1982 FIFA World Cup

The 1982 FIFA World Cup was the 12th FIFA World Cup, played in Spain between 13 June and 11 July 1982. The tournament was won by Italy, who defeated West Germany 3–1 in the final match, held in the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium in Spanish capital of Madrid, it was Italy's third World Cup title, but their first since 1938. The defending champions, were eliminated in the second group round. Algeria, Honduras and New Zealand made their first appearances in the finals; the tournament featured the first penalty shoot-out in World Cup competition. This was the last World Cup to feature two round of group stages, it was the third time in which all four semifinalists were European. In the first round of Group 3, Hungary defeated El Salvador 10–1, equalling the largest margin of victory recorded in the finals. Spain was chosen as the host nation by FIFA in London, England on 6 July 1966. Hosting rights for the 1974 and 1978 tournaments were awarded at the same time. West Germany agreed a deal with Spain by which Spain would support West Germany for the 1974 tournament, in return West Germany would allow Spain to bid for the 1982 World Cup unopposed.

For the first time, the World Cup finals expanded from 16 to 24 teams. This allowed more teams to participate from Africa and Asia. Teams absent from the finals were 1974 and 1978 runners-up Netherlands and the three times 1970s participants Sweden. Northern Ireland qualified for the first time since 1958. Belgium, Czechoslovakia, El Salvador and the Soviet Union were back in the Finals after a 12-year absence. England had its first successful World Cup qualifying campaign in 20 years – the English team had qualified automatically as hosts in 1966 and as defending champions in 1970 had missed the 1974 and 1978 tournaments. Yugoslavia and Chile were back after having missed the 1978 tournament. Algeria, Honduras and New Zealand all participated in the World Cup for the first time; as of 2018, this was the last time that El Salvador and Kuwait qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time that Mexico and South Korea failed to qualify. There was some consideration given as to whether England, Northern Ireland, Scotland should withdraw from the tournament because of the Falklands War between Argentina and the United Kingdom.

A directive issued by the British sports minister Neil Macfarlane in April, at the start of the conflict, suggested that there should be no contact between British representative teams and Argentina. This directive was not rescinded following the end of hostilities. Macfarlane reported to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher that some players and officials were uneasy about participating because of the casualties suffered by British forces. FIFA advised the British Government that there was no prospect that Argentina would be asked to withdraw, it became apparent that no other countries would withdraw from the tournament. It was decided to allow the British national teams to participate so that Argentina could not use their absence for propaganda purposes, reversing the intended effect of applying political pressure onto Argentina; the following 24 teams qualified for the final tournament. The first round was a round-robin group stage containing six groups of four teams each. Two points were awarded for a win and one for a draw, with goal difference used to separate teams equal on points.

The top two teams in each group advanced. In the second round, the twelve remaining teams were split into four groups of three teams each, with the winner of each group progressing to the knockout semi-final stage; the composition of the groups in the second round was predetermined before the start of the tournament. In the aggregate, Groups A and B were to include one team from each of Groups 1 through 6, Groups C and D included the remaining six teams; the winners of Groups 1 and 3 were in Group A whilst the runners-up were in Group C. The winners of Groups 2 and 4 were in Group B whilst the runners-up were in Group D; the winner of Group 5 was in Group D whilst the runner-up was in Group B. The winner of Group 6 was in Group C whilst the runner-up was in Group A. Thus, Group A mirrored Group C, Group B mirrored Group D with the winners and runners-up from the first round being placed into opposite groups in the second round; the second-round groups that mirrored each other faced off against each other in the semifinals.

Thus, the Group A winner played the Group C winner, the Group B winner player the Group D winner. This meant that if two teams which played in the same first-round group both emerged from the second round, they would meet for the second time of the tournament in a semifinal match, it guaranteed that the final match would feature two teams that had not played each other in the tournament. As it turned out and Poland who were both in Group 1 in the first round, each won their second-round groups and played each other in a semifinal match. In Group 1, newcomers Cameroon held both Poland and Italy to draws, were denied a place in the next round on the basis of having scored fewer goals than Italy. Poland and Italy qualified over Peru. Italian journalists and tifosi criticised their team for their uninspired performances that managed three draws. Group 2 saw one of the great World Cup upsets on the first day

Dunstable Grammar School

Dunstable Grammar School was a grammar school in the market town of Dunstable, England. Opened in 1888, it was closed in 1971. Dunstable Grammar School was established by the Trustees of the Almshouse Charity created by the Will of Frances Ashton. Hence the inscription on the building which says: Dunstable Grammar School Founded A. D. 1728 By Mrs. Frances Ashton Built A. D. 1887. New school buildings were constructed in 1887 on the northern side of Dunstable for the Trustees of Frances Ashton's charity, in 1888 the school opened with 49 pupils; the first headmaster was L. C. R. Thring, of the Thring family of Uppingham which included the educationist Edward Thring, headmaster of Uppingham School. By 1917, the school had grown to 100 day boys. A school library was built in memory of the former pupils who died in the Boer War and the Second World War, a memorial in the library commemorated the names of the sixty-two boys who gave their lives, including Ashton Edward Thring, the only son of the school's first headmaster. and the Victoria Cross winner, Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Henderson.

The school remained in its purpose-built home from 1888 until 1971, when it was closed with the coming of the new comprehensive system of education. The remaining schoolteachers and pupils moved to a new school at the opposite end of the town, the Manshead Upper School; the original Grammar School building was modernised and since 1973 has housed the Ashton Middle School, for children aged nine to thirteen. Mike Bannister, commanded the final Concorde commercial flight from New York to London, 24 October 2003 Nigel Benson, Dunstable in Detail is a standard reference for the town and includes details about the Grammar School Gary Cooper and starred in many Hollywood films, e.g. High Noon Graeme Paul Knowles, Dean of St Paul's from 2007 to 2011 Sam Kydd, actor who appeared in many films and on TV Kevin McCloud, TV presenter, Grand Designs Geoffrey Moore CBE, Chairman of Vauxhall Motors from 1979-81 and President of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders from 1981-82 Alfred Morcom and medical doctor Norman Morris, professor of medicine and humanitarian who revolutionized maternity care in the UK Khawaja Nazimuddin, second Prime Minister of Pakistan, visited his old school dormitory in 1952 Philip Needham, Chief Executive of the ADAS Group from 1995-2000 John Reason, Rugby Union correspondent for the Daily Telegraph from 1964-94 William Willis, Liberal MP for Colchester from 1880-5 Pilot Officer Alec George Wainwright, Royal Air Force, Battle of Britain Pilot, Killed in Action 21 January 1941 Roger Parrott, actor - The King's Speech, as Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.

Dunstable School Old Boys' Association website Dunstable School website

Naas Racecourse

Naas Racecourse is a horse racing venue in Naas, County Kildare, Ireland 18 miles from Dublin. The course stages both Flat racing and National Hunt racing and in 2010 fifteen race meetings were held there; the Naas Races Company was formed in 1922 and the first meeting at the course was held on 19 June 1924. The course is left-handed with a long run-in. Naas stages several Grade Two National Hunt races, including the Slaney Novice Hurdle, Nas Na Riogh Novice Chase and the Johnstown Novice Hurdle, one Group Three flat race, the Blue Wind Stakes. Another flat race, the Fillies' Sprint Stakes, held Group Three status from 2006 to 2010. Amongst horses that have taken part in races at Naas are Ragusa, the 1963 Irish Derby and Eclipse Stakes winner, Arkle, winner of the Cheltenham Gold Cup in 1964, 1965 and 1966. Official website