Fall of Saigon
The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tan Son Nhat International Airport killed the last two American servicemen killed in combat in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge. By the afternoon of the next day, the PAVN had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace; the city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the late North Vietnamese President Hồ Chí Minh. The capture of the city was preceded by Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians, associated with the southern regime.
The evacuation was the largest helicopter evacuation in history. In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and the institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city's population. Various names have been applied to these events; the Vietnamese government calls it the "Day of liberating the South for national reunification" or "Liberation Day", but the term "Fall of Saigon" is used in Western accounts. It is called the "Ngày mất nước", "Tháng Tư Đen", "National Day of Shame" or "National Day of Resentment". by many Overseas Vietnamese who were refugees from communism. The rapidity with which the South Vietnamese position collapsed in 1975 was surprising to most American and South Vietnamese observers, to the North Vietnamese and their allies as well. For instance, a memo prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and U. S. Army Intelligence and published on March 5 indicated that South Vietnam could hold out through the current dry season—i.e. At least until 1976.
These predictions proved to be grievously in error. As that memo was being released, General Dũng was preparing a major offensive in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, which began on 10 March and led to the capture of Buôn Ma Thuột; the ARVN began a disorderly and costly retreat, hoping to redeploy its forces and hold the southern part of South Vietnam an enclave south of the 13th parallel. Supported by artillery and armor, the PAVN continued to march towards Saigon, capturing the major cities of northern South Vietnam at the end of March—Huế on the 25th and Đà Nẵng on the 28th. Along the way, disorderly South Vietnamese retreats and the flight of refugees—there were more than 300,000 in Đà Nẵng—damaged South Vietnamese prospects for a turnaround. After the loss of Đà Nẵng, those prospects had been dismissed as nonexistent by American CIA officers in Vietnam, who believed that nothing short of B-52 strikes against Hanoi could stop the North Vietnamese. By April 8, the North Vietnamese Politburo, which in March had recommended caution to Dũng, cabled him to demand "unremitting vigor in the attack all the way to the heart of Saigon."
On April 14, they renamed the campaign the "Hồ Chí Minh campaign", after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh, in hopes of wrapping it up before his birthday on May 19. Meanwhile, South Vietnam failed to garner any significant increase in military aid from the United States, snuffing out President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu’s hopes for renewed American support. On April 9, PAVN forces reached Xuân Lộc, the last line of defense before Saigon, where the ARVN 18th Division made a last stand and held the city through fierce fighting for 11 days; the PAVN overran Xuân Lộc on April 20 despite heavy losses, on April 21 President Thiệu resigned in a tearful televised announcement in which he denounced the United States for failing to come to the aid of the South. The North Vietnamese front line was now just 26 miles from downtown Saigon; the victory at Xuân Lộc, which had drawn many South Vietnamese troops away from the Mekong Delta area, opened the way for PAVN to encircle Saigon, they soon did so, moving 100,000 troops in position around the city by April 27.
With the ARVN having few defenders, the fate of the city was sealed. The ARVN III Corps commander, General Toàn, had organized five centers of resistance to defend the city; these fronts were so connected as to form an arc enveloping the entire area west and east of the capital. The Cu Chi front, to the northwest, was defended by the 25th Division. South Vietnamese defensive forces around Saigon totaled 60,000 troops. However, as the exodus made it into Saigon, along with them were many ARVN soldiers, which swelled the "men under arms" in the city to over 250,000; these units were battered and leaderless, which threw the city into further anarchy. The rapid PAVN advances of March and early April led to increased concern in Saigon that the city, peaceful throughout the war and wh
1972 Republican National Convention
The 1972 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held from August 21 to August 23, 1972, at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida. It nominated Vice President Spiro T. Agnew for reelection; the convention was chaired by then-U. S. House Minority Leader and future Nixon successor Gerald Ford of Michigan, it was the fifth time Nixon had been nominated on the Republican ticket as either its vice-presidential or presidential candidate. Hence, Nixon's five appearances on his party's ticket matched the major-party American standard of Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat, nominated for Vice President once and President four times. San Diego, had been selected as host city for the convention. Columnist Jack Anderson, discovered a memo written by Dita Beard, a lobbyist for the International Telephone and Telegraph Corp. suggesting the company pledge $400,000 toward the San Diego bid in return for the U. S. Department of Justice settling its antitrust case against ITT.
Fearing scandal, citing labor and cost concerns, the GOP transferred the event—scarcely three months before it was to begin—to Miami Beach, hosting the Democratic National Convention. It was the sixth and, to date, last time both the Republican and Democratic national party conventions were held in the same city; the RNC did not return to San Diego until 1996. The convention set a new standard; the keynote address, by Anne Armstrong of Texas, was the first national convention keynote delivered by a woman. First Lady Pat Nixon became the first Republican First Lady, the first First Lady in over 25 years, to address a party's national convention, her speech set the standard for future convention speeches by political spouses. First Ladies Nancy Reagan, Barbara Bush, Laura Bush and Melania Trump, among others, have all followed in this tradition. Nixon turned back primary challenges from the right, in the person of U. S. Representative John M. Ashbrook of Ohio and, from the left, Representative Pete McCloskey of California.
However, under New Mexico state law, McCloskey had earned one delegate, which the convention refused to seat, fearing that the delegate might put McCloskey's name in nomination and give an anti-war speech. U. S. Representative Manuel Lujan of New Mexico, a staunch Nixon supporter, decided to honor state law by voting for McCloskey himself; the final result was that Nixon received 1,347 votes to one for none for Ashbrook. Throughout the scripted convention, delegates chanted "Four more years! Four more years!"Spiro Agnew was re-nominated for vice president with 1,345 votes, against one vote for television journalist David Brinkley and two abstentions. The NBC network, for which Brinkley worked, had some "Brinkley for Vice President" buttons made, which the news team wore as a joke; the convention was targeted for widespread protests against the Vietnam War, the Nixon administration made efforts to suppress it. This tension was captured by Top Value Television in the independent documentary Four More Years, which juxtaposes shots of the protests outside the convention with the internal politics of the convention.
In 2005, files released under a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit showed that the Federal Bureau of Investigation monitored former Beatle John Lennon after he was invited to play for Yippie protests. The monitoring of Lennon concluded that he was not a dangerous revolutionary, being "constantly under the influence of narcotics." The U. S. Justice Department indicted Scott Camil, John Kniffen, Alton Foss, Donald Perdue, William Patterson, Stan Michelsen, Peter Mahoney and John Briggs—collectively known as the Gainesville Eight—on charges of conspiracy to disrupt the Convention. All were exonerated. Oliver Stone's film Born on the Fourth of July, based on Ron Kovic's autobiography of the same name, depicts Kovic and fellow Vietnam Veterans Against the War activists Bobby Muller, Bill Wieman and Mark Clevinger being spat upon at the convention; the scene was not in Kovic's autobiography, but was taken frame for frame and word by word from a documentary film made at the 1972 Republican Convention titled "Operation Last Patrol" by filmmaker and actor Frank Cavestani and photo journalist Cathrine Leroy.
History of the United States Republican Party List of Republican National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention 1972 Democratic National Convention United States presidential election, 1972 Republican Party platform of 1972 at The American Presidency Project Nixon nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC at The American Presidency Project Nixon, Richard "Remarks on Accepting the Presidential Nomination of the Republican National Convention," August 23, 1972. Provided by the American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara. Four More Years, TVTV Documentary MediaBurn.org: Video Preview Video of Nixon nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC Audio of Nixon nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC Video of Agnew nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at RNC
Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller was an American businessman and politician who served as the 41st Vice President of the United States from 1974 to 1977, as the 49th Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973. He served as assistant secretary of State for American Republic Affairs for Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman as well as under secretary of Health and Welfare under Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1954. A member of the wealthy Rockefeller family, he was a noted art collector and served as administrator of Rockefeller Center in Manhattan, New York. Rockefeller was a Republican, considered to be liberal, progressive, or moderate. In an agreement, termed the Treaty of Fifth Avenue, Rockefeller persuaded then-Vice President Richard Nixon to alter the Republican Party platform just before the 1960 Republican Convention. In his time, liberals in the Republican Party were called "Rockefeller Republicans"; as Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973, Rockefeller's achievements included the expansion of the State University of New York, efforts to protect the environment, the construction of the Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza in Albany, increased facilities and personnel for medical care, the creation of the New York State Council on the Arts.
After unsuccessfully seeking the Republican presidential nomination in 1960, 1964, 1968, Rockefeller served as Vice President of the United States under President Gerald R. Ford, who ascended to the presidency following the August 1974 resignation of Richard Nixon over the Watergate scandal. Rockefeller was the second vice president appointed to the position under the 25th Amendment, following Ford himself. Rockefeller decided not to join the 1976 Republican ticket with Ford, which went to Bob Dole, he died two years later. As a businessman, Rockefeller was president and chair of Rockefeller Center, Inc. and he formed the International Basic Economy Corporation in 1947. Rockefeller promoted public access to the arts, he served as trustee and president of the Museum of Modern Art, founded the Museum of Primitive Art in 1954. In the area of philanthropy, he founded the Rockefeller Brothers Fund in 1940 with his four brothers and established the American International Association for Economic and Social Development in 1946.
Rockefeller was born on July 1908, in Bar Harbor, Maine. He was the second son of financier and philanthropist John Davison Rockefeller Jr. and philanthropist and socialite Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich. He had two older siblings—Abby and John III—as well as three younger brothers: Laurance and David, their father, John Jr. was the only son of Standard Oil co-founder John Davison Rockefeller Sr. and schoolteacher Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman. Their mother, was a daughter of Senator Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich and Abigail Pearce Truman "Abby" Chapman. Rockefeller received his elementary and high school education at the Lincoln School in New York City, an experimental school administered by Teachers College of Columbia University. In 1930 he graduated cum laude with an A. B. degree in economics from Dartmouth College, where he was a member of Casque and Gauntlet, Phi Beta Kappa, the Zeta chapter of the Psi Upsilon. Following his graduation, he worked in a number of family-related businesses, including Chase National Bank.
From 1932 to 1979 he served as a trustee of the Museum of Modern Art, where he served as treasurer, 1935–39, president, 1939–41 and 1946–53. He and his four brothers established the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, a philanthropy, in 1940, where he served as trustee, 1940–75 and 1977–79, as president in 1956. Rockefeller was a patient of famous psychic Edgar Cayce. Rockefeller served as a member of the Westchester County Board of Health, 1933–53, his service with Creole Petroleum led to his lifelong interest in Latin America. He became fluent in the Spanish language. In 1940, after he expressed his concern to President Franklin D. Roosevelt over Nazi influence in Latin America, the President appointed him to the new position of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs in the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. Rockefeller was charged with overseeing a program of U. S. cooperation with the nations of Latin America to help raise the standard of living, to achieve better relations among the nations of the western hemisphere, to counter rising Nazi influence in the region.
He facilitated this form of cultural diplomacy by collaborating with the Director of Latin American Relations at the CBS radio network Edmund A. Chester; the Roosevelt administration encouraged Hollywood to produce films to encourage positive relations with Latin America. Rockefeller required changes in the movie Down Argentine Way because it was considered offensive to Argentines, it was much more popular in the United States than in Latin America. Charlie Chaplin's satirical The Great Dictator was banned in several countries. In the spring of 1943, Rockefeller supported extensive negotiations and mission of North American members of the Junior Chamber of Commerce to Latin America as Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs of the US' State Department, establishing the Junior Chamber International after its first Inter-American Congress in December 1944 at Mexico City. After coming back from the Inter-American Congress, Nelson Rockefeller convinced his father, John D. Rockefeller
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Albert Harold "Al" Quie is an American politician who served as the 35th governor of Minnesota from January 4, 1979, to January 3, 1983. A Republican, Quie was a member of the Minnesota State Senate from 1955 to 1958, representing the old 18th District, which encompassed Rice County in the southeastern part of the state, he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in a special election after the death of Representative August Andresen, served from February 18, 1958, to January 3, 1979, he was a member of the 85th, 86th, 87th, 88th, 89th, 90th, 91st, 92nd, 93rd, 94th and 95th Congresses. Quie was considered for Vice President of the United States in 1974 after Gerald Ford became president upon the resignation of Richard Nixon; the position was taken by Nelson Rockefeller. Quie was elected governor of Minnesota in 1978. During his single term, he dealt with an extreme budget crisis, made some tough and unpopular choices, he opted not to run again in 1982. Quie was born on his family's farm near Minnesota, in Rice County.
Three of his grandparents were Norwegian immigrants. He served in the United States Navy during World War II and graduated from St. Olaf College in Northfield in 1950 with a degree in political science. Quie's wife and former First Lady of Minnesota Gretchen Quie, died of Parkinson's Disease on December 13, 2015, at the age of 88. In Garrison Keillor's Lake Wobegon Days, Quie is said to be the first governor to set foot in the mythical town of Lake Wobegon, "slipping away from his duties to attend a ceremony dedicating a plaque attached to the Statue of the Unknown Norwegian" and making a few remarks. United States Congress. "Al Quie". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Al Quie at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present Al Quie Congressional Papers
The Hy-Vee Arena known as Kemper Arena, is an indoor arena located in Kansas City, Missouri. Prior to conversion to a youth sports facility, Kemper Arena was a 19,500-seat professional sports arena, it has hosted NCAA Final Four basketball games, professional basketball and hockey teams, professional wrestling events, the 1976 Republican National Convention, is the ongoing host of the American Royal livestock show. It was named for R. Crosby Kemper Sr. a member of the powerful Kemper financial clan and who donated $3.2 million from his estate for the arena. In 2016, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in recognition of its revolutionary design by Helmut Jahn. Kemper Arena was built in 18 months in 1973–74 on the site of the former Kansas City Stockyards just west of downtown in the West Bottoms to replace the 8,000-seat Municipal Auditorium to play host to the city's professional basketball and hockey teams; the arena was the first major project of German architect Helmut Jahn, to go on to become an important architect of his era.
The building was revolutionary in its simplicity and the fact it did not have interior columns obstructing views. Its roof is suspended by exterior steel trusses; the nearly windowless structure contrasts to Jahn's signature style of providing wide-open, glass-enclosed spaces. Kemper's exterior skeleton style was to be used extensively throughout Jahn's other projects; the building cost $22 million and was owned by the city of Kansas City, Missouri. Financing came from seven sources: $5.6 million from general obligation bonds $3.2 million donated by R. Crosby Kemper Sr. $575,000 from bond interest $1.5 million donated by the American Royal Association Land provided by the Kansas City Stockyards Company $10 million from revenue bonds in conjunction with the Jackson County Sports Authority $2 million in federal grants for street work The arena won architectural awards in the 1970s and had these prominent tenants: 1974–1976 – Kansas City Scouts of the NHL 1974–1985 – Kansas City Kings of the NBA 1976 Republican National Convention On June 4, 1979, at 6:45 p.m. a major storm with 70 mph winds and heavy rains caused a portion of Kemper Arena's roof to collapse.
Since the Arena was not in use at the time, no one was injured. The collapse—three years after the hall had hosted the 1976 Republican National Convention—along with another Kansas City structural failure, the 1981 Hyatt Regency walkway collapse—shocked the city and the architecture world; the American Institute of Architects had given the building an "Honor" award in 1976 and thousands of its members were at its annual national conference there less than 24 hours before the 1979 collapse. Further, the collapse coupled with the January 18, 1978, collapse of the Hartford Civic Center from heavy snow in the early morning hours just after a University of Connecticut basketball game prompted architects to reconsider computer models used to determine the safety of arenas; the arena was one of the first major projects by influential architect Helmut Jahn, to take over the Murphy/Jahn firm founded by Charles Murphy. Steel trusses. Design elements had called for compensating for winds; the exterior skeleton design had been considered revolutionary in its simplicity.
Two major factors came together on June 4. First, the roof had been designed to release rainwater as the sewers in the West Bottoms could not adequately handle the rapid runoff because of the nearby confluence of the Missouri River and Kansas River; this caused the downpour to "pond" adding to the weight. Second, there had been a miscalculation on the strength of the bolts on the hangers when subjected to the 70 mph winds while supporting the additional rainwater weight as the roof swung back and forth. Once one of the bolts gave way there was a cascading failure on the south side of the roof. Although the bolts were enormous, the media was to make much of the fact that "one broken bolt caused the collapse." One acre, or 200 ft × 215 ft of roof collapsed. The air pressure, increased by the falling roof caused some of the walls to blow out. However, the portals remained undamaged. An investigation was conducted, the issues were addressed and the arena reopened within a year. In the 1980s the arena became famed for its basketball tournaments including: NCAA Men's Final Four in 1988 NCAA Women's Final Four in 1998 NCAA Regionals – in 1983, 1986, 1992, 1995 NCAA First and Second Rounds – in 1997, 2001, 2004 NAIA basketball tournament from 1975 – 1993 Big Eight Conference Men's Basketball Tournament from 1977 to 1996 Big 12 Conference Men's Basketball Tournament from 1997 to 2002 and 2005 Guardians Classic in 2001 Mid-Continent Conference men's basketball tournament in 2003 and 2004The Kansas Jayhawks played at least one men's basketball game a year in Kemper Arena as an outreach to its fanbase in Kansas City, the last such game being against the Toledo Rockets in the 2006–07 season.
1974–1976 – Kansas City Scouts, National Hockey League, team moved to Denver, as Colorado Rockies and to New Jersey, as New Jersey Devils, where they now exist. 1981–1991 – Kansas City Comets of the original Major Indoor Soccer League 1992–2005 – Kansas City Attack of the National Professional Soccer League and current Major Indoor Soccer League 1990–2001
1980 Republican National Convention
The 1980 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States convened at Joe Louis Arena in Detroit, from July 14 to July 17, 1980. The Republican National Convention nominated former Governor Ronald W. Reagan of California for President and former Representative George H. W. Bush of Texas for Vice President. Reagan, running on the theme "Let's Make America Great Again," stayed at the Detroit Plaza Hotel in the Renaissance Center, at the time the world's tallest hotel, delivered his acceptance speech at Joe Louis Arena, it remains the only major party national political convention to have been held in Detroit. Under rules devised by the Nixon administration in 1972, only one candidate was permitted to have his name placed in nomination: Ronald Reagan; this thwarted an attempt by John B. Anderson to have a speaker at the convention. John Connally's expensive campaign yielded only one delegate, who loyally stood by her man to the end. Reagan waited until the Convention in July to announce his choice of a running mate.
During the convention, the possibility of choosing former president Gerald Ford as the vice-presidential nominee was given at least some consideration. Ford asked for certain powers and prerogatives that have been described as making Ford a co-president. Negotiations for the terms of such an arrangement were held at the Hotel Pontchartrain; these included the return of Henry Kissinger as Secretary of State and the appointment of Alan Greenspan as Secretary of the Treasury in a "package deal". On July 16, Ford was interviewed by Walter Cronkite. According to Bob Schieffer, "The whole convention came to a stop," when, after being asked by Cronkite, Ford did not dismiss rumors that Reagan was considering him as a running mate. However, negotiations fell apart that day when the two sides could not come to an agreement, George H. W. Bush was chosen. Though Reagan had taken the unprecedented step of announcing his VP choice from the podium of the convention himself, some delegates still resented Bush for having the effrontery to defeat Reagan in a number of primaries, the Iowa caucuses.
There was some scattering, a minor challenge, which as seen below, went nowhere. This would be the last time during the 20th century that the bottom half of the ticket would be contested, as the rules would be changed in 1988 to prevent this from happening; the following had their names placed in nomination: Republican Party presidential primaries, 1980 History of the United States Republican Party U. S. presidential nomination convention 1980 Democratic National Convention United States presidential election, 1980 List of Republican National Conventions United States presidential nominating convention Ronald Reagan presidential campaign, 1980 Ronald Reagan's nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC at C-SPAN Video of Bush nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at RNC Ronald Reagan's nomination acceptance speech at The American Presidency Project Republican Party platform of 1980 at The American Presidency Project Ronald Reagan's nomination acceptance speech