1977 Pacific hurricane season
The 1977 Pacific hurricane season was, at the time, the least active in recorded history. Only eight tropical storms formed, four hurricanes. There were no major hurricanes. In addition, there was just one storm in each of May, July and October, low. Activity in the central Pacific was zero, as no storms moved in from the east; the low seasonal activity occurred in the Atlantic hurricane season and in the typhoon season of the western Pacific. This was a worldwide trend. Hurricane Anita of the 1977 Atlantic hurricane season crossed into the basin however it was not renamed because it did not reach tropical storm status while in the basin; the 1977 Pacific hurricane season had the lowest number of tropical storms since reliable records began in 1949, producing 17 tropical depressions, 8 of which became tropical storms or hurricanes. The season started on May 15, 1977, in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, the area east of 140°W and on June 1 in the Central Pacific, between the International Date Line and 140°W, lasted until November 30, 1977, in both areas.
The first storm of the season, Tropical Storm Ava, formed off the southwest coast of Mexico on May 26. Between June and August, three named. September was the most active month. One of those storms was the strongest of the season. Tropical Depression Seventeen, the last storm of the year, dissipated on October 23; this season was the last to use the old naming lists. Starting in the 1978 season, the naming lists began to include male names. Tropical Storm Ava formed on May 26 about 600 miles southwest of Manzanillo, it moved northward intensifying into a tropical storm. At its peak intensity it had lowest pressure of 997mb, it weakened to a tropical depression on May 29 and dissipated on May 30 about 390 miles west of Manzanillo. This depression formed 70 miles southwest of the Honduras–Nicaragua border. On June 1 it dissipated just off the El Salvador coast. Tropical Depression Three formed 350 miles west of the Honduras–Nicaragua border on June 9. Two days it dissipated in the same location. Tropical Storm Bernice formed on June 25 about 555 miles southeast of Acapulco.
It moved northwestward and strengthened to a tropical storm on June 26. At its peak intensity it had winds of 40 mph, it continued moving north-west and dissipated on June 28 about 890 miles west of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. Hurricane Claudia formed on July 3 about 580 miles south of Mexico, it moved westward intensifying into a tropical storm and becoming a hurricane on July 4. At its peak intensity it had winds of 90 mph, it continued moving westward, weakening to a tropical storm on July 5 before dissipating on July 7. This depression existed from July 8 until July 9 off the southwest coast of the Baja California peninsula; this depression existed from July 9 until July 10. This depression existed on July 25; this depression existed from August 1 until August 2. Hurricane Doreen moved northward; the next day it intensified into a hurricane. At its peak intensity it had winds of 75 mph and lowest pressure of 979mb, making it the lowest measured pressure of the season, it paralleled Mexico. It brushed the extreme west of Mexico on August 16 and dissipated before reaching California on August 18.
The remnants of the hurricane did bring heavy rain to California, however. The highest amount reported. In desert areas in the southwestern part of the state, rains destroyed 325 homes and businesses and caused the evacuation of several people. Parts of the repaired Interstate 8 were destroyed again, two of the lanes of Interstate 15 between Barstow and Las Vegas were washed out. In San Diego and Imperial County, the total damage to agricultural interests was $25 million. On August 29, a tropical depression formed over the Gulf of Mexico and tracked west, it strengthened, reaching hurricane strength within 30 hours of formation. It achieved Category 5 status before striking northern Mexico on September 2; the mountainous terrain of Mexico nearly caused Anita to dissipate. The system featured a 300 mi wide area of convection and traveled west in response to a ridge over Baja California; the depression soon moved over cooler waters, prompting weakening. Lacking thermal support, the depression degenerated into a remnant low on September 3 off the southern tip of Baja California Sur.
Tropical Storm Emily moved northwestward. At its peak intensity it had winds of 40 mph, it continued moving north-west and dissipated on September 14 about 875 miles west of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. This depression existed from September 19 until September 23. A tropical depression formed on September 20 and moved northward, intensifying into a tropical storm the next day. On September 22 it became Hurricane Florence. At its peak intensity of 105 mph, Florence became the strongest storm of the season, it turned moving northeast and dissipated on Septemb
1978 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
The 1978 North Indian Ocean cyclone season had no bounds, but tropical cyclones in the North Indian Ocean tend to form between April and December, with peaks in May and November. The 1978 season produced 4 cyclonic storms of. All four of the storms formed in the Bay of Bengal and three of those made landfall; the most notable storm of the season was Severe Cyclonic Storm Four. A depression move northward; the depression strengthened into a cyclonic storm On May 15. The storm reached its maximum intensity of 70 mph before making landfall in Eastern Bangladesh on May 17 and dissipating thereafter; the effects from Cyclonic Storm One. Another tropical depression moved northwestward; the depression became a cyclonic storm the following day The storm turned to the northeast and back to the northwest were its winds peaked at 45 mph before dissipating off the coast of Bangladesh on October 28. The final tropical cyclone existed from November 19 to November 29; the 1978 Sri Lanka cyclone was the strongest tropical cyclone to strike Eastern province of Sri Lanka, making landfall on November 23.
List of North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons 1978 Atlantic hurricane season 1978 Pacific hurricane season 1978 Pacific typhoon season Australian cyclone seasons: 1978–79, 1979–80 South Pacific cyclone seasons: 1978–79, 1979–80 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seasons: 1978–79, 1979–80
Nicaragua the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Managua is the country's capital and largest city and is the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa and Guatemala City; the multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak English. Inhabited by various indigenous cultures since ancient times, the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821; the Mosquito Coast followed a different historical path, with the English colonizing it in the 17th century and coming under the British rule, as well as some minor Spanish interludes in the 19th century. It became an autonomous territory of Nicaragua in 1860 and the northernmost part of it was transferred to Honduras in 1960.
Since its independence, Nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest, dictatorship and fiscal crisis, leading to the Nicaraguan Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s and the Contra War of the 1980s. The mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in folklore, cuisine and literature the latter given the literary contributions of Nicaraguan poets and writers, such as Rubén Darío. Known as the "land of lakes and volcanoes", Nicaragua is home to the second-largest rainforest of the Americas; the country has set a goal of 90% renewable energy by the year 2020. The biological diversity, warm tropical climate and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an popular tourist destination. There are two prevailing theories on; the first is that the name was coined by Spanish colonists based on the name Nicarao, the chieftain or cacique of a powerful indigenous tribe encountered by the Spanish conquistador Gil González Dávila during his entry into southwestern Nicaragua in 1522. This theory holds that the name Nicaragua was formed from Nicarao and agua, to reference the fact that there are two large lakes and several other bodies of water within the country.
However, as of 2002, it was determined that the cacique's real name was Macuilmiquiztli, which meant "Five Deaths" in the Nahuatl language, rather than Nicarao. The second theory is that the country's name comes from any of the following Nahuatl words: nic-anahuac, which meant "Anahuac reached this far", or "the Nahuas came this far", or "those who come from Anahuac came this far". Paleo-Americans first inhabited what is now known as Nicaragua as far back as 12,000 BCE. In pre-Columbian times, Nicaragua's indigenous people were part of the Intermediate Area, between the Mesoamerican and Andean cultural regions, within the influence of the Isthmo-Colombian area. Nicaragua's central region and its Caribbean coast were inhabited by Macro-Chibchan language ethnic groups, they had coalesced in Central America and migrated to present-day northern Colombia and nearby areas. They lived a life based on hunting and gathering, as well as fishing, performing slash-and-burn agriculture. At the end of the 15th century, western Nicaragua was inhabited by several different indigenous peoples related by culture to the Mesoamerican civilizations of the Aztec and Maya, by language to the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area.
The Chorotegas were Mangue language ethnic groups who had arrived in Nicaragua from what is now the Mexican state of Chiapas sometime around 800 CE. The Pipil-Nicarao people were a branch of Nahuas who spoke the Nahuat dialect, like the Chorotegas, they too had come from Chiapas to Nicaragua in 1200 CE. Prior to that, the Pipil-Nicaraos had been associated with the Toltec civilization. Both the Chorotegas and the Pipil-Nicaraos were from Mexico's Cholula valley, had migrated southward. Additionally, there were trade-related colonies in Nicaragua, set up by the Aztecs starting in the 14th century. In 1502, on his fourth voyage, Christopher Columbus became the first European known to have reached what is now Nicaragua as he sailed southeast toward the Isthmus of Panama. Columbus explored the Mosquito Coast on the Atlantic side of Nicaragua but did not encounter any indigenous people. 20 years the Spaniards returned to Nicaragua, this time to its southwestern part. The first attempt to conquer Nicaragua was by the conquistador Gil González Dávila, who had arrived in Panama in January 1520.
In 1522, González Dávila ventured into the area that became known as the Rivas Department of Nicaragua. It was there that he encountered an indigenous Nahua tribe led by a chieftain named Macuilmiquiztli, whose name has sometimes been erroneously referred to as "Nicarao" or "Nicaragua". At the time, the tribe's capital city was called Quauhcapolca. González Dávila had brought along two indigenous interpreters, taught the Spanish language, thus he was able to have a discourse with Macuilmiquiztli. After exploring and gathering gold in the fertile western valleys, González Dávila and his men were attacked and driven off by the Chorotega, led by the chieftain Diriangen; the Spanish attempted to convert the tribes to Christianity. The first Spanish permanent settlements were founded in 1524; that year, the conquistador
The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, Hāna. Native Hawaiian tradition gives the origin of the island's name in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiian Islands. According to it, Hawaiʻiloa named the island after his son, who in turn was named for the demigod Māui; the earlier name of Maui was ʻIhikapalaumaewa.
The Island of Maui is called the "Valley Isle" for the large isthmus separating its northwestern and southeastern volcanic masses. Maui's diverse landscapes are the result of a unique combination of geology and climate; each volcanic cone in the chain of the Hawaiian Islands is built of dark, iron-rich/quartz-poor rocks, which poured out of thousands of vents as fluid lava over a period of millions of years. Several of the volcanoes were close enough to each other that lava flows on their flanks overlapped one another, merging into a single island. Maui is such a "volcanic doublet," formed from two shield volcanoes that overlapped one another to form an isthmus between them; the older, western volcano has been eroded and is cut by numerous drainages, forming the peaks of the West Maui Mountains. Puʻu Kukui is the highest of the peaks at 5,788 feet; the larger, younger volcano to the east, Haleakalā, rises to more than 10,000 feet above sea level, measures 5 miles from seafloor to summit. The eastern flanks of both volcanoes are cut by incised valleys and steep-sided ravines that run downslope to the rocky, windswept shoreline.
The valley-like Isthmus of Maui that separates the two volcanic masses was formed by sandy erosional deposits. Maui's last eruption occurred around 1790. Although considered to be dormant by volcanologists, Haleakalā is capable of further eruptions. Maui is part of a much larger unit, Maui Nui, that includes the islands of Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Molokaʻi, the now submerged Penguin Bank. During periods of reduced sea level, including as as 20,000 years ago, they are joined together as a single island due to the shallowness of the channels between them; the climate of the Hawaiian Islands is characterized by a two-season year and uniform temperatures everywhere, marked geographic differences in rainfall, high relative humidity, extensive cloud formations, dominant trade-wind flow. Maui itself has a wide range of climatic conditions and weather patterns that are influenced by several different factors in the physical environment: Half of Maui is situated within 5 miles of the island's coastline. This, the extreme insularity of the Hawaiian Islands account for the strong marine influence on Maui's climate.
Gross weather patterns are determined by elevation and orientation towards the Trade winds. Maui's rugged, irregular topography produces marked variations in conditions. Air swept inland on the Trade winds is shunted one way or another by the mountains and vast open slopes; this complex three-dimensional flow of air results in striking variations in wind speed, cloud formation, rainfall. Maui displays a unique and diverse set of climatic conditions, each of, specific to a loosely defined sub-region of the island; these sub-regions are defined by major physiographic features and by location on the windward or leeward side of the island. Windward lowlands – Below 2,000 feet on north-to-northeast sides of an island. Perpendicular to direction of prevailing trade winds. Moderately rainy. Skies are cloudy to cloudy. Air temperatures are more uniform than those of other regions. Leeward lowlands – Daytime temperatures are a little higher and nighttime temperatures are lower than in windward locations. Dry weather is prevalent, with the exception of sporadic showers that drift over the mountains to windward and during short-duration storms.
Interior lowlands – Intermediate conditions sharing characteristics of other lowland sub-regions. Experience intense local afternoon showers from well-developed clouds that formed due to local daytime heating. Leeward side high-altitude mountain slopes with high rainfall – Extensive cloud cover and rainfall all year long. Mild temperatures are prevalent. Leeward side lower mountain slopes – Rainfall is higher than on the adjacent leeward lowlands, but much less than at similar altitudes on the windward side.
Zihuatanejo, or Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo, is the fourth-largest city in the Mexican state of Guerrero. Politically the city belongs to the municipality of Zihuatanejo de Azueta in the western part of Guerrero, but both are referred to as Zihuatanejo, it is on the Pacific Coast, about 240 km northwest of Acapulco, belongs to a section of the Mexican Pacific Coast known as the Costa Grande. This town has been developed as a tourist attraction along with the modern tourist resort of Ixtapa, 5 km away. However, Zihuatanejo has kept its traditional town feel; the town is located on a well-protected bay, popular with private boat owners during the winter months. There are two possible origins for the name Zihuatanejo. One origin might be from the Purépecha language meaning “water of the yellow mountain. Cihuatlán, or "place of women," refers to the western paradise of the Nahuatl universe, the home of the “goddess women.” According to tradition, these women arose in the afternoon to lead the sun at dusk to the realm of the dead, Mictlan, to give a dim light to the dead.
"De Azueta" is in honor of José Azueta, who died fighting a U. S. incursion into the country in Veracruz in 1914. Zihuatanejo spent most of its history until as a sleepy fishing village; the federal government's decision to develop the nearby resort in the 1970s has had major implications for both the city and municipality of Zihuatanejo. The area is now the third most-visited area in Mexico, after Cancún and Puerto Vallarta, the most popular for sports fishermen. Zihuatanejo's population jumped from 6,887 to 37,328 by the early 1990s. A new highway called the "Maxipista Siglo XXI" was built to connect Zihuatanejo with Morelia, cutting the travel time from Mexico City to about six hours; the first human inhabitants of the region were nomadic tribes with a gathering culture. By the 15th century, the area was inhabited by groups called the Chumbia, the Panteca, the Coixcas; these groups mined salt in. The two main settlements in the area were Cihuatlán, near the modern Zihuatanejo, Petatlán; these two settlements along with much of the surrounding area was part of a pre-Hispanic dominion called Cuitlatepan.
It extended from the Atoyac River along the coast and inland to the borders of what are now the states of Michoacán and Mexico State. Little remains of these two settlements because they were abandoned by most of the local inhabitants after being conquered by the Aztecs; the area had always been sparsely populated before the colonial era. There are some legends related to the place. There is a story that states that Zihuatanejo was a sanctuary dedicated to the goddess Cihuatéotl, of Olmec origin, she was considered to be the mother of the human race and the goddess of women who died in childbirth and of warriors who died in battle. In modern Zihuatanejo, there is an area called "La Madera" to the east of the port that may have been a shrine or sanctuary due to the significant number of pre-Hispanic clay figures that have been found, it is thought. The area appears to have been a sanctuary for the burial of important persons. In pre-Hispanic times, Purépecha kings used this area as a recreational area.
Just south of the Zihuatanejo Airport there is a large archeological site at La Soledad De Maciel and the small town of La Chole. While artifacts have been found there since the 1930s, excavations were only started between 2000 and 2010; the site was occupied from 3000 BCE to the early 600s CE. It was occupied by three different cultures and was an important trading city for both Teotihuacan and the Olmec. At its height, it had a large population with the site covering a 10 km2 area. Only a small part of the site has been excavated because most of it is owned by the local farmers who grow fruit trees, coconuts for copra, tobacco that they roll into cigars; the Mexican government is in the process of buying back the site. Cuitlatepan was conquered by the Aztecs under Ahuizotl in 1497, it was turned into a tributary province. The Spanish arrived in the 1520s; the first Spaniard to arrive here is said to have been Gonzalo de Umbria, sent by Hernán Cortés to explore the area to see if there was any gold.
The conquest caused the native peoples to abandon the area, it is not known where they went. Those left to provide tribute were known in the Mexican highlands for their cotton shawls and decorated conch shells; the oldest document with Zihuatanejo’s name is called the Matricula de Tributos. Today the local dialect has been lost and the only trace of the native population is a small archaeological site, explored by INAH in the 1990s; the Spanish used the bay as a point of departure to explore the Pacific coast as well as a port for the first ships to sail to the Philippines, the Florida, the Espiritu Santo and the Santiago. These ships were ordered built by Hernán Cortés and offered to the Spanish king Carlos V. According to the chronicles written by Bernal Díaz del Castillo, the ships were constructed here using Spanish carpenters and local wood, they left Zihuatanejo Bay on 31 October 1527 with Captain Alvaro de Saavedra y Cerón. Only the Florida made it to the Asian islands, neither the captain nor crew returned to Mexico.
The Ixtapa area was given to Anton Sanchez as an encomienda, with nearby Pochutla and Tamaloca as part of this arrangement. With the disappearance of the native population and forests were worked by Spaniards, leaving little in the way of the colonial system which
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons; this separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, few cross the dateline. Documentation of Pacific hurricanes dates to the Spanish colonization of Mexico, when the military and missions wrote about "tempestades". In 1730, such accounts indicated an understanding of the storms. After observing the rotating nature of tropical cyclones, meteorologist William Charles Redfield expanded his study to include storms in the eastern North Pacific Ocean in the middle of the 19th century.
Between June and October 1850, Redfield observed five tropical cyclones along "the southwestern coast of North America", along with one in each of the three subsequent years. In 1895, Cleveland Abbe reported the presence of many storms between 5° to 15°–N in the eastern Pacific, although many such storms dissipated before affecting the Mexican coast. Two years the German Hydrography Office Deutsche Seewarte documented 45 storms from 1832 to 1892 off the west coast of Mexico. Despite the documentation of storms in the region, the official position of the United States Weather Bureau denied the existence of such storms. In 1910, the agency reported on global tropical cyclones, noting that "the occurrence of tropical storms is confined to the summer and autumn months of the respective hemispheres and to the western parts of the several oceans." In 1913, the Weather Bureau reinforced their position by excluding Pacific storms among five tropical cyclone basins. Such activity increased further after the Panama Canal opened in 1914, the shipping lanes moved closer to the coast.
By around 1920, Pacific hurricanes were recognized due to widespread ship observations, radio service, a newly created weather network in western Mexico. Within 60 years, further studies of the region's tropical activity indicated that the eastern Pacific is in fact the second most active basin in the world. During the 1920s, a few documents in the Monthly Weather Review reported additional storms within 2,000 mi off the Mexican coastline; the Eastern Pacific hurricane best track database was compiled on magnetic tape in 1976 for the seasons between 1949 and 1975, at the NHC to help with the development of two tropical cyclone forecast models, which required tracks of past cyclones as a base for its predictions. The database was based on records held by the United States Navy and were interpolated from 12 hourly intervals to 6 hourly intervals based on a scheme devised by Hiroshi Akima in 1970. Tracks for the Central Pacific region and tracks for tropical depressions that did not develop into tropical storms or hurricanes were not included within the database.
After the database had been created Arthur Pike of the NHC made some internal adjustments, while in 1980 a review was made by Arnold Court under contract from the United States National Weather Service and resulted in additions and/or modifications to 81 tracks in the database. Between 1976–1987, the NHC archived best track data from the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center, in 1982 started including information on Central Pacific tropical storms and hurricanes started to be included in the database based on data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center and research done by Samuel Shaw of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center in 1981; the format of the database was revised by the NHC during 1984, so that the format could resemble the Atlantic database before they took over the warning responsibility from the EPHC for the Eastern Pacific during 1988. During 2008 and 2013 several revisions were made to the database to extend tracks in land, based on reports in the Mariners Weather Log and extrapolation of the tracks since the EPHC stopped issuing advisories on systems before they made landfall.
The archives format was changed during 2013 to include non-synoptic best track times, non-developing tropical depressions and wind radii. During February 2016, the NHC released the 1959 Mexico hurricane's reanalysis, the first system to be reassessed, using methods developed for the Atlantic reanalysis process; the presence of a semi-permanent high-pressure area known as the North Pacific High in the eastern Pacific is a dominant factor against formation of tropical cyclones in the winter, as the Pacific High results in wind shear that causes environmental conditions for tropical cyclone formation to be not conducive. Its effects in the central Pacific basin are related to keeping cyclones away from the Hawaiian Islands. Due to westward trade winds, hurricanes in the Pacific head eastward, unless recurved by a trough. A second factor preventing tropical cyclones from forming during the winter is the occupation of a semi-permanent low-pressure area designated the Aleutian Low between January and April.
Its presence over western Canada and the northwestern United States contributes to the area's occurrences of precipit