The McLaren M23 was a Formula One racing car designed by Gordon Coppuck, with input from John Barnard, built by the McLaren team. It was a development of the McLaren M16 Indianapolis 500 car. A Ford Cosworth DFV engine was used, prepared by specialist tuning company Nicholson-McLaren Engines; this helped push the DFV's horsepower output to around 490 bhp. A total of 13 chassis were built, with serial numbers 1 to 12 and 14. No number 13 chassis was built, it was introduced for the 1973 season, scored pole position with Denny Hulme on its first outing. Hulme and Peter Revson took three wins between them that season, while rookie Jody Scheckter nearly added a fourth. Scheckter was responsible for one of the biggest accidents Formula One has seen, at the 1973 British Grand Prix, when he spun his M23 in front of the pack. Emerson Fittipaldi joined McLaren from Lotus in 1974, his knowledge of the Lotus 72 helped McLaren develop the M23 and that season Fittipaldi gave McLaren its first drivers' and constructors' world championships, beating Ferrari and Lotus.
Further development in 1975 – including a 6-speed gearbox, a novelty for the time – helped Fittipaldi to second in the drivers' championship behind Niki Lauda, who had the benefit of Ferrari's 312T chassis and McLaren to third in the constructors' championship, behind Ferrari and Brabham. The team experimented with different bodywork styles, including aerodynamic kickups in front of the rear wheels, different nose profiles and extended bodywork in front of the rear wheels, housing the oil coolers. Most of these changes were adopted for the M23 and its successor, the McLaren M26. At the end of 1975 Fittipaldi left the team to join his brother's Copersucar-sponsored Fittipaldi Automotive team, he was replaced by James Hunt, who went on to win a dramatic and controversial 1976 season with the final evolution M23, the M23D. When the replacement McLaren M26 proved troublesome and Jochen Mass relied on the M23 in the early part of the 1977 season, though the car was now four years old it was still competitive.
The M23 was never the most technically advanced F1 car, but sound preparation and continual development helped it win 16 Grands Prix, two drivers' and one constructors' world championships in its lifetime. The M23 was modified for use in Formula 5000 racing. Australian driver John McCormack drove a Leyland powered M23 to win the 1977 Australian Drivers' Championship. McCormack put his M23 on pole for the 1978 Australian Grand Prix. * 12 points in 1973 scored using the M19A and M19C* 39 points in 1977 scored using the M26* All points in 1978 scored using the McLaren M26 F1 Racing magazine, January 2001 Motor Sport, August 2002
The DFV is an internal combustion engine, produced by Cosworth for Formula One motor racing. The name is an abbreviation of Double Four Valve, the engine being a V8 development of the earlier four-cylinder FVA, which had four valves per cylinder, its development in 1967 for Colin Chapman's Team Lotus was sponsored by Ford. For many years it was the dominant engine in Formula One, it was used in other categories of racing, including CART, Formula 3000 and sportscar racing; the engine is a 90°, 2,993 cc V8 with a bore and stroke of 85.67 x 64.897 mm producing over 400 bhp from the start reaching over 500 bhp by the end of its Formula 1 career. The 1983 DFY variant had a revised bore and stroke of 90 x 59 mm giving 2,993 cc and 520–530 bhp at 11,000 rpm, 280 ft⋅lbf torque at 8,500 rpm. In 1965, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, that administered Formula One racing, agreed to raise the series' maximum engine capacity from 1.5 litres to 3.0 litres from 1966. Up until that point, Colin Chapman's successful Team Lotus cars had relied on power from fast revving Coventry Climax engines, but with the change in regulations Coventry Climax decided for business reasons not to develop a large capacity engine.
Chapman approached Keith Duckworth a gearbox engineer at Lotus but now running his fledgling Cosworth company with Mike Costin, who commented that he could produce a competitive three-litre engine, given a development budget of £100,000. Chapman approached the Ford Motor Company and David Brown of Aston Martin for funding, each without initial success. Chapman approached Ford of Britain's public relations chief, former journalist Walter Hayes, with whom he had developed a close working relationship from the early 1960s. Since Hayes had joined Ford in 1962 the pair had collaborated in the production of the successful Lotus Cortina, introduced in 1963. Hayes arranged dinner for Chapman with Ford employee Harley Copp, a British-based American engineer who had backed and engineered Ford's successful entry into NASCAR in the 1950s. Hayes and Copp developed a business plan, backed by Ford UK's new chairman Stanley Gillen, approved by Ford's Detroit head office as a two-part plan: Stage one would produce a four-cylinder twin-cam engine for Formula Two Stage two would produce a V8 engine for Formula One, by May 1967 The project was revealed by Hayes in a PR launch in Detroit at the end of 1965, but the engine was not ready until the third race of the 1967 season, on the 4 June at Zandvoort.
Its debut proved successful. Graham Hill, in the team at the specific request of Ford and Hayes, put his DFV-powered Lotus 49 on pole position by half a second and led for the first 10 laps but was sidelined by a broken gear in the camshaft drive. Team-mate Jim Clark came home to win. However, this dominant performance belied a serious fault in the timing gear. Clark took three more wins that season, but reliability problems left him third in the Drivers' Championship, 10 points behind champion Denny Hulme; the progress of the engine was documented in a film produced by the Ford Motor Company's film section, entitled 9 Days in Summer. The agreement between Ford and Lotus was binding on all parties, Ford as the funder had no plans to sell or hire the DFV to any other teams. However, it occurred to Hayes that there was no competition: the Ferrari engine was underpowered. Only Brabham's Repco V8 engine provided a usable combination of power and reliability, but its age and design left little room for further improvement.
Hayes concluded that Ford's name could become tarnished if the Lotus were to continue winning against only lesser opposition, that they should agree to use the unit in other teams, hence dominate Formula One. At the end of 1967, Copp and Hayes explained to Chapman that he would no longer have monopoly use of the DFV and in August 1967 it was announced that the power unit would be available for sale, via Cosworth Engineering, to racing teams throughout the world. Hayes released the DFV to French team Matra, headed by Ken Tyrrell with Jackie Stewart as a driver. What followed was a golden age, where teams big or small could buy an engine, competitive, compact, easy to work with and cheap; the DFV replaced the Coventry Climax as the standard F1 powerplant for the private teams. Lotus, McLaren, Brabham, Surtees, Hesketh, Williams, Penske and Ligier are just some of the teams to have used the DFV. In 1969 and 1973 every World Championship race was won by DFV-powered cars, with the engine taking a total of 155 wins from 262 races between 1967 and 1985.
The advent of ground effect aerodynamics on the F1 scene in 1977 provided a new lease of life for the now decade-old engine. The principle relied on Venturi tunnels on the underside of the car to create low pressure regions and thus additional downforce. Teams running Ferrari and Alfa-Romeo flat-12 engines had enjoyed a handling advantage due to the low centre of gravity in such a configuration. However, for ground effect, the wide engine was the opposite of what was required as the cylinder heads protruded into the area where the Venturi tunnels should have been. In contrast, the V-configuration of the Cosworth engine angled the cylinders upwards and left ample s
Watkins Glen International
Watkins Glen International, nicknamed "The Glen", is an automobile race track located in Watkins Glen, New York, at the southern tip of Seneca Lake. It was long known around the world as the home of the Formula One United States Grand Prix, which it hosted for twenty consecutive years, but the site has been home to road racing of nearly every class, including the World Sportscar Championship, Trans-Am, Can-Am, Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the International Motor Sports Association and the IndyCar Series. Public roads in the village were used for the race course. In 1956 a permanent circuit for the race was built. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours; the circuit's current layout has more or less been the same since 1971. A chicane was installed at the uphill Esses in 1975 to slow cars through these corners, where a driver died during practice at the 1973 United States Grand Prix, removed in 1985. Another chicane called the "Inner Loop" was installed in 1992 after a fatal accident during the previous year's NASCAR Winston Cup event.
The circuit is known as the Mecca of North American road racing and is a popular venue among fans and drivers. The facility is owned by International Speedway Corporation; the circuit has been the site of music concerts: the 1973 Summer Jam, featuring The Allman Brothers Band, the Grateful Dead and The Band and attended by 600,000 fans, two Phish festivals: Super Ball IX in 2011 and Magnaball in 2015. The Watkins Glen International race course has undergone several changes over the years, with five general layouts recognized over its history. Two distinct layouts are used—the "Boot" layout and the "NASCAR" layout; the first races in Watkins Glen were organized by Cameron Argetsinger, whose family had a summer home in the area. With local Chamber of Commerce approval and SCCA sanction, the first Watkins Glen Grand Prix took place in 1948 on a 6.6-mile course over local public roads. For the first few years, the races passed through the heart of the town with spectators lining the sidewalks, but after a car driven by Fred Wacker left the road in the 1952 race, killing seven-year-old Frank Fazzari and injuring several others, the race was moved to a new location on a wooded hilltop southwest of town.
The original 6.6-mile course is listed in the New York State register and National Register of Historic Places as the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Course, 1948-1952. The second layout 4.6-mile began use in 1953 and used existing roads. The Watkins Glen Grand Prix Corporation was formed to manage spectators and concessions; this arrangement lasted three years. The first permanent course was constructed on 550 acres, overlapping part of the previous street course, it was designed by engineering professors from Cornell University. The layout measured 2.35-mile. This course was used from 1956–1970. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours; the circuit underwent a major overhaul for the 1971 season. The "Big Bend" and the turns leading up to it were eliminated, replaced with a new pit straight; the pits and start/finish line were moved to this new straightaway. "The 90" now became Turn 1 instead of Turn 8. When the 1971 Six Hours of Watkins Glen arrived in July 1971, the overall circuit renovations were still unfinished.
The short course had been finished, but the Boot segments were not complete, nor was the new pit area. The 1971 Six Hours race was run on the short course layout, that layout colloquially became known as the 1971 Six Hours Course. In addition, for 1971 only, the cars used the old pits; when NASCAR returned to the track in 1986, they chose to use the short course layout. IMSA used the "Boot", but that series began using the shorter 1971 layout; the short course was lengthened in 1992. The most significant change to the track, a new segment known as "The Boot", was finished in time for the Formula One race; the start-finish line was moved to the new pit straight as planned. At the end of the backstretch, after the Loop-Chute, cars swept left into a new four-turn complex that departed from the old layout, curling left-hand downhill through the woods; the track followed the edge of the hillside to two uphill right-hand turns, over an exciting blind crest into a right-hand turn, down and up into a left-hand turn rejoining the old track.
The new layout measured 3.377 miles. With its intrinsic link to the Formula One race, it became known colloquially as the Grand Prix Circuit. For 1972, the Six Hours sports car race began using the full "Boot" layout. By that time, nearly all facility improvements were completed, the pits and start/finish line were permanently moved to the new pit straight. In 1975, a fast right-left chicane was added in the turn 3-4 Esses section to slow speeds through the series of corners; this chicane was eliminated in the 1980s. In the early 1990s, the IMSA sports cars began bypassing the "Boot" in favor of the short course. To date, NASCAR events have never used the Boot layout; the "Long/Boot" course was lengthened in 1992. In the mid-2000s, the Boot segment, which had seen little use in many years, was repaved and upgraded; when the IndyCar Series returned to Watkins Glen starting in 2005, they elected to use the Boot segment. A full repaving of the course took place in 2015, in recent years, there has been a renewed interest and appreciation of the full Grand Prix Course layout.
Consideration had been made for NASCAR to start using the Boot. After a succession of serious crashes took place at the "Loop" at the end of the backs
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
John Player & Sons
John Player & Sons, most known as Player's, was a tobacco and cigarette manufacturer based in Nottingham, England. In 1901, the company merged with other companies to form The Imperial Tobacco Company to face competition from US manufacturers; the company released several series of association football trading cards in the 1930s under the Player's brand. Nowadays the brands "Player" and "John Player Special" are owned and commercialised by Imperial Brands. In March 1820, William Wright set up a small tobacco factory in Craigshill, West Lothian; this business earned Wright a comfortable fortune. John Player bought the business in 1877, he had the Castle Tobacco Factories built in Radford, just west of the city centre. He had three large factory blocks built, but only one was used to process and pack tobacco; the other two blocks were loaned out to lace manufacturers until the business had expanded enough to use the additional space. One of John Player's innovations was to offer pre-packaged tobacco.
Before this, smokers would have bought tobacco by weight from loose supplies and cigarette papers to roll them in. He adopted a registered trade mark as a guarantee to the public that the goods could be relied on. John Player died in December 1884 and for the next nine years, the business was run by a small group of family friends until W G and J D Player were ready to take over the firm in 1893; the business became a private limited company in 1895, with a share capital of £200,000. The business was run by Player's sons John Dane Player and William Goodacre Player. In 1901, in response to competitive threats from the US, Player's merged with the Imperial Tobacco Group; the largest constituent of Imperial Tobacco was W. D. & H. O. Wills and the new group was run from Wills' head office in Bristol. Player's retained its own identity with cigarette brands such as No. 9, John Player Special, Gold Leaf. Player's Medium Navy Cut was the most popular by far of the three Navy Cut brands. Two thirds of all the cigarettes sold in Britain were Player's and two thirds of these were branded as Player's Medium Navy Cut.
In January 1937, Player's sold nearly 3.5 million cigarettes. The popularity of the brand was amongst the middle class and in the South of England, it was smoked in the north but other brands were locally more popular. Production continued to grow until at its peak in the late 1950s, Player's was employing 11,000 workers and producing 15 brands of pipe tobacco and 11 brands of cigarettes. In the UK in 1968, in response to an increase in tobacco duty in the budget, Player's launched a new, cheaper brand, "Player's No.10". Priced at 3 s 2 d for 20, it was the cheapest cigarette on the British market. A new factory was opened in the early 1970s on Nottingham's industrial outskirts, with better road access and more effective floor space, next to the headquarters of Boots the Chemists. On 15 April 2014, Imperial Tobacco announced that the Horizon factory would close in early 2016, bringing an end to cigarette and tobacco manufacture in Nottingham after over 130 years; the old factories in Radford the cavernous No. 1 Factory which occupied the whole area between Radford Boulevard and Alfreton Road, bordered by Player Street and Beckenham Road, were run down.
The No. 2 Factory, facing onto Radford Boulevard with its distinctive clock and the No. 3 factory with its rooftop'John Player & Sons' sign, were demolished in the late 1980s. The iron railings and gates onto Radford Boulevard from the present retail park are the ones that surrounded No. 2 Factory – the large gates were the entrance to the factory yard between No. 2 and No. 3 factories and the smaller gates were the pedestrian entrances to No. 2 factory itself. John Player's brands are well known in motor racing from their long association with the Lotus Formula One team, the Forsythe Racing Champ Car team, Norton motorcycle racing team. Ford introduced the John Player Special limited edition, in March 1975. Available only in black or white, the JPS featured yards of gold pinstriping to mimic the Formula 1 livery, gold-coloured wheels, a bespoke upgraded interior of beige cloth and carpet trimmed with black. John Player's sponsorship of Team Lotus began with the Lotus 49 in Gold Leaf colours in the 1968 Tasman Series.
It continued with the Lotus 49 and Lotus 72 in Formula One, changed to the black and gold John Player Special colours in 1972, ended in 1986 with the Lotus 98T. In Australia, JPS Team BMW competed in the Australian Touring Car Championship between 1981 and 1987, with Jim Richards winning the series in 1985 and 1987. In 1981, BMW released a limited-edition road version of its 323i touring car in JPS colours to the Australian market and another in 1984. Imperial Tobacco Canada's Player's brands sponsored Canadian auto racing for decades. After a blanket tobacco advertising ban was instituted in the Canadian Tobacco Act in 1988, Imperial created a new corporation, Player's Racing Ltd., an auto racing promotion company. This took advantage of an exemption in the Act that allowed tobacco companies to sponsor "cultural events" using the company's proper name instead of a brand name. Player's Ltd. advertising looked nearly identical to Player's cigarette packs, given that it was one of the few legal outlets for advertising, the company was extensively promoted both during race weekends and at ot
Emerson Fittipaldi is a semi-retired Brazilian automobile racing driver who won both the Formula One World Championship and the Indianapolis 500 twice each and the CART championship once. Moving up from Formula Two, Fittipaldi made his race debut for Team Lotus as a third driver at the 1970 British Grand Prix. After Jochen Rindt was killed at the 1970 Italian Grand Prix, the Brazilian became Lotus's lead driver in only his fifth Grand Prix, he enjoyed considerable success with Lotus, winning the World Drivers' Championship in 1972 at the age of 25, a youngest F1 world champion record that he held for 33 years. He moved to McLaren for 1974, winning the title once again, he surprised the paddock by moving to his brother's Fittipaldi Automotive team prior to the 1976 season, being replaced by James Hunt. Success eluded him during his final years in Formula One, with the Fittipaldi cars not competitive enough to fight for victories. Fittipaldi took two more podium finishes, before retiring in 1980.
Following his Formula One career, Fittipaldi moved to the American CART series, achieving successful results, including the 1989 CART title and two wins at the Indianapolis 500. Since his retirement from Indy Car racing in 1996, Fittipaldi races only occasionally. In 2008, he was one of only three people in history to have a Corvette production car named in his honor. At age 67, he entered the 2014 6 Hours of São Paulo. Emerson Fittipaldi was born in Brazil, he is the younger son of prominent Italian-Brazilian motorsports journalist and radio commentator Wilson Fittipaldi Sr and his wife Józefa "Juzy" Wojciechowska, an immigrant from Saint Petersburg of Polish and Russian descent. His grandfather, Ivan Wojciechowski, was an officer in the Tsarist army, he was named after Ralph Waldo Emerson. Both his parents had raced production cars shortly after the Second World War and Wilson Sr was responsible for the first Mil Milhas race in 1956, in São Paulo, having been inspired by the 1949 Italian Mille Miglia.
Emerson, along with his brother Wilson, became motorsports enthusiasts as young children. Fittipaldi is the younger brother of former Formula One team owner Wilson Fittipaldi, he is the uncle of TUDOR United Sports Car Championship driver Christian Fittipaldi. He was married to Maria Helena from 1970-82, they had three children. He was married a second time, to Teresa, in the mid-1980s, they have two children. In early December 2012 he married economist Rossana Fanucchi in São Paulo after a partnership of eleven years, they have a son, born in 2007, daughter Vittoria, born in early 2012His two grandchildren Pietro and Enzo Fittipaldi are racing drivers, with Enzo being announced as a member of the Ferrari Driver Academy in December 2016. In his youth in Brazil, Emerson was known as'Rato' - mouse, which contrasts with'Tigrão' - big tiger - for his brother. In September 1997, while recovering from injuries in a crash at Michigan International Speedway a year earlier, he was flying his private plane across his orange tree farm in the state of São Paulo.
The plane plunged 300 feet to the ground, leaving him with serious back injuries. Though Fittipaldi had converted to Christianity the year prior, his beliefs were reinforced after the crash, he was a friend of Beatles guitarist George Harrison and was with him shortly before Harrison died in November 2001. In 2016, Fittipaldi established Fittipaldi Motors, along with Pininfarina and HWA AG, created his first sports car project, the Fittipaldi EF7. Since the 2000s Fittipaldi has been a member of an Evangelical Baptist church. At age 14, Fittipaldi was racing motorcycles, at 16, hydrofoils. While racing one day, his brother Wilson landed upside down. Afterwards, the brothers mutually return to dry-land racing; the pair moved to racing Formula Vees, built up a company with their parents. In his second season in single-seaters, Fittipaldi won the Brazilian Formula Vee title at age 21, he left for Europe with the ambition to convince team owners of his talent in three months. After some podiums and his first victories in Formula Ford, Fittipaldi was first trained and subsequently engaged by the Jim Russell Driving School Formula Three team.
He won nine F3 races on the Jim Russell Lotus 59 in the MCD Lombard Championship to become the 1969 champion. For 1970, Fittipaldi moved up to F2 by joining the Lotus semi-works Team Bardahl campaigning Lotus 59B. With six finishes in the points and four on the podium, he ended the eight-race season in third place behind Clay Regazzoni and Derek Bell. While this result was impressive for the newcomer to the series, the spotlight was on Fittipaldi that year because of his activities in Formula One instead. Based on the success of Cosworth DFV and Lotus 49/49B in 1968, Team Lotus was enjoying the reputation as one of the top F1 teams with the inflow of sponsorship money, Colin Chapman used the third seat on the team for championship races as the testing ground for younger drivers; this was in contrast to the team's tradition to use non-championship F1 events for the purpose. The third seat was given to Alex Soler-Roig in the early 1970, to Fittipaldi starting with the British GP in July, with Jochen Rindt and John Miles as the regular seat holders.
Fittipaldi scored a fourth place as the No. 3 driver at the next German GP where the No. 1 Jochen Rindt won, the No. 2 John Miles retired. Team Lotus plans for the season drastically changed when Jochen Rindt was killed at Monza in September and became the only driver to win the championship posthumously. John Miles left
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and based in Akron, Ohio. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, motorcycles, SUVs, race cars, farm equipment and heavy earth-mover machinery, it produced bicycle tires from its founding until 1976. As of 2017, Goodyear is one of the top four tire manufacturers along with Bridgestone and Continental; the company was named after inventor of vulcanized rubber. The first Goodyear tires became popular because they were detachable and required little maintenance. Goodyear is known for the Goodyear Blimp. Though Goodyear had been manufacturing airships and balloons since the early 1900s, the first Goodyear advertising blimp flew in 1925. Today it is one of the most recognizable advertising icons in America; the company is the most successful tire supplier in Formula One history, with more starts and constructors' championships than any other tire supplier.
They pulled out of the sport after the 1998 season. It is the sole tire supplier for NASCAR series. Goodyear is a former component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average; the company opened a new global headquarters building in Akron in 2013. The first Goodyear factory opened in Akron, Ohio, in 1898; the thirteen original employees manufactured bicycle and carriage tires, rubber horseshoe pads, poker chips. The company grew with the advent of the automobile. In 1901 Frank Seiberling provided Henry Ford with racing tires. In 1903, Paul Weeks Litchfield was granted a patent for the first tubeless automobile tire. By 1908 Ford was outfitting his Model T with Goodyear tires. In 1909 Goodyear manufactured its first aircraft tire. In 1916, Litchfield found land in the Phoenix area suitable for growing long-staple cotton, needed for reinforcing rubber in tires; the 36,000 acres purchased were controlled by the Southwest Cotton Company, formed with Litchfield as president. In 1924, Litchfield, as Goodyear Vice President, forged a joint venture with the German Luftschiffbau Zeppelin Company to form the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation.
In the late 1920s to 1940, the company worked with Goodyear to build two Zeppelins in the United States and the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation was created to facilitate the relationship. The partnership continued when Zeppelin was under Nazi control and only ended after World War II began. By 1926 Goodyear was the largest rubber company in the world. Only four years earlier it was forced to temporarily halt production of racing tires due to heavy competition; the popularity of the Goodyear tire on the racing circuit led to a popular demand for the return of the brand. On August 5, 1927, Goodyear had its initial public offering and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. By 1930 Goodyear had pioneered what would become known as "tundra tires" for smaller aircraft — their so-called low inflation pressure "airwheel" aviation wheel-rim/tire sets were available in sizes up to 46 inches in diameter. For the next sixty years Goodyear grew to become a multinational corporation with multibillion-dollar earnings.
It acquired their rival Kelly-Springfield Tire in 1935. During World War II Goodyear manufactured F4U Corsair fighter planes for the U. S. Military. Goodyear ranked 30th among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. WWII forced the dissolution of the Goodyear-Zeppelin partnership in December 1940. By 1956 they operated a nuclear processing plant in Ohio. In 1944, Goodyear created a subsidiary in Mexico in a joint venture with Compañía Hulera, S. A. de C. V. Compañía Hulera Goodyear-Oxo, S. A. de C. V. or Goodyear-Oxo. Of the five biggest U. S. tire firms in 1970, today only Goodyear remains independent, due to the challenge posed by radial tire technology, the varied responses. At the time, the entire U. S. tire industry produced the older bias-ply technology. Estimates to fit the factories with a new set of machinery and tools for making this new product were between $600 million and $900 million; this was a substantial amount in a low margin business with sales revenue in the low billions.
The U. S. market was shifting towards the radial tire, as had been the case in Europe and Asia. In 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of radial construction, first developed in 1946 by Michelin; when Charles J. Pilliod Jr. became CEO in 1974, he faced a major investment decision regarding the radial tire, which today has a market share of nearly 100%. Despite heavy criticism at the time, Pilliod invested in new factories and tooling to build the radial tire. Sam Gibara, who headed Goodyear from 1996 to 2003, has noted that without the action of Pilliod, Goodyear "wouldn't be around today."Sales for 1969 topped $3 billion, five years sales topped $5 billion and it boasted operations in thirty-four countries. In 1978 the original Akron plant was converted into a Technical Center for design. By 1985 worldwide sales exceeded $10 billion. Goodyear Aerospace, a holding that developed from the Goodyear Aircraft Company after World War II designed a supercomputer for NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center in 1979, the MPP.
The subsidiary was sold in 1987 to the Loral Corp. as a result of restructuring. In 1987, Goodyear formed a business partnership with Canadian tire retailer Fountain Tire. In October 1986, Goodyear was a victim of a Greenmail attack. British financier James Goldsmith in conjunction with the investment group Hanson purchased 11.5% of Goodyear's outstanding common stock. They threatened to take the company over