Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars. The team ran cars in motorsport series, including Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Ford, Formula Junior, IndyCar. The Lotus name returned to Formula One in 2010, as the name of Tony Fernandess Lotus Racing team. In 2011, Team Lotuss iconic black-and-gold livery returned to F1 as the livery of the Lotus Renault GP team, sponsored by Lotus Cars, colin Chapman established Lotus Engineering Ltd in 1952 at Hornsey, UK. Lotus achieved rapid success with the 1953 Mk 6 and the 1954 Mk 8 sports cars, Team Lotus was split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954. A new Formula Two regulation was announced for 1957, and in Britain, the following year, the Lotus 12 appeared. Driving one in 1958, Allison won the F2 class in the International Trophy at Silverstone, beating Stuart Lewis-Evanss Cooper. As the Coventry Climax engines were enlarged in 1952 to 2. 2-litres, Chapman decided to enter Grand Prix racing, running a pair of Lotus 12s at Monaco in 1958 for Graham Hill and these were replaced that year by Lotus 16s.
By then, the success had caused it to expand to such an extent that it had to move to new premises at Cheshunt. The first Formula One victory for Team Lotus came when Innes Ireland won the 1961 United States Grand Prix, a year earlier, Stirling Moss had recorded the first victory for a Lotus car at Monaco in his Lotus 18 entered by the independent Rob Walker Racing Team. There were successes in Formula Two and Formula Junior, the road car business was doing well with the Lotus Seven and the Lotus Elite and this was followed by the Lotus Elan in 1962. In 1963 Clark drove the Lotus 25 to a remarkable seven wins in a season and won the World Championship. The 1964 title was still for the taking by the time of the last race in Mexico but problems with Clarks Lotus, however, in 1965, Clark dominated again, six wins in his Lotus 33 gave him the championship. While very innovative, Chapman came under criticism for the fragility of his designs. In Dave Friedmans book Indianapolis Memories 1961–1969, Dan Gurney is quoted as saying and we had several structural failures in those cars.
But at the time, I felt it was the price you paid for getting something significantly better, a switch to the new Ford Cosworth DFV, designed by former Lotus employee Keith Duckworth, in 1967 returned the team to winning form. Although they failed to win the title in 1967, by the end of the season, the Lotus 49, for 1968 Lotus had lost its exclusive right to use the DFV. The season-opening 1968 South African Grand Prix confirmed Lotuss superiority, with Jim Clark and it would be Clarks last win
Motor Racing Developments Ltd. commonly known as Brabham /ˈbræbəm/, was a British racing car manufacturer and Formula One racing team. Founded in 1960 by two Australians, driver Jack Brabham and designer Ron Tauranac, the team won four Drivers, Jack Brabhams 1966 Drivers Championship remains the only such achievement using a car bearing the drivers own name. In the 1960s, Brabham was the worlds largest manufacturer of open wheel racing cars for sale to customer teams, during this period, teams using Brabham cars won championships in Formula Two and Formula Three. Brabham cars competed in the Indianapolis 500 and in Formula 5000 racing, the team won two more Formula One Drivers Championships in the 1980s with Brazilian Nelson Piquet. He won his first championship in 1981 in the Ground effects BT49-Ford, in 1983 the Brabham BT52, driven by Piquet and Italian Riccardo Patrese, was powered by the BMW M12 Straight-4 engine, and powered Brabham to four of the teams 35 Grand Prix victories. British businessman Bernie Ecclestone owned Brabham during most of the 1970s and 1980s, Ecclestone sold the team in 1988.
Its last owner was the Middlebridge Group, a Japanese engineering firm, midway through the 1992 season, the team collapsed financially as Middlebridge was unable to make repayments against loans provided by Landhurst Leasing. The case was investigated by the United Kingdom Serious Fraud Office, in 2009, an unsuccessful attempt was made by a German organisation to enter the 2010 Formula One season using the Brabham name. The Brabham team was founded by Jack Brabham and Ron Tauranac, Brabham was the more successful driver and went to the United Kingdom in 1955 to further his racing career. In 1959 and 1960, Brabham won the Formula One World Drivers Championship in Coopers revolutionary mid-engined cars, despite their innovation of putting the engine behind the driver, the Coopers and their Chief Designer Owen Maddock were generally resistant to developing their cars. Brabham pushed for further advances, and played a significant role in developing Coopers highly successful 1960 T53 lowline car, Brabham describes Tauranac as absolutely the only bloke Id have gone into partnership with.
Later, Brabham offered a Coventry-Climax FWE-engined version of the Herald, with 83 hp, to meet that aim and Tauranac set up Motor Racing Developments Ltd. deliberately avoiding the use of either mans name. Unveiled in the summer of 1961, the MRD was soon renamed, motoring journalist Jabby Crombac pointed out that way a Frenchman pronounces those initials—written phonetically, em air day—sounded perilously like the French word. Gavin Youl achieved a finish at Goodwood and another at Mallory Park in the MRD-Ford. The cars were known as Brabhams, with type numbers starting with BT for Brabham Tauranac. By the 1961 Formula One season, the Lotus and Ferrari teams had developed the approach further than Cooper. The Brabham Racing Organisation started the year fielding a customer Lotus chassis, Brabham took two points finishes in Lotuses, before the turquoise-liveried Brabham BT3 car made its debut at the 1962 German Grand Prix. It retired with a problem after 9 of the 15 laps
Sir John Arthur Jack Brabham, AO, OBE was an Australian racing driver who was Formula One champion in 1959,1960, and 1966. He was a founder of the Brabham racing team and race car constructor that bore his name, Brabham was a Royal Australian Air Force flight mechanic and ran a small engineering workshop before he started racing midget cars in 1948. His successes with midgets in Australian and New Zealand road racing led to his going to Britain to further his racing career. There he became part of the Cooper Car Companys racing team and he contributed to the design of the mid-engined cars that Cooper introduced to Formula One and the Indianapolis 500, and won the Formula One world championship in 1959 and 1960. In 1962 he established his own Brabham marque with fellow Australian Ron Tauranac, in the 1966 Formula One season Brabham became the first – and still the only – man to win the Formula One world championship driving one of his own cars. He was the last surviving World Champion of the 1950s, John Arthur Jack Brabham was born on 2 April 1926 in Hurstville, New South Wales, a commuter town outside Sydney.
Brabham was involved with cars and mechanics from an early age, at the age of 12, he learned to drive the family car and the trucks of his fathers grocery business. Brabham attended technical college, studying metalwork and technical drawing, Brabhams early career continued the engineering theme. At the age of 15 he left school to work, combining a job at a garage with an evening course in mechanical engineering. Brabham soon branched out into his own business selling motorbikes, which he bought and repaired for sale, One month after his 18th birthday on 19 May 1944 Brabham enlisted into the Royal Australian Air Force. He was based at RAAF Station Williamtown, where he maintained Bristol Beaufighters at No.5 Operational Training Unit, on his 20th birthday,2 April 1946, Brabham was discharged from the RAAF with the rank of leading aircraftman. He started a service and machining business in a workshop built by his uncle on a plot of land behind his grandfathers house. Brabham started racing after an American friend, Johnny Schonberg, persuaded him to watch a car race.
Midget racing was a category for small open-wheel cars racing on dirt ovals and it was popular in Australia, attracting crowds of up to 40,000. Brabham records that he was not taken with the idea of driving, being convinced that the drivers were all lunatics, at first Schonberg drove the homemade device, powered by a modified JAP motorcycle engine built by Brabham in his workshop. In 1948, Schonbergs wife persuaded him to racing and on his suggestion Brabham took over. He almost immediately found that he had a knack for the sport, Brabham has since said that it was terrific driver training. You had to have quick reflexes, in effect you lived—or possibly died—on them, due to the time required to prepare the car, the sport became his living
The BRM P261, known as the BRM P61 Mark II, is a Formula One motor racing car and built by the British Racing Motors team in Bourne, England. The BRM P261 was introduced for the 1964 Formula One season, the P261 had a relatively long racing career, variants of the car were still being entered for Formula One World Championship Grands Prix as late as 1968. Stewart and Richard Attwood used works P261s to compete in the Tasman Series in 1966, the BRMs dominated, with Stewart winning four, Hill two, and Attwood one of the 1966 Tasman Series eight races. The works-backed Reg Parnell Racing team returned in 1967 with Stewart and Attwood, in terms of races won and total Championship points scored, the P261 was the most successful car in BRMs history. The BRM P261 was British Racing Motorss first fully monocoque chassis and its prototype, the one-off P61 introduced in 1963, had pioneered many of BRMs monocoque elements, but had used a tubular subframe for its rear engine mounting. As its name suggests, with the P261 designer Tony Rudd simply built upon the P61s structure, to emphasise this continuity, the P261 chassis numeration continues the P61 sequence, with the first P261 chassis being numbered 2612. BRM had some experience of stressed skin construction with the BRM P25.
This previous experience meant that Rudds use of the monocoque was somewhat different from the pioneering Lotuss frame. Where the 25 had been a frame with an open top, within which the driver sat. To replace the P61s subframe the side pontoons of the P261 chassis were extended behind the seat. Within the pontoons, rubber cells were used to retain fuel and these were plated over on the earlier cars which remained in service, but could be opened up if necessary to fit outside exhaust engines, as happened in the 1967 Tasman Championship. Between the chassis pontoons the engine was covered with a removable, completing the engine cowling was a near-circular gearbox and differential cover at the rear, through which the tail pipes of the exhausts protruded. Shifting the inlets to the edges of the car allowed the engine to ingest cooler, denser air. The compact exhaust bundle allowed a svelte packaging of the engine bay, the heat build-up from the confined manifold necessitated cutting a hole in the top of the engine cover.
Despite this, the BRM P261s barrel-shaped rear end became one of its most distinctive visual characteristics, BRM had experimented with a four-valve-per-cylinder version of the engine, but this was abandoned in favour of the tried and trusted, fuel-injected, two-valve, quad-cam configuration. The 1965 Formula One engine was rated at 210 bhp at 11,000 rpm, in its Formula One form the engine had a capacity of 1,498 cc, but for the early 1966 Tasman Series races this was increased to 1,916 cc. In 1966 the Formula One upper engine size limit was raised from 1.5 to 3.0 litres, and it was further uprated to 2.0 litres as the season progressed. For the P261s 1967 trip to the Antipodes the engine capacity was stretched yet further, providing the ultimate 2,136 cc version, which saw service in a few Formula One races in the year
Lorenzo Bandini was an Italian motor racing driver who raced in Formula One for the Scuderia Centro Sud and Ferrari teams. Bandini was born in Marj, Libya, an Italian colony, the family returned to Italy in 1939 and resided near Florence. When he was 15 his father died, Bandini left home and found a job as an apprentice mechanic in the Freddi workshop in Milan. He made his way into auto racing from competing on motorcycles and he started racing cars in 1957 in a borrowed Fiat 1100. Goliardo Freddi, acknowledging Bandinis talent, decided to support him, Bandini would marry Fredis daughter, Margherita, in 1963, and remained involved with the familys garage in Milan. He achieved a first class victory at the Mille Miglia, in a Lancia Appia Zagato, in 1958, and he raced in Formula Junior until 1961. Bandini purchased a Volpini Formula Junior car and placed third in his first race in Sicily, in 1959 and 1960 he drove a Formula Junior Stanguellini. In 1960 he placed fourth in the Formula Junior World Championship, in 1961 Bandini and fellow Italian driver Giancarlo Baghetti were both in contention for a seat at Ferrari.
Ferrari opted for Baghetti, and Bandini went to drive for Guglielmo Mimmo Deis Scuderia Centro Sud, at a non-championship race, he finished third at Pau. Bandini drove his first world championship race at Spa in 1961, during the winter of 1961-1962 he drove in the Tasman races in Australia and New Zealand. In 1962 Bandini was hired by Ferrari for the 1962 and 1963 seasons and his debut in a works Ferrari at the Monaco Grand Prix, finishing third. For 1963 Bandini was retained by Ferrari for sports car races only, along with Ludovico Scarfiotti, he won the Le Mans 24 Hours race and placed second in the Targa Florio that year, occasionally racing in Formula One for Scuderia Centro Sud. His string of results, including a fifth place at the British Grand Prix. In 1964 Bandini had his best Formula One season and he won the first Austrian Grand Prix at the Zeltweg circuit and scored two more podiums in Germany and Italy. At the Mexican Grand Prix, Bandini was running second when he decided to let his team mate John Surtees pass, in 1965 Bandini won the Targa Florio.
In 1966 Surtees left Ferrari in mid-season, Bandini was promoted to team leader. He was unlucky not to win the French and U. S. Grands Prix that year which he dominated before mechanical problems intervened while he was holding a huge lead. Bandinis best finish was a place at the Monaco Grand Prix in a 2.4 liter V-6 Ferrari behind Jackie Stewarts BRM
The Brabham BT7 is a Formula One racing car. It was raced by the Brabham Racing Organisation and several privateers from 1963 to 1966, a development of its predecessor, the Brabham BT3, the car proved to be competitive during 1963 and 1964, taking Dan Gurney to two victories. Technical issues prevented the BT7 from scoring better results, the car was equipped with a more reliable Hewland gearbox compared to the Colotti-Francis in the BT3. Malcolm Sayer from Jaguar Cars was consulted to give input for the revised chassis, the slick aerodynamics proved particularly strong at high speed circuits such as Monza or Spa. Its successor, the BT11, was a slightly altered BT7 aimed for customers such as Rob Walker or Jo Siffert and it was in this car that Denny Hulme debuted in Grand Prix racing. He would win the 1967 World Drivers Championship, the BT7 was raced in Formula 2 by Hubert Hahne among others using a 2-litre BMW Neue Klasse engine. 1 Points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis for the first six positions at each round only the best six or five round results retained.
Only the best placed car from each manufacturer at each round was eligible to score points
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at an angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°. In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft, since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light and he called it the Antoinette after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats, the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte dAzur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft.
Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight and its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII, hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908, the V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others.
Some of these found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, in 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches, the Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and it was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Dunlop is a brand of tyres owned by various companies around the world. It is owned and operated by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in North America, Australia, in India the brand is owned by Dunlop India Ltd. whose parent company is the Ruia Group. In Asia and Latin America by Sumitomo Rubber Industries, in 1985, Dunlop Rubber Company was acquired by BTR plc, and Sumitomo acquired the rights to manufacture and market Dunlop branded road tyres. Sumitomo did not acquire any Dunlop company, in 1997 Sumitomo gained agreement to use the Dunlop name in its corporate name, and changed the name of its UK subsidiary to Dunlop Tyres Ltd. The company has manufacturing operations throughout the world. With the closure of the Washington plant in 2006, Goodyear Dunlop ceased mainstream car, until May 2014 Goodyear Dunlop occupied a compact part of the site with their British main office. In the UK, the company operates as an organisation, importing tyres from manufacturing plants around the world, including China, Slovenia.
The Goodyear Dunlop joint venture is managed from sites in Luxembourg and Brussels, fort Dunlop was a motorsport manufacturing operation located in a corner of the original Dunlop factory in Erdington, established in 1891 until May 2014. This factory produced specialised vintage and touring car tyres, on 30 May 2014, the Birmingham factory ceased tyre production, ending Dunlop tyre production in the UK. The main Birmingham building has been redeveloped extensively as a residential and hotel complex, with a modern shopping facility, car dealerships. It can be observed between junction 5 and 6 of the M6, on the side of the motorway. Dunlop Tyres is the tyre supplier to the British Touring Car Championship, V8 Supercars Championship. It was the sole supplier for the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters from 2000-2010. Dunlop supplies tyres to the Japanese Super GTs Nakajima Racing, classes in the FIA World Endurance Championship, the Dunlop GP Racer D209 tyre has been chosen repeatedly as a control tyre for the R&G Racing GSX-R Trophy motorcycle race.
It has chosen for the Henderson Harley-Davidson XR1200 Trophy. The History of the Pneumatic Tyre
The Brabham BT11 is a Formula One racing car built in 1964, mainly for use by privateers in grand prix racing, but was used by the Brabham works team during 1964 and 1965. It was the only car of the period available to privateers. The cars best results came at consecutive events in the United States and Mexico 1965 and it was in a BT11 that 1970 World Champion Jochen Rindt debuted in Grand Prix racing. John Taylor however died four weeks after suffering severe burns in an accident with Jacky Ickxs Matra at the 1966 German Grand Prix, the BT11 was raced in the popular off season Tasman Series. 1 Points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis for the first six positions at each round, only the best placed car from each chassis manufacturer-engine manufacturer combination at each round was eligible to score points. Not all rounds could be counted towards the championship, In 1964 and 1965, in 1966 only the best five round results were retained. In 1967, the best five results from the first six rounds, in 1968, the best five results from the first six rounds and the best five results from the last six rounds were retained.
Numbers without parentheses are Championship points, numbers in parentheses are total points scored