Turkish invasion of Cyprus
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus. It was launched on 20 July 1974, following the Cypriot coup d'état on 15 July 1974; the coup had been ordered by the military Junta in Greece and staged by the Cypriot National Guard in conjunction with EOKA-B. It installed the pro-Enosis Nikos Sampson; the aim of the coup was the Union of Cyprus with Greece, the Hellenic Republic of Cyprus to be declared. In July 1974, Turkish forces invaded and captured 3% of the island before a ceasefire was declared; the Greek military junta was replaced by a democratic government. In August 1974 another Turkish invasion resulted in the capture of 40% of the island; the ceasefire line from August 1974 became the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus and is referred to as the Green Line. Around 150,000 people were expelled from the occupied northern part of the island, where Greek Cypriots constituted 80% of the population.
A little over a year in 1975 60,000 Turkish Cypriots, amounting to half the Turkish Cypriot population, were displaced from the south to the north. The Turkish invasion ended in the partition of Cyprus along the UN-monitored Green Line, which still divides Cyprus, the formation of a de facto autonomous Turkish Cypriot administration in the north. In 1983 the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus declared independence, although Turkey is the only country that recognizes it; the international community considers the TRNC's territory as Turkish-occupied territory of the Republic of Cyprus. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of European Union territory since Cyprus became its member; the invasion's Turkish Armed Forces code name was Operation Atilla. Among Turkish speakers the operation is referred as "Cyprus Peace Operation" or "Operation Peace" or "Cyprus Operation", as they claim that Turkey took military action on the pretext of a peacekeeping operation.
In 1571 the Greek-populated island of Cyprus was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, following the Ottoman–Venetian War. After 300 years of Ottoman rule the island and its population was leased to Britain by the Cyprus Convention, an agreement reached during the Congress of Berlin in 1878 between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire. Britain formally annexed Cyprus on 5 November 1914 as a reaction to the Ottoman Empire's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers. Article 20 of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 marked the end of the Turkish claim to the island. Article 21 of the treaty gave Turkish nationals ordinarily resident in Cyprus the choice of leaving the island within 2 years or to remain as British subjects. At this time the population of Cyprus was composed of both Greeks and Turks, who identified themselves with their respective "mother" countries. However, the elites of both communities shared the belief that they were more progressive and therefore distinct from the mainlanders.
Greek and Turkish Cypriots lived side by side for many years. Broadly, three main forces can be held responsible for transforming two ethnic communities into two national ones: education, British colonial practices, insular religious teachings accompanying economic development. Formal education was the most important as it affected Cypriots during childhood and youth. British colonial policies promoted ethnic polarization; the British, many believe, applied the principle of "divide and rule", setting the two groups against each other to prevent combined action against colonial rule. For example, when Greek Cypriots rebelled in the 1950s, the colonial office expanded the size of the Auxiliary Police and in September 1955, established the Special Mobile Reserve, made up of Turkish Cypriots, to crush EOKA; this and similar practices contributed to inter-communal animosity. Although economic development and increased education reduced the explicitly religious characteristics of the two communities, the growth of nationalism on the two mainlands increased the significance of other differences.
Turkish nationalism was at the core of the revolutionary program promoted by the father of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and affected Turkish Cypriots who followed his principles. President of the Republic of Turkey from 1923 to 1938, Atatürk attempted to build a new nation on the ruins of the Ottoman Empire and elaborated the program of "six principles" to do so; these principles of secularism and nationalism reduced Islam's role in the everyday life of individuals and emphasized Turkish identity as the main source of nationalism. Traditional education with a religious foundation was discarded and replaced with one that followed secular principles and, shorn of Arab and Persian influences, was purely Turkish. Turkish Cypriots adopted the secular program of Turkish nationalism. Under Ottoman rule Turkish Cypriots had been classified as a distinction based on religion. Being secular, Atatürk's program made their Turkish identity paramount, may have further reinforced their division from their
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Rauf Raif Denktaş, sometimes Rauf Denktash in English, was a Turkish Cypriot politician and jurist who served as the founding President of Northern Cyprus. He occupied this position as the President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus between the declaration of the de facto state by Denktaş in 1983 and 2005, as the President of the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus between 1975 and 1983 and as the President of the Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration between 1974 and 1975, he was elected in 1973 as the Vice-President of the Republic of Cyprus. Denktaş was born in Paphos to judge Turkish Cypriots, he graduated from The English Nicosia in Cyprus. Following his graduation he worked as a translator in Famagusta after that as a court clerk and as a teacher for one year in the English School, he went to Istanbul and London, training first as a teacher and as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn. He returned home to practice law. In 1948 Denktaş served as a member of the Consultative Assembly in search of self-government for Cyprus and became a member of the Turkish Affairs Committee.
He was a crown prosecutor 1949–1958. In 1957, Denktaş played the lead role in the founding of the Turkish Resistance Organization, formed to resist EOKA's struggle to proclaim Enosis and worked for the partition of Cyprus. In 1958, he attended the U. N. General Assembly on behalf of the Turkish-Cypriots, in December of that year he advised the Turkish Government on the rights of Turkish Cypriots during the preparation of the London and Zurich Agreements. In 1960, Cyprus won independence from Britain, the Republic of Cyprus was established. Denktaş was elected as the President of the Turkish Communal Chamber. In November 1963 President Makarios gave for review to Turkey and Britain a document with a series of constitutional amendments designed to loosen the acquired rights of Turkish Cypriots in the name of "the workings of the state"; the paramilitary action against the Turks began in December 1963, after which Turkish-Cypriots forcefully withdrew from government. Upon these events, Denktaş went to Ankara for consultations with the Turkish government.
His reentry to the island was prohibited by the Greek-Cypriot leadership in years 1964–68 due to his involvement with TMT. In the 1973 vice presidential elections he replaced Fazıl Küçük. After the 15 July 1974 Greek ultra-nationalist military coup in Cyprus, massacres began against the Turkish Cypriot population confined into enclaves, thus Turkey unilaterally invaded by landing troops on the north coast of Cyprus. During the military operation, the dictatorship led by Nikos Sampson fell and political wrangling began. After three weeks, Turkey continued to advance military operation; the Turkish Army took control 37% of the island by the time it completed its second advance on 14 August 1974 and reached Famagusta. Denktaş was subsequently elected President of the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus in 1976 and for a second term in 1981, he played a key role in the 1983 Unilateral Declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, was elected as the President of the TRNC in 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000.
The TRNC has not been recognised by any state other than Turkey. Denktaş had been the chief negotiator of Turkish Cypriots in the United Nations sponsored peace talks since 1968. By 2000, the desire of both Cyprus and Turkey to join the EU led to renewed efforts to reach a settlement. In 2002 there were large demonstrations in northern Cyprus by Turkish Cypriots demanding reunification of the island, which would give them EU citizenship when Cyprus joined the EU in 2004. In February 2004 Denktaş embarked on a new round of UN sponsored talks with the Greek Cypriots, aimed at re-uniting Cyprus; as did the Greek Cypriot President Tassos Papadopoulos, he opposed the final version of the settlement proposal drafted under the authority of the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, voted on by the two Cypriot communities in a referendum on 24 April 2004. The plan was accepted by 65% of the Turkish community, but was rejected by a vast majority of the Greeks. On 14 May 2004, Denktaş announced he would not be standing for a fifth term as President of the TRNC in the next election.
His tenure as President came to an end following the 17 April 2005 election of Mehmet Ali Talat, who formally assumed office on 25 April. Denktaş's favourite pastimes included writing, his photographs have been exhibited in the United States, the United Kingdom, Italy, some of the former republics of the Soviet Union, France and Turkey. He has written about fifty books in Turkish. Between the years 1949 and 1957 he wrote many articles for the newspaper Halkın Sesi, published by Fazıl Küçük, the first Vice President of the Republic of Cyprus. Denktaş has been the recipient of many awards and honorary doctorates given by various universities in Turkey, Northern Cyprus and the United States, he had three sons and three daughters. He lost a daughter at the age of three, one son, Raif in a traffic accident and another son in a tonsillectomy, his surviving son Serdar Denktaş is a politician, as of 2019, leader of the Turkish Cypriot Democratic Party. Denktaş's health deteriorated throughout the 2000s.
He on 25 May 2011 suffered a stroke. He died on 13 January 2012 of multiple organ failure at the Near East University Hospital in Nicosia. Northern Cyprus declared a weeklong mourning period, his funeral, which th
Cypriot National Guard
The Cypriot National Guard known as the Greek Cypriot National Guard or National Guard, is the combined arms military force of the Republic of Cyprus. This force consists of air, land and special forces elements, is integrated with its first and second line reserves, as well as supporting civilian agencies and paramilitary forces; the mission of the National Guard is to take all necessary measures for the defense of the Republic of Cyprus for the purpose of dealing with a threatened invasion or any action directed against the independence or territorial integrity of the Republic or threatening to secure the life or property of citizens of the Republic. Greece maintains a garrison in the Republic of Cyprus under the designation Hellenic Force in Cyprus, but this is not part of the Cyprus military and serves as a regimental-level influence for training and support of the National Guard; the northern part of the island remains occupied by the Turkish military since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974.
The National Guard was established in 1964 as a force composed predominantly of ethnic Greeks, following the Cyprus crisis of 1963–1964 and the breakdown of social and political relations between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots on the island of Cyprus. As outlined by the tripartite Treaty of Alliance and defined by the early Constitution of 1960–1963, Cyprus was entitled to an army of 2,000 men, to be made up of 60% Greek and 40% Turkish personnel; the first elected President of the Republic of Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios III, proposed thirteen constitutional amendments to the 1960 constitution, which would have adjusted distribution of manpower and voting power for all civil and military services. This adjustment was aimed at giving greater representation and influence to the Greek Cypriot majority, which at the time formed around 82% of the island's indigenous population; the Cypriot National Guard has been involved in multiple combat operations, all within Cyprus territory. In 1964, Cyprus and Turkey engaged in direct confrontation during the Battle of Tylliria, as a result of civil warfare between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots.
Greek Cypriot forces entered the Turkish enclave of Kokkina in an effort to eliminate a Turkish beachhead, resulting in two weeks of fighting. In 1974, Turkey invaded Cyprus intervening against a military coup by the Cyprus National Guard in Nicosia; the invasion resulted in two concentrated Turkish offensives and one dispersed Greek Cypriot counter-offensive. Within one month, Turkish forces had captured 38% of the island's northern area, succeeding in bisecting Nicosia and taking Kyrenia and Famagusta. Cypriot National Guard forces, supported by a smaller number of Greek troops, were only able to prevent the loss of Nicosia International Airport and the Kato Pyrgos corridor during the second Turkish offensive. In 1978, Egyptian commando forces raided Larnaca International Airport in an effort to seize a hijacked Greek Cypriot airliner. Greek Cypriot commando and paramilitary forces resisted the Egyptian forces, resulting in a sustained gun battle with the death of 12 Egyptian commandos and 3 Egyptian Air Force aircrew.
Military service in the Republic of Cyprus is mandatory for males. Today, the obligatory service period is 14 months. Only Greek Cypriots serve in the military; the Greek Cypriot community comprises the ethnic Greek population as well as Cypriots belonging to three Christian minorities—the Armenians, Latin Rite Catholics and Maronites. Since 2008, service is mandatory for all members of the Greek Cypriot community and not only for ethnic Greek Cypriots; the current supreme commander is a Greek military commander. All male visitors to the island of military age who have a father of Cypriot extraction are required to obtain an exit visa from a Defence Ministry office; the Cyprus National Guard has since 2016 aimed to move towards semi-professionalization. In the scope of this change, the military serviced time was reduced from 24 months to 14 months, whilst about 3, 000 professional soldiers were hired. Though long wished by the public, these changes have been said to be no more than a political expediency.
The way in which the semi-professionalization has been conducted has been illustrated as unprofessional and undermining the ability of the force, by academic researchers. Europe’s defence is present in Cyprus through PESCO; the government had argued for it to increase deterrence against any intervention on the island. Cyprus has made available the military base in Paphos and the naval base in Zygi, along with other facilities; these have been equipped with electronic surveillance systems. The force has in recent years, experienced exponential draft dodging. Much policy has been designed; the National Guard is an interdisciplinary force. It consists of the Army and Air Force as mentioned above; the General Staff of the National Guard is the supreme hierarchical step and includes the Chief, the Staff, the Arms / Body Divisions and Organizations and its Organizational Units. The force relies on the Reserves, making up the biggest percentage of Human Resources in the case of full mobilisation of the National Guard.
Army- It consists of a number of Infantry Regiment Brigade Brigade Formations and Regular Regimental Groups: 1st Mechanizes Infantry Brigade 2nd Mechanized Infantry Brigade 3rd Support Brigade 4th Infantry Brigade 6
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus. The areas, which include British military bases and installations, as well as other land, were retained by the British under the 1960 treaty of independence, signed by the United Kingdom, Greece and representatives from the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities, which granted independence to the Crown colony of Cyprus; the territory serves an important role as a station for signals intelligence and provides a vital strategic part of the United Kingdom communications gathering and monitoring network in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The territory is composed of two Base Areas. One is Akrotiri, or the Western Sovereign Base Area, which includes two main bases at RAF Akrotiri and Episkopi, plus all of Akrotiri Village's district and parts of eleven other village districts; the other area is Dhekelia Cantonment, or the Eastern Sovereign Base Area, which includes a base at Ayios Nikolaos plus parts of twelve village districts.
The Sovereign Base Areas were created in 1960 by the London and Zurich Agreements, when Cyprus achieved independence from the British Empire. The United Kingdom desired to retain sovereignty over these areas, as this guaranteed the use of UK military bases on Cyprus, including RAF Akrotiri, a garrison of the British Army; the importance of the bases to the British is based on the strategic location of the island, at the eastern edge of the Mediterranean, close to the Suez Canal and the Middle East. In July and August 1961, there was a series of bomb-attacks against the pipeline carrying fresh water to the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area The pipeline was breached by explosions twelve times. In 1974, following a military coup by the Cypriot National Guard attempting to achieve enosis, Turkey invaded the north of Cyprus, leading to the establishment of the internationally unrecognised Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus; this did not affect the status of the bases. Greek Cypriots fleeing from the Turkish forces were permitted to travel through the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area and were given humanitarian aid, with those from Achna setting up a new village, still in the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area.
The Turkish advance halted when it reached the edge of the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area to avoid military conflict with the United Kingdom. In the Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area a tented refugee camp was set up at "Happy Valley" to house Turkish Cypriots fleeing from Limassol and the villages surrounding the Area, until in 1975 they were flown out of RAF Akrotiri via Turkey to northern Cyprus; some Greek Cypriot refugees remain housed on land in the parts of Trachoni and Kolossi villages that fall within the Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area. In July 2001, protests were held at the bases by local Cypriots, unhappy with British plans to construct radio masts at the bases as part of an upgrade of British military communication posts around the world. Locals claimed the masts would endanger local lives and cause cancer, as well as have a negative impact on wildlife in the area; the British and Cypriot governments jointly commissioned health research from the University of Bristol and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Cyprus, that research project reported in 2005 that there was no evidence of health problems being caused by electromagnetic fields from the antennas.
The Sovereign Base Areas Administration has carried out assessments and surveys into the effects on wildlife, which have fed into an "Akrotiri Peninsula Environmental Management Plan", published in September 2012. The United Kingdom has shown no intention of ceding the Sovereign Base Areas in their entirety to Cypriot control, although it has offered to cede 117 square kilometres of farmland as part of the rejected Annan Plan for Cyprus; as of 2010, around 3,000 troops of British Forces Cyprus are based at Dhekelia. Ayios Nikolaos Station, in the ESBA, is an ELINT listening station of the UKUSA Agreement intelligence network; the election of left-wing Demetris Christofias as Cypriot president in February 2008 prompted concern in the United Kingdom. Christofias pledged to remove all foreign military forces from the island as part of a future settlement of the Cyprus dispute, calling the British presence on the island a "colonial bloodstain". On 29 August 2013, during the Syrian civil war, some Cypriot and British media sources speculated that long-range ballistic missiles, fired from Syria in retaliation for proposed British involvement in military intervention against the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad, could hit Cyprus, could deliver chemical weapons.
In some Cypriot media it was stated that the proposed interdiction of the Syrian civil war, utilising Akrotiri and Dhekelia, could recklessly endanger the Cypriot populations near to those bases. Two days earlier, on 27 August 2013, Cypriot foreign minister Ioannis Kasoulides had moved to calm Cypriot concerns, saying that the British bases were unlikely to play a major part in any intervention. In January 2010, a newspaper article appeared in the British press claiming that as a result of budgetary constraints arising from the Great Recession, the British Ministry of Defence drew up controversial plans to withdraw the United Kingdom's 3,000 stron
Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to claim/reclaim and occupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" territory from their nation's past. Many states formalize their irredentist claims by including them in their constitutional documents, or through other means of legal enshrinement; such territorial claims are justified on the basis of real or imagined national notions of historic territorial, religious or ethnic affiliations. Irredentist policies may be advocated by nationalist and pan-nationalist movements and have been a feature of identity politics, of cultural, political geography. Irredentism may operate as a device for a government to redirect their citizens' discontent against outsiders; the word was coined in Italy from the phrase Italia irredenta. This referred to rule by Austria-Hungary over territories or inhabited by ethnic Italians, such as Trentino, Gorizia, Istria and Dalmatia during the 19th and early 20th centuries. An area that may be subjected to a potential claim is sometimes called an "irredenta".
A common way to express a claim to adjacent territories on the grounds of historical or ethnic association is by using the adjective "Greater" as a prefix to the country name. This conveys the image of national territory at its maximum conceivable extent with the country "proper" at its core; the use of "Greater" does not always convey an irredentistic meaning. The Afghan border with Pakistan, known as the Durand Line, was agreed to by Afghanistan and British India in 1893; the Pashtun tribes inhabiting the border areas were divided between. All Afghan governments of the past century have declared, with varying intensity, a long-term goal of re-uniting all Pashtun-dominated areas under Afghan rule; the Argentine government has intermittently maintained a claim over the Falkland Islands since 1833, renewed it as as January 2013. It considers the archipelago part of the Tierra del Fuego Province, along with South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the Argentine claim is included in the transitional provisions of the Constitution of Argentina as amended in 1994: The Argentine Nation ratifies its legitimate and non-prescribing sovereignty over the Malvinas, Georgias del Sur and Sandwich del Sur Islands and over the corresponding maritime and insular zones, as they are an integral part of the National territory.
The recovery of these territories and the full exercise of sovereignty, respecting the way of life for its inhabitants and according to the principles of international law, constitute a permanent and unwavering goal of the Argentine people. United Bengal is a political ideology of a Unified Bengali-speaking Nation in South Asia; the ideology was developed by Bengali Nationalists after the First Partition of Bengal in 1905. The British-ruled Bengal Presidency was divided into Western Bengal and Eastern Bengal and Assam to weaken the Independence Movement; the second attempt by British to partition the Bengal along communal lines was in 1947. The United Bengal proposal was the bid made by Prime Minister of Bengal Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Bengali Nationalist Leader Sarat Chandra Bose to found a united and independent nation-state of Bengal; the proposal was floated as an alternative to the partition of Bengal on communal lines. The initiative failed due to British diplomacy and communal conflict between Bengali Muslims and Bengali Hindus that led to the Second Partition of Bengal.
The 2009 constitution of Bolivia states that the country has an "unrenounceable right over the territory that gives it access to the Pacific Ocean and its maritime space". This is understood as territory that Bolivia and Peru ceded to Chile after the War of the Pacific, which left Bolivia as a landlocked country; the preamble to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China states, "Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People's Republic of China. It is the lofty duty of the entire Chinese people, including our compatriots in Taiwan, to accomplish the great task of reunifying the motherland." The PRC claim to sovereignty over Taiwan is based on the theory of the succession of states, with the PRC claiming that it is the successor state to the Republic of China. However, the Communist Party of China has never controlled Taiwan; the Government of the Republic of China administered both mainland China and Taiwan but has been administering Taiwan only since the Chinese Civil War in which it fought the armed forces of the Communist Party of China.
While the official name of the state remains'Republic of China', the country is called'Taiwan', as Taiwan makes up 99% of the controlled territory of the ROC. In fact, the ruling Qing Dynasty of China ceded Taiwan and the Pescadores to Japan in perpetuity in the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895, along with the Liaodong Peninsula; the Republic of Formosa or Democratic State of Taiwan was a short-lived republic that existed on the island of Taiwan for about five months in 1895 in the period between the formal cession of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan and'de facto' Japanese occupation and control. Japan established a colony on Taiwan that existed until control of Taiwan was ceded to the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China in 1945. Article 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of China stated that "he territory of the Republic of China within its existing national