International Date Line
The International Date Line is an imaginary line of navigation on the surface of the Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and this description is based on the most common understanding of the de facto International Date Line. See § De facto and de jure date lines below, the IDL is roughly based on the meridian of 180° longitude, roughly down the middle of the Pacific Ocean, and halfway around the world from the Greenwich meridian. In many places, the IDL follows the 180° meridian exactly, in other places, the IDL deviates east or west away from that meridian. These various deviations generally accommodate the political and/or economic affiliations of the affected areas, proceeding from north to south, the first deviation of the IDL from 180° is to pass to the east of Wrangel Island and the Chukchi Peninsula, the easternmost part of Russian Siberia.
It passes through the Bering Strait between the Diomede Islands at a distance of 1.5 kilometres from each island at 168°5837 W and it bends considerably west of 180°, passing west of St. Lawrence Island and St. Matthew Island. The IDL crosses between the U. S. Aleutian Islands and the Commander Islands, which belong to Russia and it bends southeast again to return to 180°. Thus, all of Russia is to the west of the IDL, and all of the United States is to the east except for the areas of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands. The IDL remains on the 180° meridian until passing the equator, two US-owned uninhabited atolls, Howland Island and Baker Island, just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean, have the latest time on Earth. The IDL circumscribes Kiribati by swinging far to the east, almost reaching the 150°W meridian, kiribatis easternmost islands, the southern Line Islands south of Hawaii, have the most advanced time on Earth, UTC+14 hours. South of Kiribati, the IDL returns westwards but remains east of 180°, in much of this area, the IDL follows the 165°W meridian.
Accordingly, Tokelau and Futuna, Tonga and New Zealands Kermadec Islands, American Samoa, the Cook Islands and French Polynesia are east of the IDL and one day behind. The IDL bends southwest to return to 180° and it follows that meridian until reaching Antarctica, which has multiple time zones. Conventionally, the IDL is not drawn into Antarctica on most maps, in contrast, a west-to-east circumnavigation of the globe loses an hour for every 15° of longitude crossed but gains back a day when crossing the IDL. The IDL must therefore be observed in conjunction with the Earths time zones, on crossing it in either direction, the calendar date is adjusted by one day. For the two hours between 10,00 and 11,59 UTC each day, three different calendar dates are observed at the time in different places on Earth. For example, at 10,15 UTC Thursday, it is 23,15 Wednesday in American Samoa, Thursday in most of the world, during the first hour, all three calendar dates include inhabited places. During the second one of the calendar dates is limited to an uninhabited maritime time zone twelve hours behind UTC
1980 Pacific typhoon season
The 1980 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds, it ran year-round in 1980, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, Tropical storms which formed in the entire west Pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric and this can often result in the same storm having two names. A total of 28 tropical depressions formed this year in the Western Pacific, beginning in March, tropical cyclones formed in each subsequent month through December. Of the 28,15 storms reached typhoon intensity, of which 2 reached super typhoon strength, seven tropical cyclones moved through the Philippines this season. A total of 28 tropical depressions formed this year in the Western Pacific, of the 28,15 storms reached typhoon intensity, of which 2 reached super typhoon strength.
Seven tropical cyclones moved through the Philippines this season, on April 4, a tropical depression formed just east of the International Date Line. At the time, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center designated it tropical depression 02W, as it moved generally northwestwards, it strengthened into a tropical storm just before crossing the dateline, but only received a name in the northwest Pacific, being dasignated Carmen. After peaking with sustained winds of 70 mph on April 6, Carmen recurved northeast and crossed the International Date Line. The JTWC subsequently relinquished responsibility to the Central Pacific Hurricane Center, Carmen lost its initial motion and stalled in the area, ultimately weakening in to a tropical depression on April 8. The depression dissipated the day and the remnant low returned to western Pacific. Typhoon Joe, which developed on July 16 from the equatorial trough. It weakened over island, but restrengthened in the South China Sea to a 100 mph typhoon before making landfall on Hainan Island on the 22nd, Joe made its final landfall that night on northern Vietnam before dissipating on the 23rd.
Joe caused heavy damage and an estimated 19 deaths in the Philippines with many more in Vietnam, the exact numbers are unknown due to Typhoon Kim hitting just four days later. Like Joe, Kim formed from the equatorial trough on July 19. It tracked quickly westward, reaching storm strength on the 21st. Kim rapidly intensified on the 24th to a 150 mph Super Typhoon, the typhoon weakened to 115 mph winds just before hitting eastern Luzon on the 25th, just days after Joe and a tropical depression hit the same area. Kim continued northwestward, but with its circulation, it remained a tropical storm until hitting southern China on the 27th,90 miles northeast of Hong Kong
Baja California Peninsula
The Baja California Peninsula is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. Its land mass separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California, the peninsula extends 1,247 km from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km at its narrowest to 320 km at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km of coastline, the total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2. The peninsula is separated from mainland Mexico by the Gulf of California, there are four main desert areas on the peninsula, the San Felipe Desert, the Central Coast Desert, the Vizcaíno Desert and the Magdalena Plain Desert. The land of California existed as a myth among European explorers before it was discovered, the earliest known mention of the idea of California was in the 1510 romance novel Las Sergas de Esplandián by Spanish author Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. Its first expedition reached the Gulf of California and California, the idea of the island persisted for well over a century and was included in many maps.
1532, Hernán Cortés sends three ships North along the coast of Mexico in search of the Island of California, the three ships disappear without a trace. 1533, Cortés sends a mission to search for the lost ships. Pilot Fortún Ximénez leads a mutiny and founds a settlement in the Bay of La Paz before being killed,1539, Francisco de Ulloa explores both coasts. 1690s–1800s, Spanish settlement and colonization in lower Las Californias, the first Spanish missions in Baja California are established by Jesuit missionaries,1701, The first report and a map showing California as a peninsula rather than an island is sent to Europe. 1767, Jesuits expelled, Franciscans take over the Baja missions,1769, Franciscans go with the Portola expedition to establish new missions in Alta California. Control of the existing Baja missions passes to the Dominican Order,1773, Francisco Palóus line demarcates Franciscan and Dominican areas of mission control. 1804, Las Californias divided into Alta and Baja California, using Palóus line, 1810–1821, Mexican War of Independence 1821, First Mexican Empire, Baja California Territory established, covering Baja California Peninsula.
1847, The Battle of La Paz and the Siege of La Paz occurs,1848, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes Alta California to the United States. As a U. S. territory it receives the California Gold Rush,1850, California admitted to U. S. statehood. 1853, William Walker, with 45 men, captures the city of La Paz. Mexico forces him to retreat a few months later, 1930–31, The Territory of Baja California is further divided into Northern and Southern territories. 1952, The North Territory of Baja California becomes the 29th State of Mexico, the southern portion, below 28°N, remains a federally administered territory
Central Pacific Hurricane Center
It is the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for tropical cyclones in this region, and in this capacity is known as RSMC Honolulu. Based in Honolulu, Hawai‘i, the CPHC is co-located with the National Weather Services Honolulu forecast office on the campus of the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, the Honolulu forecast office activates the CPHC when tropical cyclones form in, or move into, the Central Pacific region. The CPHC replaced the previous forecaster, the Joint Hurricane Warning Center, the CPHCs area of responsibility is the Central Pacific region, which is an administrative region, not a meteorological one. It is not a tropical cyclone basin, but is often referred to as the Central Pacific basin or Central North Pacific basin. The western edge of the area of responsibility, 180°W, is formally the antimeridian, though this coincides with the International Date Line for tropical latitudes, and thus these are often conflated. The region east of 140°W was formerly the responsibility of the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center, like the CPHC, it took responsibility in 1970, in this area, the hurricane season lasts from June 1 through November 30.
Practically, storms may form in the Eastern Pacific region and move west, possibly affecting Hawai‘i, or in the Western Pacific basin and move west, smaller islands may be affected, though this region is otherwise very sparsely populated. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center uses traditional Hawaiian names for hurricanes that form within its sphere of jurisdiction. It has formed four lists of names to choose from, as soon as all the names are exhausted from the first list, it moves on to the second, fourth, back to the first and so on. Unlike the name list in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific, the names do not start at A every year, four names have been retired, Iwa of 1982, Iniki of 1992, Paka of 1997 and Ioke of 2006. They were replaced by Io, Iolana and Iopa respectively, the next name to be used from the list is Walaka. Since the 1990s, the CPHC has used the Automated Tropical Cyclone Forecasting System to create forecasts, National Hurricane Center Central Pacific Hurricane Center
Santa Barbara County, California
Santa Barbara County, officially the County of Santa Barbara, is a county located in the southern portion of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 423,895, the county seat is Santa Barbara, and the largest city is Santa Maria. Santa Barbara County comprises the Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, most of the county is part of the California Central Coast. Mainstays of the economy include engineering, resource extraction, agriculture. The software development and tourism industries are important employers in the part of the county. Southern Santa Barbara County is sometimes considered the cultural boundary of Southern California. The Santa Barbara County area, including the Northern Channel Islands, was first settled by Native Americans at least 13,000 years ago, europeans first contacted the Chumash in AD1542, when three Spanish ships under the command of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo explored the area. Spanish ships associated with the Manila Galleon trade probably made emergency stops along the coast during the next 167 years, the first land expedition to explore California, led by Gaspar de Portolà explored the coastal area in 1769, on its way to Monterey Bay.
The party traveled the route on the return to San Diego in January 1770. That same year, an expedition to Monterey again passed through the area. The DeAnza expeditions of 1774-76 followed Portolas trail, the Presidio of Santa Barbara was established in 1782, followed by Mission Santa Barbara in 1786 – both in what is now the city of Santa Barbara. The presidio and mission kept Vizcainos denomination, as did the city and county – a common practice which has preserved the names of many of the 21 California Missions. European contacts had devastating effects on the Chumash people, including a series of epidemics that drastically reduced Chumash population. The Chumash survived and thousands of Chumash descendants still live in the Santa Barbara area or surrounding counties, a tribal homeland was established in 1901, the Santa Ynez Reservation. 604 of these grants were confirmed by the state of California. Santa Barbara County was one of the 27 original counties of California, the countys territory was divided to create Ventura County in 1873.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,789 square miles. Four of the Channel Islands – San Miguel Island, Santa Cruz Island, Santa Rosa Island and they form the largest part of the Channel Islands National Park
Maximum sustained wind
The maximum sustained wind associated with a tropical cyclone is a common indicator of the intensity of the storm. Within a mature tropical cyclone, it is found within the eyewall at a distance defined as the radius of maximum wind, unlike gusts, the value of these winds are determined via their sampling and averaging the sampled results over a period of time. Surface winds are variable due to friction between the atmosphere and the Earths surface, as well as near hills and mountains over land. Over the ocean, satellite imagery determines the value of the sustained winds within a tropical cyclone. Land, aircraft reconnaissance observations, and radar imagery can estimate this quantity and this value helps determine damage expected from a tropical cyclone, through use of such scales as the Saffir-Simpson scale. However, the United States National Weather Service defines sustained winds within tropical cyclones by averaging winds over a period of one minute, measured at the same 10 metres height.
This is an important distinction, as the value of the highest one-minute sustained wind is about 14% greater than a sustained wind over the same period. In most tropical cyclone basins, use of the satellite-based Dvorak technique is the method used to determine a tropical cyclones maximum sustained winds. The extent of banding and difference in temperature between the eye and eyewall is used within the technique to assign a maximum sustained wind. Central pressure values for their centers of low pressure are approximate, the intensity of example hurricanes is derived from both the time of landfall and the maximum intensity. The tracking of individual clouds on minutely satellite imagery could be used in the future in estimating surface winds speeds for tropical cyclones and land observations are used, when available. Doppler weather radar can be used in the manner to determine surface winds with tropical cyclones near land. Friction between the atmosphere and the Earths surface causes a 20% reduction in the wind at the surface of the Earth, surface roughness leads to significant variation of wind speeds.
Over land, winds maximize at hill or mountain crests, while sheltering leads to wind speeds in valleys. Compared to over water, maximum sustained winds over land average 8% lower, in most basins, maximum sustained winds are used to define their category. In the Atlantic and northeast Pacific oceans, the Saffir-Simpson scale is used and this scale can be used to determine possible storm surge and damage impact on land. In most basins, the category of the cyclone is determined from the cyclones maximum sustained wind. Only in Australia is this quantity not used to define the tropical category, in their basin
Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U. S. states plus Washington, D. C. on the continent of North America. S. The greatest distance entirely within the 48 contiguous states is 2,802 miles, the greatest north-south line is 1,650 miles. Together, the 48 contiguous states and Washington, D. C. occupy an area of 3,119,884.69 square miles. Of this area,2,959,064.44 square miles is land, composing 83. 65% of U. S. land area, officially,160,820.25 square miles is water area, composing 62. 66% of the nations total water area. The contiguous United States would be placed 5th in the list of states and dependencies by area. The 2010 census population of area was 306,675,006, comprising 99. 33% of the nations population. While conterminous U. S. has the meaning of contiguous U. S. other terms commonly used to describe the 48 contiguous states have a greater degree of ambiguity. The term was in use prior to the admission of Alaska and Hawaii as states of the United States, the District of Columbia is not always specifically mentioned as being part of CONUS.
OCONUS is derived from CONUS with O for outside added, thus referring to Outside of Continental United States, the term Lower 48 is used to refer to the conterminous United States. The National Geographic style guide recommends the use of contiguous or conterminous United States instead of lower 48 when the 48 states are meant, both Alaskans and Hawaiians have unique labels for the contiguous United States because of their own locations relative to them. Alaska became the 49th state of the United States on January 3,1959, Alaska is on the northwest end of the North American continent, but separated from the rest of the United States Pacific coast by the Canadian province of British Columbia. In Alaska, given the ambiguity surrounding the usage of continental, several other terms have been used over the years. Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States on August 21,1959 and it is the southernmost and so far, the latest state to join the Union. Not part of any continent, Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean, about 2,200 miles from North America, in Hawaii and overseas American territories, for instance, the terms the Mainland or U. S.
Mainland are often used to refer to the continental United States, apart from off-shore US islands, a few continental portions of the contiguous US are accessible by road only by traveling through Canada. Point Roberts, Elm Point and the Northwest Angle in Minnesota are three such places, Vermont, is not directly connected by land, but is accessible by road via bridges from within Vermont and from from New York. The 48 contiguous United States are, Washington, D. C. is distinct from the state of Washington, extreme points of the United States Mainland Definition of continental Definition of contiguous Definition of coterminous and conterminous
1981 Pacific hurricane season
The 1981 Pacific hurricane season was a slightly below average Pacific hurricane season. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific basin, both basins seasons ended on November 30, these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone of the season was designated on May 30, the season produced fifteen named storms and a total of eight hurricanes, which was near normal. However, the total of one major hurricane was below the average of three, the strongest tropical cyclone of the season was Hurricane Norma, which was a powerful Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. The storm caused six deaths – five in Texas, and one in Mexico, the storm caused $74 million in damage, which is credited to significant crop damage and many tornadoes. As the result of its rainfall in northwestern Mexico, seventy-three fatalities were reported. There was an absence in storm activity across the Central Pacific Hurricane Centers area of responsibility, two tropical cyclones from the eastern Pacific and Jova, entered the central Pacific, the latter entering as a hurricane.
The season produced fifteen named storms and eight hurricanes, both of numbers were equal to the average. The seasons one major hurricane, a storm with winds of at least 111 mph, was below the average of three, there are at least two tropical depressions that did not strengthen into tropical storms. Six tropical cyclones landfall in Mexico. First, Tropical Storm Adrian made landfall 240 mi east-southeast of Acapulco, Tropical Storm Irwin made landfall in Baja California Sur, but similarly to Adrian, did not cause any damage. Tropical Storm Knut made landfall near Mazatlan with winds equivalent to a tropical storm. Tropical Storm Lidia struck about 23 mi south of Los Mochis on October 8, heavy rainfall associated with the cyclone caused moderate damage in northwestern Mexico, and at least seventy-three deaths can be attributed to the storm. On May 30, an area of shower and thunderstorm activity located 270 mi south of the Mexican coastline. The second to strike the area in 10 days, Norma was absorbed by a system on October 14.
The combined entity produced heavy rainfall and severe weather across Texas, the final storm to make landfall on Mexico during the 1981 season was Hurricane Otis. Intensifying into a hurricane by October 26, the hurricane brushed the coast of Jalisco before making landfall near Mazatlan at hurricane intensity on October 30, Otis was the second of two hurricanes to make landfall in the country this season. On May 30, an area of shower and thunderstorm activity located 270 mi to the south of the Mexican coastline intensified into a tropical depression
1978 Pacific hurricane season
The 1978 Pacific hurricane season officially began May 15,1978, in the eastern Pacific, June 1,1978, in the central Pacific, and officially ended 30 November 1978. These dates conventionally delimit the period of time when tropical cyclones form in the eastern north Pacific Ocean, activity this year was slightly above average, with eighteen named storms forming. Five of those were tropical storms, thirteen were hurricanes, in the Central Pacific, a tropical depression and a major hurricane formed. Also, this season is the fourth most active season within the basin when counting on ACE Index, Atlantic Hurricane Greta crossed into the basin and was renamed Olivia. A small tropical disturbance formed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec on May 27 and it quickly accelerated southwest, before turning north late the following day. At this time, thunderstorm activity increased in coverage, aided by a channel to the Intertropical Convergence Zone the disturbance. Early on May 3, the center become better defined.
After curving northwest, Aletta rapidly intensified, and at 0000 UTC on May 31, hours later, Aletta degenerated into a tropical storm. On the afternoon of May 31, Aletta turned north-northwest due to a trough over northwestern Mexico, at 1730 UTC, Aletta moved ashore just west-northwest of Zihuatanejo. After moving inland, Aletta rapidly dissipated, a tropical disturbance developed on June 15 around 800 mi west-southwest of Acapulco. After moving west-southwest, the became more defined until June 17. At noon, te depression was elevated to Tropical Storm Bud, late on June 18, Bud reached its peak intensity of 60 mph, only to start weakening the following day as it moved west-northwest over cooler water. Early on June 20, Bud weakened to a tropical depression, shortly thereafter, Bud ceased to exist as a tropical cyclone. Around the time Bud was developing, another disturbance was developed 800 mi to the east of Bud. Veering west-northwest, the disturbance slowly organized and was designated as a tropical depression at 0600 UTC June 17.
Eighteen hours later, the strengthened into Tropical Storm Carlotta. Thereafter, the system turned west-southwest south of a ridge in Buds footsteps. Several hours after the formation of an eye early on June 19, after becoming a hurricane, Carlotta tracked west-northwest, and rapidly intensified
1982 Pacific hurricane season
The 1982 Pacific hurricane season is the fifth most active Pacific hurricane season. It was at time the most active season in the basin it was surpassed by the 1992 season. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, at that time, the season was considered as the most active season within the basin, however the 1992 season surpassed these numbers. The 1982 season was an eventful one, Hurricane Paul killed over 1,000 people before it was named. Hurricanes Daniel and Gilma both briefly threatened Hawaii, while Hurricane Iwa caused heavy damage to Kauai and Niihau, the remnants of Hurricane Olivia brought heavy rain to a wide swath of the western United States. This season had twenty three tropical storms, twelve hurricanes, and five major hurricanes, three tropical storms and one hurricane— a record number of named storms— formed in the central Pacific. This was largely due to the strong 1982–83 El Niño event, this was surpassed in the 2015 Pacific hurricane season with eight storms.
This is the first year that named storms forming between the dateline and 140°W were given names from the Hawaiian language, previous to this year and numbers from the western Pacifics typhoon list were used. After this year that it was decided to use six-year lists in the eastern Pacific and this is the reason that this seasons list is the same as the 1978 seasons list. The origins of Aletta are from a disturbance that was first noted on May 18 about 500 mi south-southwest of Acapulco. On May 20, the disturbance was upgraded into a tropical depression, moving northwest, the depression became Tropical Storm Aletta 36 hours later. The system re-curved towards the northeast due to strong upper-level westerlies, shortly after its peak, Tropical Storm Aletta began to weaken. However, the system leveled off in intensity for 30 hours before resuming a weakening trend. On May 25, Aletta slowed and moved in a clockwise loop until May 28. Shortly thereafter, Tropical Storm Aletta was downgraded into a depression, Tropical Depression Aletta dissipated on May 29 roughly 180 mi southwest of Acapulco.
The outer rainbands of Tropical Storm Aletta produced torrential rains and high winds over Central America for several days, ninety percent of the banana crop and 60 percent of the corn crop was completely destroyed. In one village, the storm left 270 missing and only 29 survivors, the capital city of Leon was hardest hit by Aletta, which was considered the worst disaster in the country in three years. Across Honduras,200 people were killed and 5,000 people were food or water 13 communities
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
Joint Typhoon Warning Center
The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Their warnings are intended for the protection of military ships. At this time the centre was one of three Navy and two Air Force units responsible for tropical cyclone reconnaissance and warnings in the Pacific, over the next few years the coordination of tropical warnings between the centres was at times difficult or impossible due to various communication problems. A committee was set up to study the issue which issued a report during January 1959. The CINCPAC subsequently petitioned the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who gave permission for the centre to be set up effective May 1,1959, the JTWC initially consisted of ten people with two officers and three enlisted personnel provided by each service. It was required to provide warnings on all tropical cyclones, between the Malay Peninsular and the International Dateline for US government agencies and they had to determine reconnaissance requirements, prepare annual typhoon summaries, and conduct research into tropical cyclone forecasting and detection.
In November 1962, Typhoon Karen destroyed the housing the Fleet Weather Center/Joint Typhoon Warning Center. It relocated in a more typhoon-proof building in 1965, between 1971 and 1976, CINCPAC gradually expanded out the JTWCs area of responsibility, to include the area between the International Dateline and the African coasts. The JTWC subsequently started issuing warnings for the Southern Hemisphere between the African coast and the International Dateline during October 1980 and it was relocated to Pearl Harbor on January 1,1999 due to the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission round. A more modernized method for forecasting tropical cyclones had become apparent by the 1980s, prior to the development of ATCF, the tools used by the Department of Defense to forecast tropical cyclone track were acetate, grease pencils, and disparate computer programs. The ATCF software was developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for the JTWC beginning in 1986 and it was adapted for use at the National Hurricane Center in 1990. S.
Standard of measuring sustained winds for 1-min instead of the 10-min span recommended by the WMO, JTWC monitors and forecasts tropical cyclone formation and movement year round. Its area of responsibility covers 89% of the tropical cyclone activity. The Center is manned by about 37 U. S. Air Force and Navy personnel. The JTWC uses several satellite systems and sensors, radar and upper level synoptic data as well as models to complete its mission. pgtw, wtps3#. pgtw, wtpn3#. pgtw