of the Formula One Belgian Grand Prix, and of the Spa 24 Hours and 1000 km Spa endurance races. It is home to the all Volkswagen club event,25 Hours of Spa and it is one of the most challenging race tracks in the world, mainly due to its fast and twisty nature. Spa is a circuit of many racing drivers and fans. Despite its name, the circuit is not in Spa but lies in the vicinity of the town of Francorchamps within the boundaries of the municipality of Stavelot, with a part in the boundaries of Malmedy. Designed in 1920 by Jules de Thier and Henri Langlois Van Ophem, the track was intended to have hosted its inaugural race in August 1921, however this event had to be cancelled as there was only one entrant. The first car race was held at the circuit in 1922, the circuit was first used for Grand Prix racing in 1925. The old Spa circuit was essentially a speed course with drivers managing higher average speeds than on other race tracks, until 2000, it was possible to travel over the race track when it was still a public road.
Near Malmedy, the Masta straight began, which was interrupted by the fast Masta Kink between farm houses before arriving at the town of Stavelot. Before 1970, there were no safety modifications of any kind done to the circuit, former Formula One racing driver and team owner Jackie Oliver was quoted as saying if you went off the road, you didnt know what you were going to hit. The old Spa circuit was unique in that speeds were high with hardly any let-up at all for 3–4 minutes. This made it a difficult mental challenge, because most of the corners were taken at 180+ mph and were not quite flat- every corner was as important as the one before it. If a driver lifted just that bit more, whole seconds. Even the slightest error of any kind was punished very harshly in more ways than one, but this reality worked inversely- huge advantages could be gained if a driver came out of a corner slightly faster. When Armco crash barriers were added to the track in 1970, deaths became less frequent there but the track was still notorious for other factors.
The Ardennes Forest had very unpredictable weather and there were parts where it was raining and the track was wet, and other parts where the sun was shining, in 1969, the Belgian Grand Prix was boycotted by F1 because of the extreme danger of Spa. There had been 10 racing fatalities in total at the track in the 1960s, the drivers demanded changes made to Spa which were not possible on short notice, so the Belgian Grand Prix was dropped that year. Armco was added to the track and sections of it were improved, for the 1971 race, the track owners and authorities had not brought the track up to date with mandatory safety measures, and the race was cancelled. Formula One would not return to Spa until 1983 on the modern track, the Masta Kink was one of the most fearsome sections on any race track in the world, requiring skill and bravery in equal measure to get it right
Philip Toll Hill, Jr. was an American automobile racer and the only American-born driver to win the Formula One World Drivers Championship. He scored three wins at each of the 24 Hours of Le Mans and 12 Hours of Sebring sports car races, Hill was described as a thoughtful, gentle man and once said, Im in the wrong business. I dont want to beat anybody, I dont want to be the big hero, born in Miami, Hill was raised in Santa Monica, where he lived until his death. He studied business administration at the University of Southern California from 1945 to 1947, Hill left early to pursue auto racing, working as a mechanic on other drivers cars. Hill began racing cars at an age, going to England as a Jaguar trainee in 1949. He made his debut in the French Grand Prix at Reims France in 1958 driving a Maserati. That same year, paired with Belgian teammate Olivier Gendebien, Hill became the first American-born winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans with Hill driving most of the night in rainy conditions. He and Gendebien would go on to win the endurance race again in 1961 and 1962.
Hill began driving full-time for the Ferrari Formula One team in 1959, in 1960 he won the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, the first Grand Prix win for an American driver in nearly forty years, since Jimmy Murphy won the 1921 French Grand Prix. This turned out to be the last win for a car in Formula 1. The following season, Hill won the Belgian Grand Prix and with two races left trailed only his Ferrari teammate Wolfgang von Trips in the season standings, a crash during the Italian Grand Prix killed von Trips and fifteen spectators. Hill won the race and clinched the championship but the triumph was bittersweet, Ferraris decision not to travel to America for the seasons final round deprived Hill of the opportunity to participate in his home race at Watkins Glen as the newly crowned World Champion. When he returned for the season, his last with Ferrari, Hill said, I no longer have as much need to race. I dont have as much hunger anymore, I am no longer willing to risk killing myself. After leaving Ferrari at the end of 1962, he and fellow driver Giancarlo Baghetti started for the new team ATS created by engineers in the great walkout of 1961.
Phil Hill has the distinction of having won the first and last races of his driving career, Hill drove an experimental MG, EX-181, at Bonneville Salt Flats. The Roaring Raindrop, had an 91 cu. in, supercharged MGA Twin Cam engine, using 86% methanol with nitrobenzene and sulphuric ether, for an output of 290 HP. In 1959 Phil Hill attained 257 MPH in this car, breaking the record of Stirling Moss in same car
Paul Richard Richie Ginther was a racecar driver from the United States. During a varied career, the 1965 Mexican Grand Prix saw Ginther take Hondas first Grand Prix victory, Ginther competed in 54 World Championship Formula One Grand Prix races, and numerous other non-Championship F1 events. After finishing school, in 1948 Richie Ginther followed in his fathers footsteps and went to work for Douglas Aircraft, initially in the tool and die shop. In his spare time he helped Phill Hill to repair and race his collection of old cars and hot rods, Ginther made his own race debut at Pebble Beach in 1951, driving a Ford-engined MG T-type sports car. However, Ginthers own career was put on hold shortly after when he was drafted for two national service during the Korean War. During this time he received training and experience working in aircraft and engine mechanics, on emergence from the military Phil Hill requested that Ginther join him, principally as a riding mechanic, in driving a privately entered 4.
1-liter Ferrari in the 1953 Carrera Panamericana. The pair ran high in the rankings until Hill lost control, both Ginther and Hill were unharmed and returned in 1954 to take second place, beaten only by the works Ferrari of Umberto Maglioli. 1954 was the year that Richie Ginther returned to race driving himself and his results were impressive enough that the following year VW and Porsche dealer John von Neumann hired him to drive a Porsche in domestic competitions. When von Neumann started dealing in Ferrari cars in 1956 Ginther got the chance to drive these and this and his choice of Ferrari mounts brought him to the attention of the East Coast Ferrari franchise-holder, three-time 24 Hours of Le Mans-winner Luigi Chinetti. Aside from importing Ferrari road cars, Chinetti operated a race team, soon to metamorphose into Ferraris official motorsport presence in North America. That June he won a 15 lap GT race at the new Lime Rock Park, by the end of the year Ginther had captured the Pacific Coast Sports Car Championship outright.
Throughout this period he continued to mix his race driving with a job at von Neumanns dealership. Ginther made his F1 debut at the 1960 Monaco Grand Prix driving for Ferrari who he stayed with through 1961, in the September 1960 Italian Grand Prix in Monza he placed second to Phil Hill. Ginther led from the start until the 25th lap when Hill passed him, following the 1960 season the Ferrari team gave up 1000 cc in engine size. The 2500 cc engine, permitted the previous year, was replaced by a 1. 5-liter rear engine model, the newer engine was superior in both profiling and handling. The conservative Enzo Ferrari was the last major Formula 1 race car manufacturer to make the transition to cars with engines in the rear, in 1961 Ginther was in the #3 Ferrari driver, behind #1 Wolfgang Von Trips and #2 Hill. Giancarlo Baghetti occasionally piloted a fourth car, the team manager was Romulo Tavoni. On May 14,1961, Ginther finished 2nd to Stirling Moss at the 1961 Monaco Grand Prix, only 3.6 seconds behind and he was driving a new rear-engine Ferrari, a 120-degree V-6 which had a lower center of gravity
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
James Clark, Jr OBE, known as Jim Clark, was a British Formula One racing driver from Scotland, who won two World Championships, in 1963 and 1965. Clark was a driver who competed in sports cars, touring cars and in the Indianapolis 500. He was particularly associated with the Lotus marque and he was killed in a Formula Two motor racing accident in Hockenheim, Germany in 1968. At the time of his death, he had won more Grand Prix races, in 2009, The Times placed Clark at the top of a list of the greatest-ever Formula One drivers. James Clark Jr was born into a family at Kilmany House Farm, the youngest child of five. In 1942 the family moved to Edington Mains Farm, near Duns, Berwickshire, on 16 June 1956, in his very first event, he was behind the wheel of a DKW sonderklasse at Crimond, Scotland. By 1958, Clark was driving for the local Border Reivers team, racing Jaguar D-types and Porsches in national events, on Boxing Day 1958, Clark raced against the man who would launch him to superstardom.
Driving a Lotus Elite, he finished second to Colin Chapman in a 10-lap GT race at Brands Hatch, in 1959 he drove a Lotus Elite, finishing tenth at Le Mans partnered with John Whitmore, and the ex-Bruce Halford Lister Jaguar, winning the Boness Hill Climb. Chapman was sufficiently impressed to give Clark a ride in one of his Formula Junior cars, in March 1960, the first race for the newly introduced Formula Junior took place at Goodwood. The winner was J. Clark, from J. Surtees with T. Taylor third. Clark had made an earlier FJ appearance in a race at Brands Hatch on Boxing Day,1959, driving a Gemini-B. M. C. for Graham Warner of the Chequered Flag garage. Jim Clark made his F1 Grand Prix debut, part-way through the season, Lotus had lost Surtees, as he had gone to the Isle of Man to do some serious motorcycle racing, so they had Ireland and Clark, the last-named being an acceptable substitute. He retired on lap 49 with final drive failure, Clark was quoted as saying in a 1964 interview, I was driving scared stiff pretty much all through the race, even though he finished 5th and scored his first points finish.
The next year, Jim Clark was involved in one of the worst accidents in the history of Formula 1 racing, in the 1961 Italian Grand Prix on 10 September at Monza, Wolfgang von Trips in his Ferrari collided with Jim Clarks Lotus. Trips car became airborne and crashed into a barrier, fatally throwing von Trips out of the car. His first Drivers World Championship came driving the Lotus 25 in 1963, winning seven out of the ten races, Clarks record of seven wins in a season would not be equalled until 1984 when Frenchman Alain Prost won seven races for McLaren. The record would not be broken until Brazilian Ayrton Senna won eight races in the 1988 season, in 1963 he competed in the Indianapolis 500 for the first time, and he finished in second position behind Parnelli Jones and won Rookie of the Year honours. The 1963 Indy 500 result remains controversial, before the race United States Auto Club officials had told the drivers that they would black flag any car that was seen to be leaking oil onto the track
1961 French Grand Prix
The 1961 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 2 July 1961 at Reims. This was Baghettis only World Championship race win and he would never finish in the top 3 again. Lap Leaders, Phil Hill 32 laps, Wolfgang von Trips 5 laps, Richie Ginther 3 laps, Giancarlo Baghetti 7 laps, Jo Bonnier 1 lap and this was a very hot race, with air temperatures at 102 °F and track temperatures at 120 °F. First F1 Grand Prix start for Bernard Collomb, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
Dutch Grand Prix
The Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One automobile race held at Circuit Zandvoort, near Zandvoort, the Netherlands, from 1948 to 1985. The town of Zandvoort is situated in the dunes of Hollands North Sea coastline half an hour west from the Dutch capital of Amsterdam, and the circuit itself is located right next to the beach. There were minor races on a circuit in the town in the 1930s. This was linked to other roads which were used to coastal defence positions. The first race took place in 1948, under the title of the Zandvoort Grand Prix and it was won by Thailands Prince Bira in an old Maserati. The race was won by Louis Rosier in 1950 and 1951. 1952 was the year the Dutch Grand Prix was part of the third Formula One World Championship, the 1956 and 1957 races were cancelled because of apparent lack of money, which was indirectly caused by the 1956-1957 Suez Crisis. The 1958 was won by Moss in a Vanwall,1959 saw Swede Jo Bonnier win his only Formula One championship event and 1960 saw Dan Gurney have an accident and a spectator was killed, the race was won by Jack Brabham in a Cooper.
From 1963 to 1965 saw Briton Jim Clark win all three events, and 1967 saw the introduction of the Lotus 49 with its brand new Ford-Cosworth DFV engine. The DFV won on its debut with Clark driving, this became the most successful. 1970, saw the 49s successor, the 72 - which was just as advanced a design as the 49 had been 3 years earlier - win comprehensively with Jochen Rindt behind the wheel. The car, with Courage still in it, caught fire,1971 saw Jacky Ickx win in a Ferrari after a spirited battle with Mexican Pedro Rodriguez in a BRM in rain-soaked conditions. There was no 1972 race, however and it was originally on that years calendar, but the drivers refused to race at Zandvoort, because the facilities and conditions of the circuit were out-of-date with Grand Prix racing at that time. Zandvoort had been modified during its absence from the Grand Prix calendar. It had been lined with Armco and the cars were protected from the sand dunes, new pits were built, and the circuit saw a chicane placed before Bosuit, the very high-speed corner that went into the pit-straight.
For the 1973 race, in a celebration of the efforts put forth, there was a special atmosphere at that weekend and everyone was happy. But in a cruel twist of fate, that race was to be yet another mark on Zandvoorts history. On the eighth lap of the race, Briton Roger Williamson - in only his second ever Formula One race - crashed heavily near Tunnel Oost, Williamson was uninjured during the crash, but time was running out, he could not free himself from the car
Wolfgang von Trips
Wolfgang Alexander Albert Eduard Maximilian Reichsgraf Berghe von Trips was a German racing driver. He was the son of a noble Rhineland family, Von Trips was born in Cologne, Germany. Von Trips had diabetes during his career and he always had high sugar snacks during the races to compensate for his blood and he participated in 29 Formula One World Championship Grand Prix races, debuting on 2 September 1956. He won two races, secured one position, achieved six podiums, and scored a total of 56 championship points. He sustained a concussion when he spun off track at the Nürburgring during trial runs for a car race held in May 1957. The following August he was fifth at Porto in the 1958 Portuguese Grand Prix, won by Stirling Moss in a Vanwall, von Trips completed 49 laps and was one lap behind at the finish. Moss was more than five minutes ahead of Mike Hawthorn, who finished second in a Ferrari, in July 1960 von Trips was victorious in a Formula Two event in a Ferrari, with a newly introduced engine in the rear.
The race was in Stuttgart and was called the Solitude Formula Two Grand Prix and it was a 20-lap event with the winner averaging 102.21 m. p. h. over 142 miles. He won the Targa Florio, 10-lap 448 mile race, in May 1961, Von Trips achieved an average speed of 64.26 mph in his Ferrari with Olivier Gendebien of Belgium as his co-driver. Von Trips and Phil Hill traded the lead at Spa, Belgium during the 1961 Belgian Grand Prix, Hill led most of the way in front of a crowd of 100,000 people. Ferraris captured the first four places at the conclusion with von Trips finishing second. The Formula One World Championship driver competition at this juncture in 1961 was led by Hill with 19 points followed by von Trips with 18, at the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, his Ferrari collided with Jim Clarks Lotus. His car became airborne and crashed into a barrier, fatally throwing von Trips from the car. Clark described the accident, Von Trips and I were racing along the straightaway and were nearing one of the banked curves and we were about 100 metres from the beginning of the curve.
Von Trips was running close to the inside of the track, I was closely following him, keeping near the outside. At one point Von Trips shifted sideways so that my front wheels collided with his back wheels, Von Trips car spun twice and went into the guardrail along the inside of the track. Then it bounced back, struck my own car and bounced down into the crowd, at the time of his death von Trips was leading the Formula One World Championship. However, he had previous incidents at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, where he crashed cars in the 1956 Italian Grand Prix and the 1958 Italian Grand Prix, in 1961 von Trips had established a go-kart race track in Kerpen, Germany
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva.
Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven.
It is the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control
Dottore Giuseppe Antonio “Nino” Farina, was an Italian racing driver and was the first official Formula One World Champion, gaining the title in 1950. He was the Italian Champion in 1937,1938 and 1939, during his thirty-year racing career he suffered a series of accidents. Born in Turin, Farina was the son of Giovanni Carlo Farina who founded the Stabilimenti Farina coachbuilder, Giuseppe began driving a two-cylinder Temperino, at the age of just nine. He became a Doctor of Political Science, he excelled at skiing, football. He cut short a career as an officer with the Italian army to fulfil a different ambition. While still at university Farina purchased his first car, a second-hand Alfa Romeo, while trying to beat his father, he crashed, breaking his shoulder and receiving facial cuts, establishing a trend that continued throughout his crash-prone career. It was Nuvolari who to some extent, guided Farina’s early career, in 1935, he raced for the factory Maserati team, showing enough promise to impress Enzo Ferrari, who recruited him to drive for Scuderia Ferrari, the team that ran the works-supported Alfa Romeos.
It was in an Alfa Romeo 8C that he finished second in the Mille Miglia and he made mistakes aplenty, but kept coming back for more and became a Grand Prix winner, when he won the 1937 Grand Prix of Naples. Although he was noted for his style and intelligence, he had a petulant streak. He was involved in two fatal accidents, the first was during the 1936 Grand Prix de Deauville, when he tried to pass Marcel Lehoux for second. Farina’s Alfa Romeo 8C collided with Lehoux’s ERA, causing the ERA to overturn, Lehoux was thrown out, received a fractured skull and died in hospital, while Farina escaped with minor injuries. Two seasons later, during the 1938 Gran Premio di Tripoli, the cars to collided and overturned. Farina survived without injuries, but Hartmann died the following day. In 1938, the official Alfa Romeo team, Alfa Corse, returned to motor sport and Farina was a member. Driving the new Alfa Romeo 158 Voiturette in 1939, he won the Grand Prix d’Anvers, Coppa Ciano, the following year, he won the Tripoli Grand Prix and finished second in the Mille Miglia for the third time.
After World War II, Farina returned to Alfa Corse to drive their 158 and he won the 1946 Grand Prix des Nations. However, he left Alfa Corse after a disagreement over team leadership and he came back to the sport in 1948 with a privately entered Maserati and a works Ferrari. During this period, he got married to Elsa Giaretto, in her opinion motor sport was a silly and dangerous activity, and she tried to persuade Farina to stop
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
Coventry Climax was a British forklift truck, fire pump and other speciality engine manufacturer. An early user was GWK, who produced over 1,000 light cars with Coventry-Simplex two-cylinder engines between 1911 and 1915, just before World War I a Coventry-Simplex engine was used by Lionel Martin to power the first Aston Martin car. Ernest Shackleton selected Coventry-Simplex to power the tractors that were to be used in his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914, hundreds of Coventry-Simplex engines were manufactured during World War I to be used in generating sets for searchlights. In 1917 the company was renamed Coventry Climax and moved to East Street, in the 1920s the company moved to Friars Road, Coventry and in the late 1930s they acquired the former Riley premises on Widdrington Road, Coventry. In the early 1930s the company supplied engines for buses. With the closure of Swift in 1931, the company was left with a stock of engines that were converted to electric generators. Going into the war, Coventry Climax used their marine diesel experience to further develop and this has been fitted as an auxiliary engine in the British Chieftain and Challenger battle tanks and Rapier anti-aircraft missile systems.
In the late 1940s, the company shifted away from engines and into other markets, including marine diesels, fire pumps. In 1946, the ET199 was announced, which the company claimed was the first British-produced forklift truck, the ET199 was designed to carry a 4,000 lb load with a 24-inch load centre, and with a 9 ft lift height. This was designated the FW, for Feather Weight, the engine was displayed at the Motor Show in London and attracted attention from the motor racing fraternity for its very high horsepower per pound of weight. The FWA became popular in racing and was followed by the Mark II. The new Formula Two regulations suited the 1. 5-litre engine, the following year, the first Climax engines began to appear in Formula One in the back of Cooper chassis. Initially, these were FWBs but the FPF engine followed, Stirling Moss scored the companys first Formula One victory, in Argentina in 1958, using a 2-litre version of the engine. At the same time, the company produced the FWE engine for Lotus Elite, there were a total of 22 Grand Prix victories before 1966 with crossplane, two- and four-valve versions of the FWMV.
This combination was considered radical at the time, especially the syncromesh on all forward gears. The adoption to mass-production was successful, and the project out to the market as the 875cc Hillman Imp totaling over 400,000 units made by 1976 including the 998cc version. Nonetheless, Coventry Climax remained in Formula One until they were unable to come up with a new engine for the three-litre formula, the company was purchased by Jaguar Cars in 1963, which itself merged with the British Motor Corporation in 1966 to form British Motor Holdings. The citation reads, Awarded to Coventry Climax Engines Ltd. for the design, the history of this trophy dates back to 1906