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1980 United States presidential election

The 1980 United States presidential election was the 49th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 4, 1980. Republican nominee Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter. Due to the rise of conservatism following Reagan's victory, some historians consider the election to be a realigning election that marked the start of the "Reagan Era". Carter's unpopularity and poor relations with Democratic leaders encouraged an intra-party challenge by Senator Ted Kennedy, a younger brother of former President John F. Kennedy. Carter defeated Kennedy in the majority of the Democratic primaries, but Kennedy remained in the race until Carter was nominated at the 1980 Democratic National Convention; the Republican primaries were contested between Reagan, who had served as the Governor of California, former Congressman George H. W. Bush of Texas, Congressman John B. Anderson of Illinois, several other candidates. All of Reagan's opponents had dropped out by the end of the primaries, the 1980 Republican National Convention nominated a ticket consisting of Reagan and Bush.

Anderson entered the race as an independent candidate, convinced former Wisconsin Governor Patrick Lucey, a Democrat, to serve as his running mate. Reagan campaigned for increased defense spending, implementation of supply-side economic policies, a balanced budget, his campaign was aided by Democratic dissatisfaction with Carter, the Iran hostage crisis, a worsening economy at home marked by high unemployment and inflation. Carter attacked Reagan as a dangerous right-wing extremist and warned that Reagan would cut Medicare and Social Security. Reagan won the election by a landslide, taking a large majority of the electoral vote and 50.7% of the popular vote. Reagan received the highest number of electoral votes won by a non-incumbent presidential candidate. In the simultaneous Congressional elections, Republicans won control of the United States Senate for the first time since 1955. Carter won 41% of the vote but carried just six states and Washington, D. C. Anderson won 6.6% of the popular vote, he performed best among liberal Republican voters dissatisfied with Reagan.

Reagan 69, was the oldest person to be elected to a first term. This record has since been superseded by Donald Trump at the 2016 United States presidential election. Throughout the 1970s, the United States underwent a wrenching period of low economic growth, high inflation and interest rates, intermittent energy crises. By October 1978, Iran—a major oil supplier to the United States at the time—was experiencing a major uprising that damaged its oil infrastructure and weakened its capability to produce oil. In January 1979, shortly after Iran's leader Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fled the country, Iranian opposition figure Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini ended his 14-year exile in France and returned to Iran to establish an Islamic Republic hostile to American interests and influence in the country. In the spring and summer of 1979 inflation was on the rise and various parts of the United States were experiencing energy shortages. Carter was blamed for the return of the long gas lines in the summer of 1979 that were last seen just after the 1973 Yom Kippur War.

He planned on delivering his fifth major speech on energy, but he felt that the American people were no longer listening. Carter left for the presidential retreat of Camp David. "For more than a week, a veil of secrecy enveloped the proceedings. Dozens of prominent Democratic Party leaders—members of Congress, labor leaders and clergy—were summoned to the mountaintop retreat to confer with the beleaguered president." His pollster, Pat Caddell, told him that the American people faced a crisis of confidence because of the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr.. On July 15, 1979, Carter gave a nationally televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a "crisis of confidence" among the American people; this came to be known as his "malaise" speech. Many expected Senator Ted Kennedy to challenge Carter in the upcoming Democratic primary. Kennedy's official announcement was scheduled for early November. A television interview with Roger Mudd of CBS a few days before the announcement went badly, however.

Kennedy gave an "incoherent and repetitive" answer to the question of why he was running, the polls, which showed him leading the President by 58–25 in August now had him ahead 49–39. Meanwhile, Carter was given an opportunity for political redemption when the Khomeini regime again gained public attention and allowed the taking of 52 American hostages by a group of Islamist students and militants at the U. S. embassy in Tehran on November 4, 1979. Carter's calm approach towards the handling of this crisis resulted in his approval ratings jump in the 60-percent range in some polls, due to a "rally round the flag" effect. By the beginning of the election campaign, the prolonged Iran hostage crisis had sharpened public perceptions of a national crisis. On April 25, 1980, Carter's ability to use the hostage crisis to regain public acceptance eroded when his high risk attempt to rescue the hostages ended in disaster when eight servicemen were killed; the unsuccessful rescue attempt drew further skepticism towards his leadership skills.

Following the failed rescue attempt, Carter took overwhelming blame for the Iran hostage crisis, in which the followers of the Ayatollah Khomeini burned American flags and chanted anti-American slogans, paraded the captured American hostages in public, burned Carter in effigy. Carter's critics saw him as an inept leader who had failed to solve the worsening economic problems at home

William Pike (British Army officer)

Lieutenant General Sir William Gregory Huddleston Pike was a senior British Army officer who served as Vice Chief of the Imperial General Staff from 1960 to 1963. Pike entered Bedford School in 1914, was further educated at Marlborough College, he was commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1925. He served with the Indian Army until 1936 and fought in the Second World War taking part in the Dunkirk evacuation and commanding the 77th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery during the landings in Morocco and Algeria in March 1943. On 11 March 1944, Pike was promoted to brigadier and appointed to command 59th Army Group Royal Artillery, a headquarters, about to embark for the Far East. On arrival at the Ranchi training area, 59 AGRA and the artillery regiments placed under Pike's command prepared for an amphibious assault on the coast of Malaya, called off after the Surrender of Japan. Pike served in the Korean War as Divisional Commander, Royal Artillery for 1st Commonwealth Division, he was appointed Director of Staff Duties at the War Office in 1954 - a post he held during the Suez Crisis, Chief of Staff for Far East Land Forces in 1957 and Vice Chief of the Imperial General Staff in 1960 before retiring in 1963.

He was Colonel Commandant of the Royal Artillery from 1962 to 1970. He married Josie Tompson, his brother was Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Thomas Pike. Imperial War Museum Interview

Welcome Stranger (1947 film)

Welcome Stranger is a 1947 film directed by Elliott Nugent and starring Bing Crosby, Barry Fitzgerald, Joan Caulfield. It was filmed in Hollywood with location shots at Munz Lakes during March to May 1946. Elliott Nugent appeared in one scene as a doctor sent to examine Barry Fitzgerald and that scene was directed by Billy Wilder. Crusty Dr. McRory of Fallbridge, hires a replacement for his vacation sight unseen. Alas, he and young singing doctor Jim Pearson don't hit it off, but Pearson is delighted to stay, once he meets teacher Trudy Mason; the locals, taking their cue from McRory, cold-shoulder Pearson Trudy's stuffy fiancée. But guess who needs an emergency appendectomy. Bing Crosby as Dr. James'Jim' Pearson Joan Caulfield as Trudy Mason Barry Fitzgerald as Dr. Joseph McRory Wanda Hendrix as Emily Walters Frank Faylen as Bill Walters Elizabeth Patterson as Mrs. Gilley Robert Shayne as Roy Chesley Percy Kilbride as Nat Dorkas Clarence Muse as Clarence Elliott Nugent as Dr. White The film was given the biggest advertising campaign for a Paramount film since For Whom the Bell Tolls.

The New York premiere was held on August 6, 1947 at the Paramount and in its initial release period in the United States, the film took in $6.1 million in rentals. The reviewer for Variety had seen the film at the Los Angeles tradeshow in April and commented: "Welcome Stranger should find the boxoffice path easy treading. It’s crammed with all the ingredients that make for popular entertainment... Crosby and Fitzgerald take obvious pleasure in their friendly antagonist roles as young and old doctors... The New York Times felt that that film did not compare favorably with the previous Crosby / Fitzgerald success Going My Way; however they considered that both men "tower over the script through sheer personality, is this true in Mr. Crosby’s case, for Mr. Sheekman has not invested the character of Jim Pearson with much substance. Mr. Fitzgerald’s Doc McRory is a more rounded individual, he does have some quaintly flavorsome dialogue—“blatherskite” is one of his less endearing terms for the young assistant.

Joan Caulfield is lovely and competent as the teacher... "Smile Right Back at the Sun" "Country Style" "My Heart Is a Hobo" " As Long As I'm Dreaming"All of the songs were written by Jimmy Van Heusen and Johnny Burke and sung by Bing Crosby. Burke and Van Heusen wrote "Smack in the Middle of Maine" for the film but it was not used. Crosby recorded all of the songs for Decca Records and these were issued on a 2-disc, 78 rpm album titled "Selections from Welcome Stranger"; the songs were included in the Bing's Hollywood series. Welcome Stranger on IMDb

Carol Rymer Davis

Carol Ann Rymer Davis was an American balloonist, radiologist. She and Richard Abruzzo won the 2004 Gordon Bennet Cup, she was awarded the 2005 Harmon Trophy. She was lost at sea on September 2010, over the Adriatic Sea, her body, along with that of Abruzzo, was found off the coast of Italy in the Adriatic Sea on December 6, 2010. Rymer Davis was born in Denver, Colorado on November 28, 1944, the daughter of Drs. Charles and Marion Rymer, she graduated from Colorado College with a bachelor's degree, from the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center with a medical degree. She completed her residency in Albuquerque at the Lovelace Medicine Center, she served 22 years in the United States Army Reserve as a flight surgeon and retired as a colonel in 2001. She received a Meritorious Service Medal and was an Honor Graduate of the Expert Field Medical Badge School at Fort Carson, she worked in Albuquerque, New Mexico and was a radiologist, specializing in reading breast mammograms, in Denver, Colorado at the time of her death.

She was a partner at Diversified Radiology. Davis became interested in hot air ballooning in 1972 with her husband, she was licensed to fly hot-air balloons in 1973 and two years was licensed to fly gas balloons. She was awarded the 1981 Diploma Montgolfier, she was an instructor at the Albuquerque Aerostat Ascension Association Ground School, from 1982 to 1986. She participated in five Gordon Bennet Cup races. In 2004, she was the first woman to win a Gordon Bennett race. With Richard Abruzzo she received the Harmon Trophy in 2005. On September 25, 2010, Abruzzo and Rymer Davis lifted off from Bristol, England during the Gordon Bennett race, they traveled for 1,092 miles when contact was lost with the tracker device on their balloon on September 29, 2010. Abruzzo, communicating with weather people, lost contact with them; the Brindisi air traffic control in Italy lost contact with them. Radar showed; the balloon had multiple forms of communication devices. Boats and aircraft engaged in a search and rescue operation in and over the Adriatic Sea, where there had been thunderstorms at the time that they went missing.

Rescue efforts by the Croatian coastal aircraft crews, U. S. Navy aircraft, Italian coast guard continued for five days. In December, their bodies were found by fisherman off the coast near Vieste on December 6th, she married John C. Davis IV in 1968, her husband is a balloonist. She climbed all fourteeners in Colorado by her 18th birthday, she was an avid skier and won several races. "Inquiry into missing gas balloonists expected", BBC, 2 October 2010

Paola Suárez

Paola Suárez is a retired tennis player from Argentina. She was one of the most prominent women's doubles players throughout the early and mid-2000s, winning eight Grand Slam titles, all of them with Virginia Ruano Pascual, holding the No. 1 doubles ranking for 87 non-consecutive weeks. She was a singles semifinalist at the 2004 French Open. Suárez began playing professional tennis at the age of 15. In 1994, she joined the professional tour as a singles player. Suárez won 12 other minor tournaments. In 2004, she reached her only Grand Slam singles semi-final by defeating the 18th seed and future Wimbledon champion Maria Sharapova, but lost to Elena Dementieva; that year, she reached her highest WTA ranking of No. 9, to become the highest-ranked Argentine women's player since Gabriela Sabatini achieved the No. 3 ranking in 1989. In 2004, she won the bronze medal at the Olympic Games in Athens for the women's doubles with Patricia Tarabini, she had the best results in doubles, playing with Virginia Ruano Pascual of Spain for 32 of her 39 titles.

They won the French Open on four occasions, the US Open three times, the Australian Open in 2004. Suárez and Ruano Pascual were the No. 1 female pair for three consecutive years after 9 September 2002 and were the WTA Tour Doubles Team of the Year in 2002, 2003 and 2004. They reached nine straight Grand Slam finals, two short of Navratilova and Shriver's record of eleven. In 2005, she announced her forthcoming retirement for personal reasons. In June 2005, she went on labrum hip clinical intervention, with a recovery time of three to four months, she restarted playing in Sydney in January 2006 with Ruano Pascual, reaching the final, but suffered a calf injury short after. That year, she reached the final of Wimbledon with Ruano Pascual, marking her third appearance in a final there. Suárez returned to the circuit with a victory over Dinara Safina, ranked No. 15, in the San Diego singles tournament. On 1 September 2007, Suárez retired after losing in the mixed doubles second round at the US Open.

She partnered Kevin Ullyett and lost to Jamie Murray and Liezel Huber, 5–7, 4–6. She returned to the WTA doubles tour in 2012, partnering her fellow Argentinian Gisela Dulko; the pair lost in the first round. In her career, Suárez earned more than $5.2 million, with four singles titles on the WTA Tour, eight doubles Grand Slam titles. Suárez's match record against players who have been ranked in the top 10, with those who have been ranked No. 1 in boldface Paola Suárez at the Women's Tennis Association Paola Suárez at the International Tennis Federation Paola Suárez at the Fed Cup Ole 2005, on her retirement Paola and Virginia Paola Suarez at the TheTennisTimes

Stephen Donald

Stephen Rex Donald is a New Zealand rugby union player who plays for the Chiefs in Super Rugby. A first five-eighth or centre, he has won 24 international caps for New Zealand. Nicknamed'Beaver', he is best known for kicking the winning penalty in the 2011 Rugby World Cup Final. Progressing and playing through all levels for the Waikato province in the ITM Cup, he played for the Chiefs in the Super Rugby competition. He would play for the franchise from 2005 until 2011. In 2015, Donald had signed to returned to New Zealand to play for Waikato in the ITM Cup. Donald made his return with Waikato on 10 September 2015 against Southland at Waikato Stadium, coming on as a substitute. In June 2016, Donald captained the Chiefs to a dominating win over Wales. Although the Welsh were the strong favourites going into the match, Donald had played a'man of the match' role, dominating his opponents whilst setting up two tries and perfect goal-kicking percentage which saw the Chiefs beat the Welsh 40–7. Donald received a standing ovation from the crowd after being subbed in the 68th minute.

Donald was controversially disallowed a try just before halftime after the TMO could not see any clear grounding of the ball. In February 2019 it was announced that Donald had joined the Chiefs once again as injury cover for Tiaan Falcon. Donald signed for English Premiership club Bath Rugby for a ​2 1⁄2-year deal. Denied a work permit, Bath appealed the decision against the UK Government and, with the support of the RFU, won their appeal against the refusal. Donald joined Bath after the Rugby World Cup 2011, making his début in the 68th minute of their Heineken Cup clash with Glasgow on 13 November 2011, scoring a penalty with 90 seconds to go; the Blues denied reports stating that Donald had signed for the team for 2012 as a replacement for Stephen Brett and Luke McAlister, who are both heading overseas. In April 2013, it was announced Donald would leave Bath Rugby to join Japanese side Mitsubishi Sagamihara DynaBoars in the Top League for the 2013/14 season. Despite an international career that had not lived up to expectations, he played for the All Blacks from 2008 till 2011.

Donald, aka'The Beaver', kicked the winning penalty in the 2011 IRB Rugby World Cup Final for New Zealand. Donald played on an international-level for the All Blacks from 2008 to 2011. Throughout his time playing for the All Blacks, Donald had been the subject of harsh criticism as well as high praise. One instance of note was in October 2010, when the All Blacks faced off against the Wallabies in a Bledisloe Cup match in Hong Kong. In the 60th minute of the game, Donald came on as a substitute for Dan Carter and the All Blacks held a five-point lead, just after Drew Mitchell scored a converted try. Donald had missed a penalty-kick; the situation was made worse when Donald failed to kick the ball into touch in the dying minutes of the game. After launching a counter-attack, James O'Connor scored a try in the corner to level the score. O'Connor managed to convert that try to win the game for the Australians and the blame of the loss fell on Donald. Although defended by team personnel, Donald had fallen out of favour with the public and selectors.

After the 2010 season had culminated, the All Black selectors looked toward players such as Colin Slade and Aaron Cruden more favourably. Donald was not named in the initial 2011 Rugby World Cup All Blacks squad and with his forthcoming move to Bath Rugby, it seemed to be the end of his All Black career. However, a string of injures hit the All Blacks. During training the day before the All Blacks match against Canada, Dan Carter sustained a tournament-ending groin injury and was subsequently replaced by Aaron Cruden. On 9 October, Colin Slade sustained a groin tear which led to Donald receiving a call-up as replacement first-five for the All Blacks heading into the finals. A cartoon by Tom Scott in the lead-up to the 2011 Rugby World Cup Final described it as a "nightmare" if New Zealand's fate was left in his hands. Donald was not used in the semi-final against Australia, however he would be used in the final against France. Cruden sustained a knee injury 34 minutes into the first half, which left Donald to take to the field.

After receiving a penalty in the 46th minute, Donald converted a penalty-kick which extended their lead to eight points. Shortly afterwards, France regained the ball from the kick-off and Thierry Dusautoir scored under the posts, bringing the score to 8–7. Despite the resilient and strong performance from the French, this would be their only set of points scored in the final. Coupled with Tony Woodcock's try, Donald's penalty-kick was what won the New Zealand side their second Rugby World Cup. After the final, Donald was hailed as the player that won the World Cup for New Zealand and had become somewhat of a national hero thereafter. In honour of his contribution to winning the World Cup, his local rugby club in Waiuku has renamed their home ground to Beaver Park. A biopic on Donald's journey to the World Cup final entitled "The Kick" screened on TVNZ on 10 August 2014. Test record overall: Stephen Donald at AllBlacks.com Stephen Donald Chiefs' profile