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Panchaloha called Pañcadhātu is a term for traditional five-metal alloys of sacred significance, used for making Hindu temple murtis and jewelry. The composition is laid down in the Shilpa shastras, a collection of ancient texts that describe arts and their design rules and standards. Panchaloha is traditionally described as an alloy of gold, copper and iron as the major constituents. In some cases tin or lead is used instead of zinc, it is believed that wearing jewellery made of such an alloy brings balance in life, self-confidence, good health, fortune and peace of mind. In Tibetan culture, it was considered auspicious to use thokcha either as a component of the alloy in general or for a specific object or purpose; the amount used could vary, depending upon the material's availability and suitability, among other considerations. A small symbolic quantity of "sky-iron" might be added, or it might be included as a significant part of the alloy-recipe. Media related to Panchaloha at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Objects made from meteoritic iron at Wikimedia Commons The Lost-Wax Casting of Icons, Utensils and Other Items in South India, R.

M. Pillai, S. G. K. Pillai, A. D. Damodaran, October 2002, JOM

J. R. Graham

Johnathan Ryan Graham is an American professional baseball pitcher, a free agent. He made his MLB debut with the Minnesota Twins. Graham was born in Livermore, California on January 14, 1990 to Julie Graham, his mother Julie is blind due to the effects of Best disease, when Graham started Little League as a shortstop, he wore white cleats instead of black ones at his father's suggestion and to help him stand out on the diamond. Graham began wearing stirrups at age twelve or thirteen, he played shortstop while in high school. Graham was drafted by the Oakland Athletics in the 46th round of the 2008 Major League Baseball Draft out of Livermore High School in Livermore, California, he did not sign, choosing instead to attend Santa Clara University, where he began pitching full-time. He was drafted by the Atlanta Braves in the fourth round of the 2011 Major League Baseball Draft. Graham pitched for the Lynchburg Hillcats of the Class A-Advanced Carolina League and the Mississippi Braves of the Class AA Southern League in 2012 and 2013.

He went 12 -- 2 with a 2.80 earned 110 strikeouts in 148 innings pitched. Prior to the 2013 season, Baseball America ranked Graham as the 93rd best prospect in baseball. At the 2014 Winter Meetings, the Minnesota Twins selected Graham from the Braves in the Rule 5 draft. Graham made his major league debut on April 6, 2015, pitching two scoreless innings in relief of Phil Hughes against the Detroit Tigers. In preparation for the 2016 season, Graham lost 40 pounds over the offseason, going from 210 pounds to 170 pounds; the Twins designated Graham for assignment on May 6, traded him to the New York Yankees on May 14 for a player to be named or cash considerations. He spent the 2016 season with the Trenton Thunder of the Class AA Eastern League and Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders of the Class AAA International League; the Yankees outrighted Graham to Scranton/Wilkes-Barre on September 26. He was released on January 21, 2018. Rule 5 draft results Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference Santa Clara Broncos bio

1983–84 UEFA Cup

The 1983–84 UEFA Cup was won by Tottenham Hotspur on penalties over Anderlecht. For the 1983–84 UEFA Cup, the associations are allocated places according to their 1982 UEFA country coefficients, which takes into account their performance in European competitions from 1977–78 to 1981–82; as Albania renounced. The labels in the parentheses show how each team qualified for competition: TH: Title holders CW: Cup winners CR: Cup runners-up LC: League Cup winners 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, etc.: League position P-W: End-of-season European competition play-offs winners Inter Bratislava won 16–0 on aggregate. Radnički Niš won 5–1 on aggregate. Royal Antwerp won 8–3 on aggregate. Budapest Honvéd won 3–2 on aggregate. Lokomotive Leipzig won 7–2 on aggregate. Sparta Rotterdam won 5–1 on aggregate. Spartak Moscow won 7–0 on aggregate. Verona won 4–2 on aggregate. 1–1 on aggregate. Hajduk Split won 3–1 on penalties. Nottingham Forest won 3–0 on aggregate. Baník Ostrava won 6–1 on aggregate. PSV won 6–2 on aggregate.

Austria Wien won 15–0 on aggregate. PAOK won 5–2 on aggregate. Werder Bremen won 3–2 on aggregate. 2–2 on aggregate. Widzew Łódź won on away goals. Celtic won 5–1 on aggregate. Sturm Graz won 2-1 on aggregate. Levski Sofia won 2–1 on aggregate. Bayern Munich won 11–0 on aggregate. FC Groningen won 4–2 on aggregate. Anderlecht won 4–1 on aggregate. Stade Lavallois won 1–0 on aggregate. Carl Zeiss Jena won 3–0 on aggregate. Lens won 3–2 on aggregate. Feyenoord won 3–0 on aggregate. Watford won 4–3 on aggregate. Tottenham Hotspur won 14–0 on aggregate. Internazionale won 2–1 on aggregate. Aston Villa won 5–1 on aggregate. Sparta Prague won 4–3 on aggregate. Sporting CP won 4–3 on aggregate. Sparta Prague won 3–1 on aggregate. Hajduk Split won 5–3 on aggregate. Anderlecht won 4–2 on aggregate. Radnički Niš won 6–3 on aggregate. Sparta Rotterdam won 4–3 on aggregate. Watford won 4–2 on aggregate. 2–2 on aggregate. Sturm Graz won on away goals. Austria Wien won 5–3 on aggregate. Lokomotive Leipzig won 2–1 on aggregate. 0–0 on aggregate.

Bayern Munich won 9–8 on penalties. Lens won 5–4 on aggregate. Tottenham Hotspur won 6–2 on aggregate. Internazionale won 5–3 on aggregate. Spartak Moscow won 4–3 on aggregate. Nottingham Forest won 3–1 on aggregate. Celtic won 5–2 on aggregate. Sturm Graz won 2–1 on aggregate. Hajduk Split won 4–0 on aggregate. Sparta Prague won 7–2 on aggregate. Anderlecht won 2–1 on aggregate. Austria Wien won 3–2 on aggregate. Nottingham Forest won 2–1 on aggregate. Tottenham Hotspur won 2–1 on aggregate. Spartak Moscow won 3–1 on aggregate. Hajduk Split won 2–1 on aggregate. Nottingham Forest won 2–1 on aggregate. Tottenham Hotspur won 4–2 on aggregate. Anderlecht won 4–3 on aggregate. In 1997, it was revealed that Constant Vanden Stock, the chairman of Anderlecht, had paid a bribe worth £27,000 to the referee to help fix the result of the second-leg of their semi-final. During the match, Anderlecht were awarded a dubious penalty, a Nottingham Forest goal in the last minute - that would have won them the tie on the away goals rule - was disallowed.

In 2016, it emerged that UEFA had known about the bribe since 1993 but had taken no action until the information was made public in 1997, when UEFA suspended Anderlecht from the next European tournament for which they qualified. On qualifying for the 1998–99 UEFA Cup, Anderlecht appealed the suspension in the Court of Arbitration for Sport, which overturned the ban on the grounds that it was made by UEFA's Executive Committee, which did not have the authority to issue the ban. Anderlecht won 3-2 on aggregate. 2–2 on aggregate. Tottenham Hotspur won on away goals. 2–2 on aggregate. Tottenham Hotspur won 4–3 on penalties 1983–84 All matches UEFA Cup – season at UEFA website Official Site Results at All scorers 1983–84 UEFA Cup according to protocols UEFA 1983/84 UEFA Cup - results and line-ups

Death of Leah Betts

Leah Sarah Betts was a schoolgirl from Latchingdon in Essex, England. She is notable for the extensive media coverage that followed her death shortly after her 18th birthday. On 11 November, she took an ecstasy tablet, drank 7 litres of water in a 90-minute period. Four hours she collapsed into a coma, from which she did not recover; when Leah Betts was first admitted to hospital in a coma, her family used her image in the national media as an example of the dangers of illegal drugs in general, ecstasy in particular, in an attempt to deter other young people from experimenting with drugs. This campaigning continued in the years which followed her death. Leah's mother, Dorothy May Betts, had died of a heart attack in 1992 at age 45. From this stage, she lived with her father Paul Betts, her stepmother, her brother William, born seven years after her; the fact that her life reflected so many other middle-class families in Britain was another major factor as the sense of shock around the country after her death, after many years of the media portrayed typical drug users as being from broken homes in inner city area and the "sink" council estates, or the former mining towns in the north of England where drug abuse had become commonplace since the decline of that industry and the rise in unemployment in the communities which had relied upon it.

It was suggested that the pill she had taken was from a "contaminated batch". Not long afterward, a 1,500-site poster campaign used a photograph of a smiling Leah Betts with the caption "Sorted: Just one ecstasy tablet took Leah Betts". Alternative rock band Chumbawamba responded with their own'anti-poster' reading "Distorted: you are just as to die from eating a bay leaf as from an ecstasy tablet". Betts died on the morning of 16 November 1995, within five days of being admitted to hospital, after her life support machine was switched off, her funeral took place on 1 December 1995 at Latchingdon. She was buried alongside her mother at St Mary Magdalen church in Essex. A subsequent inquest determined that her death was not directly due to the consumption of ecstasy, but rather the result of the large quantity of water she had consumed in observation of an advisory warning given to ravers to drink water to avoid dehydration resulting from the exertion of dancing continuously for hours. Leah had been at home with friends and had not been dancing, yet consumed about 7 litres of water in less than 90 minutes, resulting in water intoxication and hyponatremia, which in turn led to serious swelling of the brain, irreparably damaging it.

However, the ecstasy tablet may have reduced her ability to urinate. At the inquest it was stated by toxicologist John Henry, who had warned the public of the danger of MDMA causing death by dehydration, "If Leah had taken the drug alone she might well have survived. If she had drunk the amount of water alone she would have survived." Essex Police assigned 35 officers and huge resources to track the suppliers of the tablet Betts had taken, but after an investigation that cost £300,000, the only people charged were four of her friends, present at the house, two of whom accepted police cautions with the other two prosecuted. Of these, one received a conditional discharge. After her death, the media focused on the putative fact that it was the first time Betts had taken the drug, it arose — though it was much less publicised — that she had taken the drug at least three times previously. Her father, subsequently became a vocal public campaigner against drug abuse, he and his wife were present at the press conference at which Barry Legg MP launched his Public Entertainments Licences Bill, which allowed councils to close down licensed venues if the police "believed" controlled drugs were being used "at or near" the premises.

It was reported that the £1m Sorted posters campaign was the pro-bono work of three advertising companies: Booth Lockett and Makin, Knight Leech and Delaney, FFI. Booth Lockett and Makin counted brewers Löwenbräu as one of its major clients, at a time when the alcohol industry saw increasing MDMA use as a threat to profits; the other two companies represented energy drink Red Bull, a professional relationship that had earned Knight Leech and Delaney £5 million and was described by one of FFI's executives who remarked that, "We do PR for Red Bull for example and we do a lot of clubs. It's popular at the moment because it's a substitute for taking ecstasy."The murder of three alleged drug dealers in Rettendon, an event dubbed the "Range Rover murders", in December 1995 has been mentioned in the media as a potential act of revenge for the death of Leah Betts. Anna Wood, an Australian teenager who died in similar circumstances three weeks prior to Betts' death Moral panic Overdose Rachel Whitear Recreational drug use Responsible drug use War on drugs Her best friend talks to the Observer 10 years on Hyponatremia.

An account of Leah Betts's death with some discussion of the medical mechanisms of hyponatremia-induced brain death

Church of St Mary and St Nicholas, Littlemore

The Church of St Mary and St Nicholas is a Church of England parish church in Littlemore, Oxfordshire. The church is a grade II* listed building; the church was founded by John Henry Newman Cardinal Newman of the Roman Catholic Church, it became a centre of Anglo-Catholicism. The church was built from 1835 to 1836 by H. J. Underwood for John Henry Newman; the foundation stone was laid in 1835 by Jemima, mother of Newman, the church was consecrated on 22 September 1836. In 1848, the chancel and tower where added by Joseph Clarke; the church had been built as a chapel of ease in the parish of the University Church of St Mary the Virgin, Oxford. In 1847, Littlemore became its own parish and the chapel was renamed the Church of St Mary and St Nicholas. A new east window was added to the church in 1900; the stained glass had been designed by Louis Davis and was in memory of Vernon Green, a former vicar. On 18 July 1963, the church was designated a grade II* listed building; the parish of Littlemore is in the Archdeaconry of Oxford of the Diocese of Oxford.

John Rouse Bloxam, curate from 1837 to 1840 Sarah Coakley, honorary curate from 2000 to 2007 William John Copeland, curate from 1840 to 184? Helen-Ann Hartley Bishop of Waikato, Bishop of Ripon, curate from 2007 to 2012 Teresa Morgan, professor at Oxford University, Non-Stipendiary Minister from 2002 to present John Muddiman, NSM from 1997 to 2012 Isaac Williams, curate in 1836 The incumbent of the parish is the vicar; the following have been vicar, or otherwise stated, of the parish: 1836–1845: John Henry Newman 1847–1848: C. L. Cornish 1848–1851: C. Walters 1851–1870: George W. Huntingford.