The 1966 German Grand Prix was a mixed Formula One and Formula Two motor race held at the Nürburgring Nordschleife on 7 August 1966. It was race 6 of 9 in both the 1966 World Championship of Drivers and the 1966 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers, it was the 22nd to be held at the Nordschleife. It was held over 15 laps of the 22 kilometre circuit for a race distance 342 kilometres; the race was won by 1959 and 1960 World Champion Jack Brabham driving his Brabham BT19, his fourth win in succession. Brabham won by 43 seconds over the Cooper T81 driven by 1964 World Champion John Surtees. Surtees' Austrian teammate Jochen Rindt finished third; the first Formula Two driver to finish was French driver Jean-Pierre Beltoise in eighth driving a Matra Sports entered Matra MS5. The race saw the death of British driver John Taylor after a collision with Jacky Ickx. Brabham had collected more than double his nearest rival, BRM driver Graham Hill. Another wet track provided a duel between John Surtees for the whole race.
It was not until the Cooper's clutch failed two laps from the end that the Australian's win was guaranteed. Jim Clark, despite qualifying on pole, made a mistake and spun into a ditch after using the wrong tyres. In a far more serious crash, the Tyrrell-entered Matra MS5 of Jacky Ickx and the privately-entered Brabham BT11 of John Taylor crashed near the bridge between Quiddelbacher and Flugplatz. Taylor was badly succumbed to his injuries four weeks later; this would be the last Formula One race on the original Nürburgring Nordschleife before the Hohenrain chicane was added to slow the cars coming into the pits. Note: The race was held with both Formula One and Formula Two cars competing together. Formula Two entries are denoted by a pink background. Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. "Formula One World". Archived from the original on 2008-02-05. Retrieved 2008-01-16
The 1917 Camp Gordon football team represented Camp Gordon near Augusta, during the 1917 college football season. The team was led by a backfield of former Auburn back and war hero Kirk Newell, former Mercer back Cochran, former Georgia halfback Bob McWhorter, former Vanderbilt back Wilson Collins. Former Alabama fullback Adrian Van de Graaff backed up Collins. Kid Woodruff of Georgia backed up Newell at quarterback. On the line, the teams ends were former Virginia player James L. White and former Auburn player Henry W. Robinson. VMI's Blandy Clarkson and Chicago's Royal were tackles. Dartmouth's Lewis and Charles Brown of Vanderbilt were guards. James Bond of Pitt was the team's center. Georgia's Tom Thrash was a sub tackle. Walter Camp Jr. officiated the Camp Hancock game. Oglethorpe's coach Frank B. Anderson was umpire
Computer cooling is required to remove the waste heat produced by computer components, to keep components within permissible operating temperature limits. Components that are susceptible to temporary malfunction or permanent failure if overheated include integrated circuits such as central processing units, graphics cards, hard disk drives. Components are designed to generate as little heat as possible, computers and operating systems may be designed to reduce power consumption and consequent heating according to workload, but more heat may still be produced than can be removed without attention to cooling. Use of heatsinks cooled by airflow reduces the temperature rise produced by a given amount of heat. Attention to patterns of airflow can prevent the development of hotspots. Computer fans are used along with heatsink fans to reduce temperature by exhausting hot air. There are more exotic cooling techniques, such as liquid cooling. All modern day processors are designed to cut out or reduce their voltage or clock speed if the internal temperature of the processor exceeds a specified limit.
Cooling may be designed to reduce the ambient temperature within the case of a computer, such as by exhausting hot air, or to cool a single component or small area. Components individually cooled include the CPU, graphics processing unit and the northbridge. Integrated circuits are the main generators of heat in modern computers. Heat generation can be reduced by efficient design and selection of operating parameters such as voltage and frequency, but acceptable performance can only be achieved by managing significant heat generation. In operation, the temperature of a computer's components will rise until the heat transferred to the surroundings is equal to the heat produced by the component, that is, when thermal equilibrium is reached. For reliable operation, the temperature must never exceed a specified maximum permissible value unique to each component. For semiconductors, instantaneous junction temperature, rather than component case, heatsink, or ambient temperature is critical. Cooling can be changed by: Dust acting as a thermal insulator and impeding airflow, thereby reducing heat sink and fan performance.
Poor airflow including turbulence due to friction against impeding components such as ribbon cables, or incorrect orientation of fans, can reduce the amount of air flowing through a case and create localized whirlpools of hot air in the case. In some cases of equipment with bad thermal design, cooling air can flow out through "cooling" holes before passing over hot components. Poor heat transfer cooling devices; this can be improved by the use of thermal compounds to out surface imperfections, or by lapping. Because high temperatures can reduce life span or cause permanent damage to components, the heat output of components can sometimes exceed the computer's cooling capacity, manufacturers take additional precautions to ensure that temperatures remain within safe limits. A computer with thermal sensors integrated in the CPU, chipset, or GPU can shut itself down when high temperatures are detected to prevent permanent damage, although this may not guarantee long-term safe operation. Before an overheating component reaches this point, it may be "throttled" until temperatures fall below a safe point using dynamic frequency scaling technology.
Throttling reduces the operating frequency and voltage of an integrated circuit or disables non-essential features of the chip to reduce heat output at the cost of or reduced performance. For desktop and notebook computers, throttling is controlled at the BIOS level. Throttling is commonly used to manage temperatures in smartphones and tablets, where components are packed together with little to no active cooling, with additional heat transferred from the hand of the user; as electronic computers became larger and more complex, cooling of the active components became a critical factor for reliable operation. Early vacuum-tube computers, with large cabinets, could rely on natural or forced air circulation for cooling. However, solid state devices were packed much more densely and had lower allowable operating temperatures. Starting in 1965, IBM and other manufacturers of mainframe computers sponsored intensive research into the physics of cooling densely packed integrated circuits. Many air and liquid cooling systems were devised and investigated, using methods such as natural and forced convection, direct air impingement, direct liquid immersion and forced convection, pool boiling, falling films, flow boiling, liquid jet impingement.
Mathematical analysis was used to predict temperature rises of components for each possible cooling system geometry. IBM developed three generations of the Thermal Conduction Module which used a water-cooled cold plate in direct thermal contact with integrated circuit packages; each package had a thermally conductive pin pressed onto it, helium gas surrounded chips and heat conducting pins. The design could remove up to 27 watts from a chip and up to 2000 watts per module, while maintaining chip package temperatures around 50 °C. Systems using TCMs were the 3081 family, ES/3090 and some models of the ES/9000. In the IBM 3081 processor, TCMs allowed up to 2700 watts on a single printed circuit board while maintaining chip temperature at 69 °C. Thermal conduction modules using water cooling were used in mainframe systems manufactured by other companies including Mitsubishi and Fujit