Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
John Wyer was an English automobile racing engineer and team manager. He is mainly associated with running in the light blue. As team manager and team owner, Wyer won the 24 Hours of Le Mans several times and his first victory came in the 1959 edition, in his tenth anniversary as Aston Martin team manager, along with Roy Salvadori and Carroll Shelby, win with the DBR1. The team made their base for Le Mans at the Hotel De France from 1953 -1975, the race cars would be tended within the courtyard and garage adjacent to the hotel before being driven to and from the circuit on the road for practice and the race. The team won the 1000 km Nürburgring over three consecutive years, in 1963 he left Aston Martin for Ford Advanced Vehicles In 1964. Ford closed FAV after the 1966 season, and John Wyer and John Willment formed J. W. Automotive Engineering Ltd to take over the Slough factory and continued to build production GT40s on Fords behalf. With backing from Gulf Oil and their team manager J-O Bockman, Wyer created the Ford-powered Mirage M-1, a prototype that won the 19671000 km Spa.
Due to a change that came in effect for 1968, prototypes were limited to 3,000 cc. This applied to the two-year-old Ford GT40s, which were modified by Wyer, as a surprise, Wyer won the World Sportscar Championship for Ford in 1968 even though the 2,200 cc Porsche 907 were considered favourites at the beginning of the season. The superior power of the 302 cubic inch V8 allowed them to win on fast tracks, when it became apparent the GT40 would become obsolete after 1969, Wyer switched to the new Porsche 917. Wyers team became the main partner and was a major factor in developing the wedge-shaped Kurzheck tail of the 1970 917K which made the car much more stable than the original 1969 version. In fiction, a Gulf-Porsche 917K won in the cult movie Le Mans, Wyer adopted the new 3. 0-litre regulations and started building Gulf-Mirage prototypes again, using a Formula One Cosworth DFV engine. The successful F1-engine was considered unsuited for endurance racing as vibrations took their toll after several hours, after three years of attempts, Jacky Ickx and Derek Bell achieved what would be Wyers last win at Le Mans in 1975.
The following year, John Wyer retired from competition and sold his team to Harley Cluxtons Grand Touring Cars operation
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Watkins Glen International
Watkins Glen International is an automobile race track located in Watkins Glen, New York, at the southern tip of Seneca Lake. Initially, public roads in the village were used for the race course, in 1956 a permanent circuit for the race was built. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours, becoming the 6 Hours of Watkins Glen, the chicane was removed in 1985, but another chicane called the Inner Loop was installed in 1992 after a fatal accident during the previous years NASCAR Winston Cup event. The circuit is known as the Mecca of North American road racing and is a popular venue among fans. The facility is owned by International Speedway Corporation. The Watkins Glen International race course has several changes over the years. Currently, two distinct layouts are used—the Boot layout and the 1971 Six Hours layout, the first races in Watkins Glen were initiated by Cameron Argetsinger, whose family had a summer home in the area. With Chamber of commerce approval and SCCA sanction, the first Watkins Glen Grand Prix took place in 1948 on a 6. 6-mile course over local public roads.
The original 6. 6-mile course is listed in the New York State register and National Register of Historic Places as the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Course, the second layout 4. 6-mile began use in 1953 and used existing roads. The Watkins Glen Grand Prix Corporation was formed to manage spectators, the first permanent course was constructed on 550 acres, overlapping part of the previous street course. It was designed by Bill Milliken, and engineering professors from Cornell University and this course was used from 1956–1970. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours, the circuit underwent a major overhaul for the 1971 season. The Big Bend and the leading up to it were eliminated. The pits and start/finish line were relocated to this new straightaway, the 90 now became turn one instead of turn 8. When the 1971 Six Hours of Watkins Glen arrived in July 1971, the short course had been finished, but the Boot segments were not complete, nor was the new pit area. The 1971 Six Hours race was run on the course layout.
In addition, for 1971 only, the cars used the original start/finish line, when NASCAR returned to the track in 1986, they chose to use the short course layout. IMSA originally used the Boot, but eventually, that began using the shorter 1971 layout
24 Hours of Daytona
It is run on a 3. 56-mile combined road course, utilizing portions of the NASCAR tri-oval and an infield road course. Since its inception, it has held the last weekend of January or first weekend of February, part of Speedweeks. It is the first race of the season for the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, the race has had several names over the years. Since 1991, the Rolex Watch Co. is the sponsor of the race under a naming rights arrangement. Winning drivers of all classes receive a steel Rolex Daytona watch, in 2006, the race moved one week earlier into January to prevent a clash with the Super Bowl, which had in turn moved one week into February a few years earlier. The race has been known historically as a leg of the informal Triple Crown of endurance racing, shortly after the track opened, on April 5,1959, a six-hour/1000 kilometer USAC-FIA sports car race was held on the road course. Count Antonio Von Dory and Roberto Mieres won the race in a Porsche, the race utilized a 3. 81-mile layout, running counter-clockwise.
In 1962, a few years after the track was built, known as the Daytona Continental, it counted towards the FIAs new International Championship for GT Manufacturers. The first Continental was won by Dan Gurney, driving a 2. 7L Coventry Climax-powered Lotus 19. Gurney was a factory Porsche driver at the time, but the 1600-cc Porsche 718 was considered too small, in 1964, the event was expanded to 2,000 km, doubling the classic 1000 km distance of races at Nürburgring and Monza. Starting in 1966, the Daytona race was extended to the same 24-hour length as Le Mans, unlike the Le Mans event, the Daytona race is conducted entirely over a closed course within the speedway arena without the use of any public streets. Most parts of the steep banking are included, interrupted with a chicane on the back straight, unlike Le Mans, the race is held in wintertime, when nights are at their longest. There are lights installed around the circuit for racing, although the infield section is still not as well-lit as the main oval.
This was the case in the initial 1962 Daytona Continental, in which Dan Gurneys Lotus had established a lead when the engine failed with just minutes remaining. Gurney stopped the car at the top of the banking, just short of the finish line and this led to the international rule requiring a car to cross the line under its own power in order to be classified. The first 24 Hour event in 1966 was won by Ken Miles, after having lost in 1966 at Daytona, Sebring and Le Mans to the Fords, the Ferrari P series prototypes staged a 1–2–3 side-by-side parade finish at the banked finish line in 1967. The Ferrari 365 GTB/4 road car was given the unofficial name Ferrari Daytona in celebration of this victory, Porsche repeated this show in their 1–2–3 win in the 196824 Hours. After the car of Gerhard Mitter had a big crash caused by tire failure in the banking, his teammate Rolf Stommelen supported the car of Vic Elford and Jochen Neerpasch
The Porsche 917 is a race car that gave Porsche its first overall wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1970 and 1971. The highest official speed ever clocked for a 917 at Le Mans is 362 km/h or 224.4 mph, there are at least eleven variants of the 917. The original version had a removable long tail/medium tail with rear wing flaps. The changes were adopted into a new version of the 917, called the Kurzheck, or short-tail. The 917K, and the special Le Mans long-tail version, dominated the 1970 and 1971 World Sportscar Championships. In 1971, a variant of the 917K appeared with an upswept tail and vertical fins. The fins kept the clean downforce inducing air on the top of the tail and allowed the angle of the deck to be reduced, the result was a more attractive looking car that maintained down force for less drag and higher top speed. By this time the original 4. 5-litre engine, which had produced around 520 bhp in 1969, had been enlarged through 4. 9-litres to 5-litres, the 917K models were generally used for the shorter road courses such as Sebring, Brands Hatch and Spa-Francorchamps.
The big prize for Porsche however, was Le Mans, for the French circuits long, high speed straights, the factory developed special long tail bodywork that was designed for minimum drag and thus highest maximum speed. On the cars debut in 1969, these models proved to be nearly uncontrollable as there was so little down force. In fact, they generated aerodynamic lift at the highest speeds, for 1970, an improved version was raced by the factory and for 1971, after very significant development in the wind tunnel, the definitive 917L was raced by both factory and JW. These cars were so stable that the drivers could take their hands off the wheel at speeds which reached 246 mph. In 1971 Jo Siffert raced an open-top 917PA Spyder in the 1971 CanAm series, there is the Pink Pig aerodynamic research version, and the turbocharged 917/10 and 917/30 CanAm Spyders. Porsche 917s raced in the European Interseries in various configurations, in the 1973 Can-Am series, the turbocharged version Porsche 917/30 developed 1,100 bhp.
The 917 is one of the most iconic racing cars of all time, largely for its high speeds and high power outputs. 2009 marked the 40th anniversary of the 917, and Porsche held a celebration at the Goodwood Festival of Speed. This capacity reduction would serve to entice manufacturers who were already building three-litre Formula One engines into endurance racing and this targeted existing cars like the aging Ford GT40 Mk. I and the newer Lola T70 coupe. With Ferrari absent in 1968, mainly Porsche 908s and Ford P68s were entered there, as a result, old 2. 2-litre Porsche 907s often won that category, with John Wyers 4. 7-litre Ford GT40 Mk. I taking wins at faster tracks
12 Hours of Sebring
The event is the second round of the United SportsCar Championship and in the past has been a round of the now defunct World Sportscar Championship, IMSA GT Championship and American Le Mans Series. In 2012, the race was the event of the FIA World Endurance Championship. The track opened in 1950 on an airfield and is a racing course styled after those used in European Grand Prix motor racing. The first race was a race on New Years Eve 1950. The race is famous for its once around the action, starting during the day. In its early years, the Sebring circuit combined former airport runways with narrow service roads. The 1966 event was a point in Sebring history, as the facilities. Five people were killed during the race, which was more people killed than in the races prior 15-year history combined, bob McLean crashed while approaching the hairpin, his car rolled several times, struck a utility pole and exploded, landing in a ditch and killing McLean. The circuit was made safer and there were no fatalities until 1980 and it is known as preparation for the 24 Hours of Le Mans, as the tracks extremely bumpy surface, combined with south-central Floridas perennial hot weather, is a test of a cars reliability.
In recent years, six victories have been achieved by the Audi R8. Tom Kristensen has won the more times than anyone else, with six victories – in 1999–2000, 2005–2006,2009. The 1966 race had Dan Gurney leading at the last lap, Gurney pushed his car over the finish line, beaten only by Ken Miles and Lloyd Ruby. However, his actions were ultimately determined to be against the rules, Corvette had dominated the class the past three years with its previous generation C5R. The all-new Audi R10 TDI won the 2006 edition of the race, the victory set the stage for an even more momentous win by the R10 in its next race, the Le Mans 24 Hours in the year. The much-hyped Porsche RS Spyder campaigned by Penske Racing dropped to take 2nd place in its LMP2 class, behind the Intersport Lola car. The GT1 Corvette C6R team got their revenge against the Aston Martin, in addition to an overall win, Audi set a track record in 2007 with Marco Werner behind the wheel in qualifying. ^A The car was in fact, a Porsche 935 K3 that has been modified with a single cylinder head.
^B These races were stopped for a period of due to heavy rain and/or accidents
Derek Bell (racing driver)
He raced in Formula One for the Ferrari, Wheatcroft, McLaren and Tecno teams. He has been described by fellow racer Hans-Joachim Stuck as one of the most liked drivers of his generation and he won his first race in the Lotus at Goodwood in March of that year. He graduated to Formula Three in the year racing a Lotus 31 and in 1966 switched to a Lotus 41 scoring his first victory. In 1967 he enjoyed seven wins and he contested the 1969 Tasman Series in a 2.4 Dino Ferrari and was second at Lakeside to Amon and Rindt at Warwick Farm. In 1969 he raced the four-wheel-drive McLaren M9A in its only race at the British Grand Prix at Silverstone. Bell took part in the filming of Le Mans starring Steve McQueen, and he and his family lived with the McQueen family during the filming, Bell had a lucky escape during the making of the film. The Ferrari 512 he was driving suddenly caught fire whilst getting into position for a take and he managed to get out of the car just before it was engulfed in flames and suffered minor burns.
Although the car was damaged, it was rebuilt and is still racing at historic meets. Bell finished second in the 1970 European Formula Two Championship, driving a Brabham BT30 for Wheatcroft Racing, in 1972 he got a drive in the Tecno Formula One team, along with Nanni Galli. He had a few further drives for Surtees in 1974 and finished 11th in the 1974 German Grand Prix. Enjoying single seaters more than sports cars he accepted drives in F5000/Libre British Shellsport series and F5000 in 1976-7 the Penske PC7 March and odd F5000 drives in the US and Australia. Bell is best known for winning Le Mans 24 hours race five times, in 1975,1981,1982,1986 and 1987, making him the most successful British driver in the race to date. He was teamed with the Belgian Jacky Ickx in 1975, racing the Gulf Mirage GR8, again in 1981, racing a Porsche 936, the Bell/Ickx partnership is considered as one of the most famous pairings in motorsport history. Bell went on to win the 1986 and 1987 Le Mans teamed with Hans-Joachim Stuck and his first Le Mans was in 1970 in a works entered Ferrari 512, with co-driver Ronnie Peterson, his last in 1996 racing a McLaren F1 GTR.
Bell achieved his highest ever speed at Le Mans at the 1971 Le Mans 24 hours April test day, Bell won the World Sportscar Championship title twice in 1985 and 1986 and the 24 Hours of Daytona three times in 1986,1987 and 1989. He won the 1973 Silverstone RAC Tourist Trophy racing a BMW3. 0CSL with Harald Ertl. In 1984 he won the Nürburgring 1000km with Stefan Bellof, racing a Porsche 956 and he is one of two drivers to win the Spa 1000km on both the original and current circuits, the other being Jacky Ickx. Bell was hired as chairman for the Spectre R42 super car project between 1996 and its demise in 1997, in 2001 he was hired to consult for the Bentley Speed 8 programme, helping Bentley to win Le Mans two years later
1970 World Sportscar Championship
The 1970 World Sportscar Championship season was the 18th season of FIA World Sportscar Championship motor racing. It featured the 1970 International Championship for Makes and the 1970 International Cup for GT Cars, the International Championship for Makes, which was open to Group 6 Sports-Prototypes, Group 5 Sports Cars and Group 4 Special GT Cars, was won by German manufacturer Porsche. The International Cup for GT Cars was won by Porsche, † - The BOAC1000 km was open to Group 6 Sports-Prototypes and Group 5 Sports Cars only. Points were awarded for the first six places in each race on a 9-6-4-3-2-1 basis, manufacturers were only awarded points for their highest placed car with no points awarded for positions filled by other cars from the same manufacturer. No points were awarded for positions filled by other than Group 6 Sports-Prototypes, Group 5 Sports Cars. Out of the ten rounds in the championship, only the best seven results counted towards the total for each manufacturer. Discarded points are shown within brackets in the following table, points were awarded for the first six places in the GT category at each race on a 9-6-4-3-2-1 basis.
Manufacturers were only given points for their highest finishing car with no points awarded for positions filled by cars from the same manufacturer. Only the best seven results were retained towards the total of each manufacturer. Discarded points are shown within brackets in the following table, the Grand Touring Car category did not participate in Round 3 at Brands Hatch. The following models contributed towards the net point scores of their respective manufacturers. racingsportscars. com
Ferrari 512 S is the designation for 25 sports cars built in 1969–70, with five-litre 12-cylinder engines, related to the Ferrari P sports prototypes. The V12-powered cars were entered in the 1970 International Championship for Makes by the factory Scuderia Ferrari, that year, modified versions resembling their main competitor, the Porsche 917, were called Ferrari 512 M. In the 1971 International Championship for Makes, the focused on the new Ferrari 312 PB. From 1972 onwards, the 512 was withdrawn from the championship following a change in the regulations. The Ferrari 512 is named for its displacement, five litres. Despite having an engine, Ferrari sat out the 1968 season. Selling half of his business to Fiat, Enzo Ferrari raised the funds to match that investment, the engine of the 512 S was a completely new 60° V12 with 560 PS output. Compared to Porsches air-cooled flat-12, it needed a maze of cooling pipes, since the chassis was of sturded steel, reinforced with aluminium sheet, weight was 100 kg more than that of the alloy-framed 917.
Notwithstanding the weight difference and higher center of gravity, the Ferrari 512 S, contrary to Porsche, Ferrari did not organise an intramural competition. At Porsche, JWA Gulf, KG Porsche Salzburg and Martini Racing, thus, at least four cars were real works cars, without putting strain on the factory itself, as personnel and funds were provided by these professional teams. And even the privateers like AAW Shell Racing and David Piper Racing received much better support than Ferraris clients, Ferrari did not adopt this modern scheme, but entered cars themselves in the traditional manner, as Spa Ferrari SEFAC. Having only a few Formula One drivers under contract in the years, with the sports car aces driving for Porsche. Besides the factory cars, there were the cars of Scuderia Filipinetti, NART, Écurie Francorchamps, Scuderia Picchio Rosso, Gelo Racing Team. Those private cars never received the support from the factory. They were considered as field fillers, never as candidates for a win, at the end of the 1970 season, Ferrari had won the 12 hours of Sebring, while the Porsche 917 and 908 took the remaining nine wins of the championship season.
At Le Mans, the Ferrari suffered from reliability problems, although it was considered to be equally fast to the 917. For speed tracks such as Le Mans, Spa and the Osterrichring, the modified 512 M had proven to be fast at the end of the season, and Ickx/Giunti won the Kyalami non-championship Springbok nine-hours race. As the loop hole for the five litre sports cars became obsolete after 1971, in 1971, Penske entered an improved 512 M in Sunoco livery which was able to challenge the 917, taking pole position several times