The 1972 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. The sporting nature of the event was overshadowed by the Munich massacre in the second week, in which eleven Israeli athletes and coaches and a West German police officer at Olympic village were killed by Black September terrorists; the 1972 Summer Olympics were the second Summer Olympics to be held in Germany, after the 1936 Games in Berlin, which had taken place under the Nazi regime. The West German Government had been eager to have the Munich Olympics present a democratic and optimistic Germany to the world, as shown by the Games' official motto, "Die Heiteren Spiele", or "the cheerful Games"; the logo of the Games was a blue solar logo by Otl Aicher, the designer and director of the visual conception commission. The Olympic mascot, the dachshund "Waldi", was the first named Olympic mascot; the Olympic Fanfare was composed by Herbert Rehbein.
The Soviet Union won overall medals. The Olympic Park is based on Frei Otto's plans; the competition sites, designed by architect Günther Behnisch, included the Olympic swimming hall, the Olympics Hall and the Olympic Stadium, an Olympic village close to the park. The design of the stadium was considered revolutionary, with sweeping canopies of acrylic glass stabilized by metal ropes, used on such a large scale for the first time. Munich won its Olympic bid on April 26, 1966, at the 64th IOC Session at Rome, over bids presented by Detroit and Montréal. Montréal would host the following Olympic games in 1976; the Games were overshadowed by what has come to be known as the "Munich massacre". Just before dawn on September 5, a group of eight members of the Black September terrorist organization broke into the Olympic Village and took eleven Israeli athletes and officials hostage in their apartments. Two of the hostages who resisted were killed in the first moments of the break-in. Late in the evening of September 5 that same day, the terrorists and their nine remaining hostages were transferred by helicopter to the military airport of Fürstenfeldbruck, ostensibly to board a plane bound for an undetermined Arab country.
The German authorities planned to ambush them there, but underestimated the numbers of their opposition and were thus undermanned. During a botched rescue attempt, all of the Israeli hostages were killed. Four of them were shot incinerated when one of the terrorists detonated a grenade inside the helicopter in which the hostages were sitting; the 5 remaining hostages were machine-gunned to death. All but three of the terrorists were killed as well. Although arrested and imprisoned pending trial, they were released by the West German government on October 29, 1972, in exchange for a hijacked Lufthansa jet. Two of those three were hunted down and assassinated by the Mossad. Jamal Al-Gashey, believed to be the sole survivor, is still living today in hiding in an unspecified African country with his wife and two children; the Olympic events were suspended several hours after the initial attack, but once the incident was concluded, Avery Brundage, the International Olympic Committee president, declared that "the Games must go on".
A memorial ceremony was held in the Olympic stadium, the competitions resumed after a stoppage of 34 hours. The attack prompted heightened security at subsequent Olympics beginning with the 1976 Winter Olympics. Security at Olympics was heightened further beginning with the 2002 Winter Olympics, as they were the first to take place after the 2001 September 11 attacks; the massacre led the German federal government to re-examine its anti-terrorism policies, which at the time were dominated by a pacifist approach adopted after World War II. This led to the creation of the elite counter-terrorist unit GSG 9, similar to the British SAS, it led Israel to launch a campaign known as Operation Wrath of God, in which those suspected of involvement were systematically tracked down and assassinated. The events of the Munich massacre were chronicled in the Oscar-winning documentary, One Day in September. An account of the aftermath is dramatized in three films: the 1976 made-for-TV movie 21 Hours at Munich, the 1986 made-for-TV movie Sword of Gideon and Steven Spielberg's 2005 film Munich.
In her film 1972, Artist Sarah Morris interviews Dr. Georg Sieber, a former police psychiatrist who advised the Olympics' security team, about the events and aftermath of Black September; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Avery Brundage. Mark Spitz set a world record when he won seven gold medals in a single Olympics, bringing his lifetime total to nine. Being Jewish, Spitz was asked to leave Munich before the closing ceremonies for his own protection, after fears arose that he would be an additional target of those responsible for the Munich massacre. Spitz's record stood until 2008, when it was beaten by Michael Phelps who won eight gold medals in the pool. Olga Korbut, a Soviet gymnast, became a media star after winning a gold medal in the team competition event, failing to win in the individual all-around after a fall, winning two gold medals in the Balance Beam and the floor exercise events. In the final of the men's basketball, the Un
Carl A. P. Ruck, is a professor in the Classical Studies department at Boston University, he received his B. A. at Yale University, his M. A. at the University of Michigan, a Ph. D. at Harvard University. He lives in Massachusetts. Carl Ruck is best known for his work along with other scholars in mythology and religion on the sacred role of entheogens, or psychoactive plants that induce an altered state of consciousness, as used in religious or shamanistic rituals, his focus has been on the use of entheogens in classical western culture, as well as their historical influence on modern western religions. He teaches a mythology class at Boston University that presents this theory in depth; the book The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries, co-authored by Ruck with Albert Hofmann and R. Gordon Wasson, makes a case that the psycho-active ingredient in the secret kykeion potion used in the Eleusinian mysteries was most the ergotism causing fungus Claviceps purpurea. Furthermore the book introduced for the first time the term "entheogen" as an alternative for terms such as "psychedelic", "hallucinogen" and "drug" that can be misleading in certain contexts.
The Apples of Apollo: Pagan and Christian Mysteries of the Eucharist explores the role that entheogens in general, Amanita muscaria in particular, played in Greek and biblical mythology and on in Renaissance painting, most notably in the Isenheim Altarpiece by Matthias Grünewald. In January 2003 Ruck came to public attention commenting on a book by the cannabis activist Chris Bennett, he was quoted in The Guardian, wrote an article for the Sunday Times. His work explored entheogenic connections to the Roman cult of Mithras. Entheogens and Human Consciousness, with Mark Alwin Hoffman The Effluents of Deity: Alchemy and Psychoactive Sacraments in Medieval and Renaissance Art, with Mark Alwin Hoffman Mushrooms and Mithras: The Drug Cult that Civilized Europe, with Mark Alwin Hoffman and Jose Alfredo Gonzalez Celdran The Hidden World: Survival of Pagan Shamanic Themes in European Fairytales, with Blaise Daniel Staples, José Alfredo González Celdrán and Mark Alwin Hoffman Sacred Mushrooms of the Goddess: Secrets of Eleusis The Apples of Apollo: Pagan and Christian Mysteries of the Eucharist, with Clark Heinrich and Blaise Daniel Staples Intensive Latin: First Year and Review The World of Classical Myth: Gods and Goddesses and Heroes, with Blaise Daniel Staples Persephone's Quest: Entheogens and the Origins of Religion, with R. Gordon Wasson, Stella Kramrisch and Jonathan Ott Latin: A Concise Structural Course Ancient Greek: A New Approach The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries, with R. Gordon Wasson, Albert Hofmann and Blaise Daniel Staples Pindar: Selected Odes The List of Victors in Comedy at the Dionysia Page for Carl Ruck at BU's Classics Department Summary of The Apples of Apollo Heretical Visionary Sacraments Amongst the Ecclesiastical Elite and Melusina of Plaincourault - Two video lectures by Carl Ruck in RealVideo format
The Shropshire breed of domestic sheep originated from the hills of Shropshire, North Staffordshire, during the 1840s. The breeders in the area used the local horned black-faced sheep and crossed them with a few breeds of white-faced sheep; this produced a medium-sized polled sheep that produced good meat. In 1855 the first Shropshires were imported into the United States; this breed is raised for meat. In 1859 the breed was recognized by the Royal Agricultural Society as being a distinct breed; the popularity of the Shropshire breed grew in England, in 1882 Shropshire breeders founded the Shropshire Sheep Breeders' Association and Flock Book Society, the world's first such society for sheep. The same year the Society published a record of sheep bred and their breeders; the Society still survives, still publishes a Flock Book annually. By 1884 more Shropshires were exhibited at the local shows than all other breeds combined; the first documented flock in the United States was brought to Maryland in 1860 by Samuel Sutton.
Thousands of Shropshires were exported to the United States after that, as well as to other parts of the English speaking world, notably Australia and New Zealand, to South America. The breed's adaptability to most environments and their dual-purpose nature led to them becoming a popular breed. In 1884 the American Shropshire Registry was formed and by the turn of the 20th century the Shropshire was the most numerous breed of sheep in the United States. By the 1930s the Shropshire had been dubbed "the farm flock favorite" in the United States; this led to the breed having increased wool cover around the eyes, thus needing to be trimmed around the eyes for better sight. This hindrance and overall loss of size led to the numbers of the breed decreasing among American farmers, they were no longer the most popular breed of sheep, became rare around the world in their homeland. In the 1950s, some Shropshire breeders began going back to the original traits that made the breed so popular, they imported some select open-faced Shropshire rams from England with larger size, which helped once again to produce a breed of sheep with medium size and good wool and meat production.
The Shropshire became an increasing popular breed among farmers with their ability to adapt to varying environments. Despite its popularity in the early 1900s, today the traditional Shropshire sheep is considered a rare breed in most countries. However, the modern Shropshire is rising in popularity as a show sheep in the Midwestern US, its gentle nature and medium size make it popular with 4-H exhibitors. The mature weights for modern Shropshire rams are between 225 and 250 pounds and between 150 and 180 pounds for the females; the long-legged, long-necked modern American Shropshire bears little resemblance to the breed type and character of the heritage-type Shropshire sheep. In the 1990s, Shropshires were found to be the only breed that would not nibble on conifers or bite off the bark of fruit trees, making them popular with Christmas tree farmers. Not only do they keep the grass short, making herbicides unnecessary, but their droppings turned out to be good manure for the saplings. General Appearance: Alert, indicating breeding and quality, with stylish carriage and a symmetrical form, showing the true characteristics of the Shropshire, covered with fine, dense wool.
Active with a free action. Shoulders blending smoothly into the ribs. A full heart girth and straight back with adequate body capacity. Constitution: Robust as indicated by width and depth of chest and formation of neck, by bold active movement. Size: Medium-sized. Fleece and Skin: Fleece: Of good length, elastic to touch, medium fine, free from black fibre, well crimped, with evenness of texture throughout; the skin of a light cherry colour and free from dark spots. Body: Well fleshed, long and symmetrical. Well proportioned, with shoulders strong and blending well into body, well placed, fitting smoothly upon chest, which should be deep and wide. Rump long, hind quarters well developed and wide with dock well set on and twist deep and full, legs of mutton full and well-muscled. Head and Neck: Head, broad between the ears and eyes and masculine in rams, without horns. Neck short and muscular, symmetrically blending head and shoulders in graceful outlines.. Ears: Short and well set, not upright but perpendicular to head, moderate thickness, colour same as face and legs, cinnamon to dark brown or soft black.
Rounded tips, wool covering outside ear. Legs and Feet: Legs strong, straight, well wooled and well set apart. Objections: Animals otherwise good, oversized.