1962 FIFA World Cup

The 1962 FIFA World Cup was the seventh FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for men's national teams. It was held from 30 May to 17 June 1962 in Chile; the qualification rounds took place between August 1960 and December 1961, with 56 teams entering from six confederations, fourteen qualifying for the finals tournament alongside Chile, the hosts, Brazil, the defending champions. Brazil defended their World Cup title, defeating Czechoslovakia 3–1 in the final in the Chilean capital of Santiago, they became the second team, after Italy in 1938, to win the World Cup twice in succession. Host nation Chile finished third; the tournament was marred by a toxic violence between players on the pitch. It was the first World Cup that used goal average as a means of separating teams with the same number of points, it was the first World Cup in which the average number of goals per match was less than three. After Europe hosted two consecutive World Cups, the American federations claimed the 1962 edition must be held in South America or face a complete boycott of the tournament, similar to 1938.

Argentina, after failed candidacies, was the favorite. Magallanes' chairman, Ernesto Alvear, attended a FIFA Congress held in Helsinki while the Finnish city was hosting the 1952 Summer Olympics, he considered. Several sources say that FIFA did not want Argentina to run alone, requesting the participation of Chile as symbolic. Chile registered its candidacy in 1954 alongside Argentina and West Germany, the latter withdrawing at the request of FIFA. Chile's football federation committee, led by Carlos Dittborn and Juan Pinto Durán, toured many countries convincing various football associations about the country's ability to organise the tournament in comparison to Argentina's superior sports infrastructure and prestige; the FIFA Congress met in Lisbon, Portugal on 10 June 1956. That day, Raul Colombo, representing Argentina's candidacy, ended his speech with the phrase "We can start the World Cup tomorrow. We have it all." The next day, Dittborn presented four arguments that supported Chile's candidacy: Chile's continued participations at FIFA-organised conferences and tournaments, sports climate, tolerance of race and creed and political and institutional stability of the country.

In addition, Dittborn invoked Article 2 of the FIFA statutes that addressed the tournament's role in promoting the sport in countries deemed "underdeveloped". Chile won 31 votes to Argentina's 12. Thirteen members abstained from voting. 57 teams entered the 1962 World Cup. Chile as host nation and Brazil as reigning World Cup champions were granted automatic qualification, with the remaining 14 finals places divided among the continental confederations. Eight places were contested by three by CONMEBOL teams. CAF teams, AFC teams, NAFC teams, CCCF teams contested three play-offs slots; the three winners would face a European or South American team for entry into the World Cup. The 1962 tournament was the last one. Two teams qualified for the first time ever: Colombia and Bulgaria. Colombia would not qualify for another World Cup until 1990. Among the teams who failed to qualify were 1958 runners up Sweden and 1958 third-place finishers France. Austria withdrew during the qualification tournament; the following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament.

Eight stadiums were selected to host the World Cup matches in eight cities: Santiago, Viña del Mar, Arica, Concepción, Talcahuano and Valdivia. The Valdivia earthquake, the most powerful earthquake recorded, occurred on 22 May 1960. With over 50,000 casualties and more than 2 million people affected, the earthquake forced the organising committee to modify the World Cup's calendar. Talca, Concepción, Talcahuano and Valdivia were damaged and discarded as venues. Antofagasta and Valparaíso declined to host any matches as their venues were not financially self-sustainable. Viña del Mar and Arica managed to rebuild their stadiums while Braden Copper Company an American company that controlled the El Teniente copper mine, allowed the use of its stadium in Rancagua. Due to these setbacks, this is the World Cup edition with the smallest number of venues spread across the country; the most used stadium was the Estadio Nacional in Santiago, with 10 matches. Being concerned with the build-up of the country after the 1960 earthquake, government support for the tournament was minimal.

Squads for the 1962 World Cup consisted of 22 players, as for the previous tournament in 1958. After Attilio Demaría and Luis Monti, who both represented Argentina in 1930 and Italy in 1934, Ferenc Puskás, José Santamaría and José Altafini became the third and fifth players to play for two national

Jan Skrzetuski

Jan Skrzetuski is a fictional character created by Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz in the novel With Fire and Sword. He is a man of honour, always faithful to his master, duke Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, he loves Helena Kurcewiczówna, kidnapped by the Ukrainian Cossack Yuri Bohun, in love with her. Skrzetuski is the best friend of Michał Wołodyjowski. Jan Skrzetuski is based on a historical character, Mikołaj Skrzetuski, the Polish hero of the Siege of Zbarazh. In the 1999 film With Fire and Sword he is portrayed by Michał Żebrowski. Jan Skrzetuski was a young Polish nobleman of Jastrzebiec Coat of Arms serving Prince Jeremi Wiśniowiecki as lieutenant of the hussar regiment. In 1647 he was coming back from Crimea. On his way he saved Bohdan Khmelnytsky, attacked by Daniel Czapliński's servants, he let Khmelnytsky went to Chyhyryn. He met there Jan Onufry Longinus Podbipięta who became his friends. A few days he set off to Lubny with Podbipięta, they met on their way princess her aunt. Skrzetuski and Helena fell in love with each other.

The old princess invited soldiers to Rozłogi. During the feast, Skrzetuski learned. Skrzetuski persuaded her to give Helena's hand to him. Soon Skrzetuski was sent by Prince Jeremi Wiśniowiecki to Zaporizhian Sich as an envoy. During the mission he was taken captive, he was saved by Khmelnytsky, grateful for Skrzetuski's help. Khmelnytsky, didn't agree to set him free at once. Skrzetuski as a captive witnessed Polish defeat in Battle of Zhovti Vody. In the meantime Bohun discovered the old princess' betrayal and attacked Rozłogi, intending to kidnap Helena, she managed to escape. When Skrzetuski regained his freedom, he found there only ruins, he grieved. He was found in Rozłogi by his friends. Skrzetuski returned to the service of Wiśniowiecki and soon met Zagłoba, who told him that Helena was alive and safe in Bar. Skrzetuski planned to go there. Skrzetuski failed to find any trace of her, he only received information. After these news Skrzetuski became ill, he didn't know that Helena was found by Wołodyjowski and Zagłoba.

After recovering, Skrzetuski went to Zbarazh. After Podbipięta's death he decided to sneak through the Cossacks' camp and go to John Casimir to let him know that soldiers in Zbarazh needed reinforcements, he managed to fill his mission - the king went with his army to Zbarazh and soon the treaty was signed. During recovery Skrzetuski was treated by Rzędzian; the girl soon arrived and they went to Lviv to get married. After the Khmelnytsky Uprising Skrzetuski lived with their children in Burzec, they had 12 sons and at least one daughter. Skrzetuski was mentioned in Fire in the Steppe. In 1673 he took part in the Battle of Khotyn. Skrzetuski is described as an dark-haired young man, he was a young man, of spare habit of body, dark complexion elegant in manner, with a delicately cut countenance and a prominent aquiline nose. In his eyes were visible desperate daring and endurance, but his face had an honest look, his rather thick mustache and a beard, evidently unshaven for a long time, gave him a seriousness beyond his years

Mishmar HaNegev

Mishmar HaNegev is a kibbutz in the northern fringe of the Negev desert in Israel. Located on Road 264, about two kilometres south of the Bedouin city of Rahat and around ten kilometres from Beersheba, it falls under the jurisdiction of Bnei Shimon Regional Council. In 2018 its population was 933. Mishmar HaNegev was founded in 1946 as one of the 11 points in the Negev settlements, it was settled by members of Borochovi Youth, a youth group affiliated with Poalei Zion, who set up camp at the site on the evening of October 6, just after the Yom Kippur fast. In 1994, privatization process began in the kibbutz and in 2004 the kibbutz members voted to change the rules radically towards total privatization. Mishmar HaNegev is the owner of Polybid Expanded Polystyrene Products, which produces insulation products for Israel and Eastern Europe; the company has an annual turnover of NIS 100 million. Mishmar HaNegev and Ecological Services Ltd. established a joint company, Negev Ecology, that operates a shredding and burial facility for tire waste materials.

The shredding mill can shred eight tons of tires an hour into 10x5 cm. rubber strips that are buried at a toxic waste site in southern Israel. Eliezer Rafaeli, founding President of the University of Haifa