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1975 Australian constitutional crisis

The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis known as the Dismissal, has been described as the greatest political and constitutional crisis in Australian history. It culminated on 11 November 1975 with the dismissal from office of the Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam of the Australian Labor Party, by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, who commissioned the Leader of the Opposition, Malcolm Fraser of the Liberal Party, as caretaker Prime Minister. Whitlam's Labor government had been elected in 1972 with a small majority in the House of Representatives, but with the Senate balance of power being held by the Democratic Labor Party who supported the Liberal-Country Opposition. Another election in 1974 resulted in little change. While the Whitlam Government introduced many new policies and programs, it was rocked by scandals and political miscalculations. In October 1975, the Opposition used its control of the Senate to defer passage of appropriation bills, passed by the House of Representatives; the Opposition stated that they would continue their stance unless Whitlam called an election for the House of Representatives, urged Kerr to dismiss Whitlam unless he agreed to their demand.

Whitlam believed that Kerr would not dismiss him, Kerr did nothing to disabuse Whitlam of this notion. On 11 November 1975, Whitlam intended to call a half-Senate election in an attempt to break the deadlock; when he went to seek Kerr's approval of the election, Kerr instead dismissed him as Prime Minister and shortly thereafter installed Fraser in his place. Acting before all ALP parliamentarians became aware of the change of government and his allies were able to secure passage of the appropriation bills, Kerr dissolved Parliament for a double dissolution election. Fraser and his government were returned with a massive majority in the election held the following month; the events of the Dismissal led to only minor constitutional change. The Senate retained its power to block supply, the Governor-General the power to dismiss government ministers. However, these powers have not since been used to force a government from office. Kerr was criticised by Labor supporters for his actions, resigned early as Governor-General, lived much of his remaining life abroad.

As established by the Constitution of Australia, the Parliament of Australia is composed of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate, together with the Queen. The monarch is represented through the Governor-General, who has the executive power granted in the Constitution, as well as exercised reserve powers; the reserve powers are those exercised by the Governor-General without requiring advice, signified through the phrase "Governor-General in Council". Under The Australian Constitution the Governor-General acts'with the advice of the Federal Executive Council' in the appointment of government ministers, although ministers serve at his pleasure, the Executive Council is appointed by the Governor-General alone; the Governor-General is ordinarily bound by convention to act only upon the advice of the government and the Prime Minister, but can act independently and against advice in exercising the reserve powers. The Governor-General is removable by the Queen on the advice of the Australian Prime Minister.

As Liberal Party leader Malcolm Fraser, who would play a large part in the crisis, put it, "The Queen has tenure, she couldn't be sacked. But a Governor-General holds office at pleasure, if he ceases to please he can be removed by a Prime Minister."As in most Westminster system parliaments, Australia's government is ordinarily formed by the party enjoying the confidence of the lower House of Parliament, the House of Representatives. However, Australia's Parliament has a powerful upper house, the Senate, which must pass any legislation initiated by the House of Representatives if it is to become law; the composition of the Senate, in which each state has an equal number of senators regardless of that state's population, was designed to attract the Australian colonies into one Federation. The Constitution forbids the Senate to originate or amend a money bill, but places no limitation on the Senate's ability to defeat one. In 1970, Gough Whitlam, as Leader of the Opposition, had stated of a budget bill, "Let me make it clear at the outset that our opposition to this Budget is no mere formality.

We intend to press our opposition by all available means on all related measures in both Houses. If the motion is defeated, we will vote in the Senate. Our purpose is to destroy this Budget and destroy the Government which has sponsored it."Prior to the 1975 crisis, the Governor-General's power to dismiss a Prime Minister against the incumbent's will under Section 64 of the Constitution had never been exercised. However, in 1904 Labour Prime Minister Chris Watson advised an early election, but Governor-General Lord Northcote refused, triggering Watson's resignation and the appointment of Opposition Leader George Reid as Prime Minister. Twice since Federation, conflicts between state premiers and state governors, who perform analogous functions to the Prime Minister and Governor-General at the state level, had resulted in the departure of one or the other. In 1916, New South Wales Premier William Holman was expelled from the Australian Labor Party for supporting conscription, he managed to hold on to power with the aid of opposition parties and consulted the Governor, Sir Gerald Strickland, proposing to pass legislation to extend the term of the lower house of the state legislature by a year.

When Strickland objected, stating that such a course was unfair to Labor, Holman had him replaced. In 1932 the New South Wales Labor Premier, Ja

List of international organization leaders in 2016

2015 international organization leaders - 2017 international organization leaders - International organization leaders by year Food and Agriculture Organization Director-General - José Graziano da Silva, Brazil International Atomic Energy Agency Director-General - Yukiya Amano, Japan International Civil Aviation Organization President of the Council - Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu, Nigeria Secretary-General - Raymond Benjamin, France International Labour Organization Director-General - Guy Ryder, United Kingdom United Nations Secretary-General - Ban Ki Moon, South Korea President of the General Assembly - Miroslav Lajčák, Slovak Security Council members - China, Russia, United Kingdom, United States.

Basil El-Baz

Basil El-Baz is an Egyptian industrialist and business executive serving as chairman and chief executive officer of Carbon Holdings, a mid-to-downstream oil and gas development company. While studying government and economics at Harvard University, El-Baz developed the concept for building an ammonia plant in Egypt, which became Egypt Basic Industries Corporation, he submitted a feasibility study on this concept and was awarded a grant by the United States Trade and Development Agency to conduct further studies. El-Baz has developed and financed two major industrial greenfield projects in Egypt, Egypt Basic Industries Corporation and Egypt Hydrocarbon Corporation. EBIC is the only project to receive a comprehensive loan guarantee from the Export – Import Bank of the United States. Furthermore, EBIC is one of a select number of projects in Egypt to be financed by consortium of international banks; the project had an approximate value of US$650 million at closing. EBIC is the 6th largest global exporter of ammonia.

EBIC was sold to Orascom Construction Industries. Carbon Holdings’ second project, Egypt Hydrocarbon Corporation, with a transaction value of US$550 million is considered as the first major industrial project to close in post-revolution Egypt. Construction of the second project commenced in August 2011. Carbon Holdings is developing the approximate of US$11 billion Naphtha Cracker and Polyethylene Complex project named Tahrir Petrochemicals Corporation. El-Baz was awarded Africa Entrepreneur of the Year 2016, he is the first Egyptian entrepreneur to receive such an honor. The award was announced at the Africa-France Economic Forum at the 27th Africa-France Summit held in Bamako, Mali on 13 January 2017; the Business Africa Entrepreneur Awards, in connection with Business Africa, in partnership with MEDEF and Institut Choiseul. Ranked by Institut Choiseul as the 12th in their annual top 100 African business leaders in 2016, an annual study independently carried out by Paris-based Institut Choiseul that identifies and ranks the young African business economic leaders aged 40 years old and below.

The study by Choiseul intends to highlight those women and men who play a major role in the continent's economic development. Member of the board of trustees for the “Tahya Misr” Fund / 2014–present Co-chair – Energy Committee – American Chamber of Commerce in Egypt

Inner-City Muslim Action Network

Inner-City Muslim Action Network, founded in 1996 by Rami Nashashibi, is one of the leading Muslim charity organizations in the United States. According to the Inner-City Muslim Action Network, IMAN seeks "to utilize the tremendous possibilities and opportunities that are present in the community to build a dynamic and vibrant alternative to the difficult conditions of inner city life." IMAN sees understanding Islam as part of a larger process to empower individuals and communities to work for the betterment of humanity. IMAN has initiated a diverse set of community programs and projects with the hope of changing the conditions in the inner city, in particular the communities on Chicago's South and Southwest Side. IMAN provides a range of direct social services through the IMAN/ICIC Food Pantry, IMAN Health Clinic, IMAN's Career Development Initiative. "Takin' It To The Streets" is IMAN's most well-known project. The festival draws people from all over the Chicago area for a day of festivities, musical performances, sports tournaments, carnivals.

Directors are listed as: Rami Nashashibi, Ayat Elnoory, Asad Jafri, M. Altaf Kaiseruddin, Asad Jafri. IMAN Website Takin' it to the Streets 2016 Website

Umayya ibn Abdallah ibn Khalid ibn Asid

Umayya ibn Abd Allah ibn Khalid ibn Asid al-Umawi was an Umayyad prince and governor of Khurasan between 692/93 or 694 and 697/98. According to historian Hugh N. Kennedy, Umayya was known to be "easygoing, peace-loving and, his enemies alleged and effeminate". Umayya was a son of a former governor of Kufa, they were members of the Umayyad dynasty, ruling the caliphate since 661. Umayyad authority across the caliphate had collapsed in 684, but was reconstituted under Marwan I in Syria and Egypt in 685, his son Abd al-Malik reasserted Umayyad rule over Arabia and Khurasan between 691 and 692. He appointed Umayya's brother Khalid governor of Basra, while his initial appointee in Khurasan was Bukayr ibn Wisha, a member of the Tamim, an Arab tribe and faction from which many of the Muslim troops of Khurasan hailed. At the time of the Umayyad restoration, conflict between various factions within the Tamim was rife and left them vulnerable to local powers. Thus, leaders of the troops from Khurasan called on the caliph to appoint a neutral governor to keep order.

Abd al-Malik agreed and appointed Umayya in place of Bukayr, either in 691/92, 692/93 or in 693/94. Abd al-Malik held great affection for Umayya, according to 10th-century historian al-Tabari, proudly remarked that "he is from the same brood as I". Khurasan remained a distinct governorship and included Sijistan, to which Umayya appointed his son Abd Allah as lieutenant governor. Umayya's principal domestic challenge was reconciling the various factions of Tamim. However, Bukayr was resentful of his dismissal and he and his partisans secretly opposed Umayya, while their rivals within Tamim led by Bahir ibn Warqa cooperated with him. To appease Bukayr, Umayya granted him the sub-governorship of Tukharistan, but withdrew the appointment after intrigues by Bahir, who warned Bukayr would use it as an opportunity to rebel against the governor. In 696, he charged Bukayr with command of a military campaign against the Bukharans in Transoxiana, but again recanted as a result of Bahir's intrigues. Instead, Umayya led the expedition and ordered Bukayr to remain in Merv to assist his son Ziyad, who he had left in charge.

Not long after Umayya departed, Bukayr imprisoned Ziyad. Upon being informed of Bukayr's revolt, Umayya entered a truce with the Bukharans and returned to confront the rebels. Umayya defeated Bukayr but spared his life and offered him generous sums in return for his quiescence. However, the peace between them was short-lived: Bukayr resumed his intrigues, Umayya had him summoned and executed by Bahir. Another nagging issue for Umayya was subduing Musa ibn Abd Allah ibn Khazim, son of the slain Zubayrid governor of Khurasan, who had established an independent stronghold in Tirmidh. Umayya was bogged down by Tamimi revolts and internecine rivalry, thus unable to challenge Musa. After executing Bukayr, he dispatched troops to conquer Tirmidh in 697, but they were defeated by Musa. In that same year, Abd al-Malik dismissed Umayya and added Khurasan and Sijistan to the governorship of Iraq under al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf; the latter, in turn, appointed al-Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra as his deputy governor in the province.

Umayya retired to the Jordan district and died in al-Sinnabra before the end of Abd al-Malik's reign in 705. Kennedy, Hugh; the Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81740-3. Rowson, Everett K. ed.. The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume XXII: The Marwānid Restoration: The Caliphate of ʿAbd al-Malik, A. D. 693–701/A. H. 74–81. SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-975-8. Mayer, L. A.. "As-Sinnabra". Israel Exploration Society. 2: 183–187. JSTOR 27924483. Shaban, M. A.. The Abbasid Revolution. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 160–161. ISBN 0-521-29534-3

Central Street Historic District (Narragansett, Rhode Island)

The Central Street Historic District of Narragansett, Rhode Island is a historic district on both sides of Central Street from Fifth Avenue to Boon Street in Narragansett. It encompasses a collection of well-preserved summer houses built for the most part between 1880 and the 1920s, as well as the traditional civic core of the town; the area is characterized by smaller wood-frame homes either 1-1/2 or 2-1/2 stories in height, set on small lots. It includes three church buildings, all of which were built between 1870 and 1900, the former Fifth Avenue School, which now serves as Narragansett's town hall; the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Rhode Island