Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in.
The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine Republic
Benevento listen is a city and comune of Campania, capital of the province of Benevento,50 kilometres northeast of Naples. It is situated on a hill 130 metres above sea level at the confluence of the Calore Irpino and it is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Benevento occupies the site of the ancient Beneventum, originally Maleventum or still earlier Maloenton, the -vent portion of the name probably refers to a market-place and is a common element in ancient place names. The Romans theorized that it meant the site of bad events, in the imperial period it was supposed to have been founded by Diomedes after the Trojan War. A patron saint of Benevento is Saint Bartholomew, the Apostle, Benevento, as Maleventum, was one of the chief cities of Samnium, situated on the Via Appia at a distance of 51 kilometres east from Capua on the banks of the river Calor. Festus, on the contrary, related that it was founded by Auson, a son of Ulysses and Circe, a tradition which indicates that it was an ancient Ausonian city, previous to its conquest by the Samnites.
But it first appears in history as a Samnite city, and must have already been a place of strength and it appears, however, to have fallen into their hands during the Third Samnite War, though the exact occasion is unknown. Benevento was certainly in the power of the Romans in 274 BC, six years they further sought to secure its possession by establishing there a Roman colony with Latin rights. It is probable that the Oscan or Samnite name was Maloeis, or Malieis, whence the form Maleventum would derive, like Agrigentum from Acragas, Selinuntium from Selinus and its wealth is evidenced by the quantity of coins minted by Beneventum. Horace famously notes Beneventum on his journey from Rome to Brundusium and it was indebted to the same circumstance for the honor of repeated visits from the emperors of Rome, among which those of Nero and Septimus Severus, are particularly recorded. It was probably for the reason that the triumphal arch. The Arch of Trajan is one of the best-preserved Roman structures in the Campania and it repeats the formula of the Arch of Titus in the Roman Forum, with reliefs of Trajans life and exploits of his reign.
Some of the sculptures are in the British Museum, successive emperors seem to have bestowed on the city accessions of territory, and erected, or at least given name to, various public buildings. Its inhabitants were included in the Stellatine tribe, diaconus speaks of it as a very wealthy city, and the capital of all the surrounding provinces. The territory of Beneventum under the Roman Empire was of considerable extent. An inscription has preserved to us the names of several of the pagi or villages dependent upon Beneventum, the citys most ancient coins bear the legend Malies or Maliesa, which have been supposed to belong to the Samnite, or pre-Samnite, Maleventum. Coins with the legend BENVENTOD, must have struck after it became a Latin colony. Not long after it had been sacked by Totila and its walls razed, the circumstances of the creation of duchy of Benevento are disputed
Ravello is a town and comune situated above the Amalfi Coast in the province of Salerno, southern Italy, with approximately 2,500 inhabitants. Its scenic location makes it a popular tourist destination, and earned it a listing as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996, Ravello was founded in the 5th century as a shelter place against the barbarian invasions which marked the end of the Western Roman Empire. Early on, the bishops of Ravello all came from families of the city. In the 12th century, Ravello had some 25,000 inhabitants, and it retains a number of palazzi of the mercantile nobility. In 1137, after a first failed attack two years before, it was destroyed by the Republic of Pisa, after this, a demographic and economic decline set in, and much of its population moved to Naples and its surroundings. The Duomo di Ravello of Ravello, the nave contains the Pulpit of the Gospels, on the right of the central nave. Villa Rufolo, built by Nicola Rufolo, one of the richest Patricians of Ravello, on a ledge, the villa was mentioned by Giovanni Boccaccio in his Decameron and it is the place where Richard Wagner in 1880 was inspired for the stage design of his opera Parsifal.
Villa Cimbrone, known for its Terrace of the Infinite, the church of San Giovanni del Toro dating to before the year 1000. The church contains the Bove pulpit, dateable to 1200–1230, incorporated as mosaic fragments Raqqa bacini, the small church of Santa Maria a Gradillo. It has a plan, with an apse and two isles. Cosmas and Damian The town has served historically as a destination for artists, escher, Virginia Woolf, Greta Garbo, Gore Vidal, André Gide, Joan Mirò, Truman Capote, Tennessee Williams, Graham Greene, Jacqueline Kennedy, Leonard Bernstein and Sara Teasdale. Every year in the months, the Ravello Festival takes place. It began in 1953 in honour of Richard Wagner, the 1953 film Beat the Devil, directed by John Huston and starring Humphrey Bogart, Jennifer Jones, and Gina Lollobrigida in her English language debut, was shot in Ravello. Ravello can be reached from the 163 Amalfitata State Road, Amalfi Coast Sorrentine Peninsula Villa Cimbrone Villa Rufolo Official website Ravello Tourism Board Ravello Travel Guide o Ravello Concert Society Official website of the Chamber Music Festival
Cattolica is a town and comune in the Province of Rimini, with 16,233 inhabitants. Archaeological excavations show that the area was settled in Roman times. Cattolica rose as a place for pilgrims who traveled the Bologna-Ancona-Rome route. In 1500 it counted more than twenty taverns and inns, only from the second half of the 19th century did the fishing industry became relevant in the economy of the town. One of the first notable visitors to Cattolicas beach was Lucien Bonaparte, brother of the French Emperor, the town became an independent commune in 1896. After the end of World War I the tourism industry became predominant, church of San Apollinare Malatesta tower Museum of the Queen with the S. The Festival of the flowers, since 1950s, Cattolica hosts a show of flower markets with many stalls along the streets of the city, the Pink Night, celebrated in town along the coast from Cattolica to Bellaria. The Fair of the ancient flavors of land and sea, with wine tasting acoompagnate animations
Points classification in the Giro d'Italia
The points classification in the Giro dItalia is one of the secondary classifications in the Giro dItalia. It is determined by the placements in the stages, independent from time distances. From 1967 to 1969 the leader wore a red jersey but in 1970 it was changed to mauve, named maglia ciclamino, the red jersey was re-introduced in 2010. It will now be called the maglia rosso passione, the first points classification in the Giro was used in 1958, called Trofeo A. Carli. The first rider in each stage was given 15 points, down to one point for the fifteenth rider, there was no jersey associated, and the next year it was not used again. The ranking points system was reintroduced in 1966, when there was no associated jersey, from 1969 to 2009, the jersey was mauve, but often referred to as cyclamen. Points are given to riders who finish among the first in a stage, there are points given to the first cyclists to reach the intermediate sprints. There is an intermediate sprints competition, with names changing from year to year, among the winners of the points classification are Mario Cipollini, Alessandro Petacchi and in 2006 the future world champion Paolo Bettini.
From 2009 to 2013, the winner of each stage receives 25 points, independent of the type of stage. The next cyclist receives 20 points, the next ones 16,14,12,10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2, every stage has an intermediate sprint. The first to cross that sprint receives 8 points, the next one 6 points, in 2014 this was changed so that there are three levels of stages, each with its own point classification scheme. The first level, presumably the flat stages, will award points to 20 riders on a scale from 50 to 1 point. Level two stages will award points to the top 15 riders on a scale of 25 to 1, Points at intermediate sprints will follow a similar scale. The Year column refers to the year the competition was held, the Stages column refers to the number of stages in the race, counting half stages as two and prologues as one. The Stage wins column refers to the number of wins the winner had during the race. The Margin column refers to the margin of time or points by which the defeated the runner-up. As of 2014,8 cyclists have won the Points classification in the Giro dItalia more than once, riders from ten different countries have won the Points classification in the Giro dItalia.
The original winner was Alessandro Petacchi, who was stripped of his results from the 2007 Giro after a positive test for elevated levels of salbutamol, for the 2007 Giro dItalia, the Azzurri dItalia winner won €5,000
1978 FIFA World Cup
The 1978 FIFA World Cup, the 11th staging of the FIFA World Cup, quadrennial international football world championship tournament, was held in Argentina between 1 and 25 June. The 1978 World Cup was won by Argentina who beat the Netherlands 3–1 at River Plates home stadium Estadio Monumental in the Argentine capital of Buenos Aires after extra time in the final. This win was the first World Cup title for Argentina, who became the fifth team, the Netherlands and Brazil were the gold and bronze medalists respectively. Iran and Tunisia made their first appearances in the finals, the official match ball was the Adidas Tango. Argentina was chosen as the host nation by FIFA in London, Mexico withdrew from the bidding process after having been awarded the 1970 competition two years earlier. The logo is based on Juan Peróns signature gesture, a salute to the crowd with both arms extended above his head and this was one of the most famous, populist images of Perón. The design was created in 1974 two years prior to the coup in 1976.
The military leadership were aware that the World Cups logo symbolized Peróns gesture, England failed to qualify for the second World Cup in succession, losing out to Italy. European champions Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union failed to qualify for the finals, uruguay failed to qualify for the first time since 1958. Newcomers to the finals were Iran and Tunisia, Austria qualified for the first time since 1958, while France, for the first time, more than 100 nations entered the competition. A controversial fact surrounding the 1978 World Cup was that Argentina had suffered a military coup only two years before the cup, a known as the National Reorganization Process. Less than a year before the World Cup, in September 1977, Interior Minister General Albano Harguindeguy, because of the political turmoil, some countries, most notably the Netherlands, considered publicly whether they should participate in the event. Despite this, all teams eventually took part without restrictions, allegations that Dutch star Johan Cruyff refused to participate because of political convictions were denied by him 30 years later.
More controversy surrounded the host, Argentina, as all of their games in the first round kicked off at night, giving the Argentines the advantage of knowing where they stood in the group. This issue would arise again in Spain 1982, which prompted FIFA to change the rules so that the two group games in subsequent World Cups would be played simultaneously. Further accusations surround the game Argentina and Peru played in the round of the tournament. Argentina needed to win by a margin of four goals to proceed to the final, claims that the Argentine military dictatorship interfered to ensure Argentina would defeat Peru, were denied by the Peruvian captain and several Peruvian players. Some accusations originated in the Brazilian media and pointed to the fact that the Peruvian goalkeeper had been born in Argentina, another alleged deal, published by a Colombian drug lord in a controversial book, involved the Peruvian team being bribed without any political implications
Novi Ligure is a city and comune north of Genoa, in the Piedmont region of the province of Alessandria of northwest Italy. The town produces food, iron and textiles and it is an important junction for both road and railroad. The community of Curtis Nova in 970 was donated by Emperor Otto I to the monastery of St. Salvatore in Pavia, Novi was a free commune until 1157, when it fell to Tortona. It was handed over the marquis of Montferrat in 1223, returning briefly to Tortona in 1232–64, in 1353 Giovanni Visconti of Milan and Genoa conquered it. Novi was donated to the latter in 1392, but was occupied by the condottiero Facino Cane in 1409–12, in 1447, after the death of Filippo Maria Visconti, the governors of the city decided to free forever from Milan, and gave it to Genoa. Around this time, a feudal lord Galeazzo Cavanna was Signore di Castel Gazzo, the Sforza of Milan retained its possession until the defeat of Ludovico il Moro, when it passed to the French until Andrea Doria conquered the city for Genoa in 1529.
Novi Ligure remained part of the Republic of Genoa until 1805, in 1799 it was the site of a French defeat by an Austro-Russian army, in which the French commander Joubert was killed. Novi was annexed to the French Empire and, after its fall, in 1818 it became provincial capital and received the suffix of Ligure to mark the historical vicinity to Genoa in contrast to the annexion of the province to that of Alessandria. These include Palazzo Negroni, Palazzo Durazzo and others, the most important palace is Palazzo Delle Piane, situated in the historic Piazza Delle Piane. The Pieve of Santa Maria, on the road for Cassano, is the most ancient religious building and it has a nave with two aisles, and apses from the original edifice. In the interior is a fresco by Manfredino Boxilio, portraying the sovereign of Novi, Oriana di Campofregoso, the Oratory of St. Madeleine houses a massive cavalry composed of 21 wooden statues and two natural-size horses, as well as an 8-statuettes terracotta Complaint of Christ.
Novi has retained part of its walls, erected in 1447 and partly demolished in the 19th century, the subterraneans can be visited in summer. The Museo dei Campionissimi is a devoted to the two famous cyclists Costante Girardengo and Fausto Coppi and the bicycle history in general. The most important factory of the town is the group Elah-Dufour that produces Novi chocolate, the Garlando factory moved into the region in late 2002. Delle Piane family Cavanna family Costante Girardengo, professional cyclist, the town’s football club are, winner of a scudetto in the 1921-22 season Aquanera. Marignane, France Sorbiers, since 2008 Elbasan, since 2009 Bicester, since 2010 Battle of Novi Novi Ligure Murder
Silvi is an Italian comune in the province of Teramo, about 15 kilometres north of Pescara, in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. It stretches from Silvi Marina, a seaside resort on the Adriatic Coast. Silvi is closely tied to Atri’s history, being only a distance away. Through a series of mirrors and smoke signals, these coastal defenses could relay information that could be received in Naples in mere hours. In the 14th century the borough of Castrum Silvi, as it was known, became a fiefdom of the abbey of San Giovanni in Venere. At the time Silvi Marina was a poor port of fishermen. Silvi remained a fiefdom of Atri until the arrival of Napoleon in Italy, church of San Salvatore, in Silvi Paese, with a bell-tower, dating from the 13th century Torre di Cerrano at the ancient harbor of Atri and Silvi. Located on the beach between Silvi Marina and Pineto, it was developed when Atri abandoned the Vomano harbor and it is named for the Fosso Cerrano, a gully which runs along the sides of the hill down towards the sea.
It served as a tower for Turkish invaders. Licorice root has been popular in the Abruzzo region for centuries
1977 Giro d'Italia
The 1977 Giro dItalia was the 60th running of the Giro dItalia, one of cyclings Grand Tours races. The Giro started in Bacoli, on 20 May, with a 7 km prologue and concluded in Milan, on 13 June, a total of 130 riders from thirteen teams entered the 22-stage race, that was won by Belgian Michel Pollentier of the Flandria team. The second and third places were taken by Italians Francesco Moser and Gianbattista Baronchelli, Flandria finishing as the winners of the team points classification. A total of 14 teams were invited to participate in the 1977 Giro dItalia, each team sent a squad of ten riders, so the Giro began with a peloton of 140 cyclists. Out of the 140 riders that started this edition of the Giro dItalia, the teams entering the race were, The starting peloton did include the 1976 winner, Felice Gimondi. Freddy Maertens, Gianbattista Baronchelli, and Gimondi were seen by many news outlets to be the favorites to win the race, four different jerseys were worn during the 1977 Giro dItalia.
This classification is the most important of the race, and its winner is considered as the winner of the Giro, the green jersey was awarded to the mountains classification leader. In this ranking, points were won by reaching the summit of a climb ahead of other cyclists, each climb was ranked as either first, second or third category, with more points available for higher category climbs. The Cima Coppi, the races highest point of elevation, awarded more points than the other first category climbs, the Cima Coppi for this Giro was the Valparola Pass. The first rider to cross the Valparola Pass was Spanish rider Faustino Fernández Ovies, the white jersey was worn by the leader of young rider classification, a ranking decided the same way as the general classification, but considering only neo-professional cyclists. The rows in the table correspond to the jerseys awarded after that stage was run
The Giro dItalia is an annual multiple-stage bicycle race primarily held in Italy, while occasionally passing through nearby countries. The first race was organized in 1909 to increase sales of the newspaper La Gazzetta dello Sport, the race has been held annually since its first edition in 1909, except when it was stopped for the two world wars. As the Giro gained prominence and popularity the race was lengthened, the Giro is a UCI World Tour event, which means that the teams that compete in the race are mostly UCI Proteams, with the exception of the teams that the organizers can invite. Along with the Tour de France and Vuelta a España, the Giro makes up cyclings prestigious three-week-long Grand Tours, the Giro is usually held during late May and early June. While the route each year, the format of the race stays the same. Like the other Grand Tours, the editions of the Giro dItalia normally consist of 21 day-long segments over a 23-day period that includes 2 rest days. All of the stages are timed to the finish, after finishing the riders times are compounded with their previous stage times.
The rider with the lowest aggregate time is the leader of the race, Italian rider Vincenzo Nibali was the victor in the 2016 edition of the race. At the time La Gazzettas rival, Corriere della Sera was planning on holding a race of its own. Morgagni decided to try and hold their race before Corriere della Sera could hold theirs, after the success La Gazzetta had with creating the Giro di Lombardia and Milan–San Remo, the owner Costamagna decided to go through with the idea. Their bike race was announced on August 7,1908 in the first page of that edition of La Gazzetta dello Sport. The race was to be held in May of 1909, the idea of the race was inspired by the Tour de France and the success that LAuto had gained from it. Since the organizers lacked the funds,25,000 lire, needed to hold the race, they consulted Primo Bongrani, Bongrani proceeded to go around Italy asking for donations to help hold the race. Bongranis efforts were successful, he had procured enough money to cover the operating costs.
The money that was to be out as prizes came from a casino in San Remo after Francesco Sghirla. Even Corriere, La Gazzettas rival, gave 3,000 lire to the races fund, on 13 May 1909 at 02,53 am 127 riders started the first Giro dItalia at Loreto Place in Milan. The race was split into eight stages covering 2,448 km, a total of 49 riders finished, with Italian Luigi Ganna winning. Ganna won three stages and the General Classification