European Communities Act 1972 (UK)
The European Communities Act 1972 known as the ECA 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made legal provision for the accession of the United Kingdom to the three European Communities, namely the EEC, the Coal and Steel Community. The Treaty of Accession was signed by the Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath and the President of the European Commission Franco Maria Malfatti in Brussels on 22 January 1972; the Act provided for the incorporation into UK law of the whole of European Community law and its "acquis communautaire": its Treaties and Directives, together with judgments of the European Court of Justice. By the Act, Community Law became binding on all legislation passed by the UK Parliament. Arguably the most significant statute to be passed by the Heath government of 1970-74, the Act is one of the most significant UK constitutional statutes passed; the act has been amended from its original form, incorporating the changes wrought by the Single European Act, the Maastricht Treaty, the Amsterdam Treaty, the Nice Treaty, the Treaty of Lisbon.
On 13 July 2017, the Brexit Secretary, David Davis, introduced what became the European Union Act to Parliament which makes provision for repealing the 1972 Act on "exit day", when enacted defined as 29 March 2019 at 11 p.m. but postponed by EU decision to either 22 May 2019 or 12 April 2019. When the European Communities came into being in 1958, the UK chose to remain aloof and instead join the alternative bloc, EFTA; the British government regretted its decision, in 1961, along with Denmark and Norway, the UK applied to join the three Communities. However, President Charles de Gaulle saw British membership as a Trojan horse for US influence, vetoed it; the four countries resubmitted their applications in 1967, the French veto was lifted upon Georges Pompidou succeeding de Gaulle in 1969. In 1970, accession negotiations took place between the UK Government, led by Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath, the European Communities and various European leaders. Despite disagreements over the CAP and the UK's relationship with the Commonwealth, terms were agreed.
In October 1971, after a lengthy Commons debate, MPs voted 356-244 in favour of joining the EEC. For the Treaty to take effect upon entry into the Communities on 1 January 1973, for the UK to embrace the EEC Institutions and Community law, an Act of Parliament was required. Only three days after the signing of the Treaty, a European Communities Bill of just 12 clauses was presented to the House of Commons by Geoffrey Rippon; the European Communities Act came into being, Edward Heath signed the Treaty of Accession in Brussels on 22 January 1972. Denmark and Ireland joined the Community on the same day, 1 January 1973, as the UK; the European Communities Bill was introduced the House of Commons for its first reading by Geoffrey Rippon, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster on 26 January 1972. On 17 February 1972, the House of Commons voted narrowly by 309-301 in favour of the Bill at its second reading, after three days of intense debate. Just before the vote the Prime Minister Edward Heath argued his case in the debate with the following words.
The Bill passed on to Committee Stage before its third reading. During this discussion in the House of Commons, MPs pointed out that the Government had structured the European Communities Bill so that Parliament could debate the technical issues about how the treaty enactment would occur but could not debate the treaty of accession itself and decried this sacrifice of Parliament's sovereignty to the Government's desire to join the European project. On 13 July 1972, the House of Commons voted 301-284 in favour of the Bill in its third and final reading before passing on to the House of Lords. Before the vote took place, Geoffrey Rippon argued in the House of Commons before the vote: The Bill passed to the House of Lords; the Act received Royal Assent on 17 October, the UK's instrument of ratification of the Treaty of Accession was deposited the next day with the Italian government as required by the Treaty. Since the Treaty specified its effective date as 1 January 1973 and the Act specified only "entry date" for its actions, the Act and the Treaty took effect 1 January 1973, when the United Kingdom became a member state of the European Communities along with Denmark and the Republic of Ireland.
The European Communities Act was the instrument whereby the UK Parliament effected the changes required by the Treaty of Accession by which the UK joined the European Union. Section 2 says "the Treaties are without further enactment to be given legal effect" in the UK, it enables, under section 2, UK government ministers to make regulations to transpose EU Directives and rulings of the European Court of Justice into UK law. The Treaty itself says the member states will conform themselves to the European Communities existing and future decisions; the Act and the Treaty of Accession have been interpreted by UK courts
2004 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom
The European Parliament election, 2004 was the United Kingdom's part of the wider European Parliament election, 2004, held between 10 and 13 June 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union. The United Kingdom's part of this election was held on Thursday 10 June 2004; the election coincided with the 2004 local elections and the London Assembly and mayoral elections. In total, 78 Members of the European Parliament were elected from the United Kingdom using proportional representation; the Conservative Party and the Labour Party both polled poorly. The Conservatives experienced their second-lowest recorded vote share in a national election, Labour their lowest since 1918; the UK Independence Party saw a large increase in support, increasing its number of MEPs from 3 to 12 and on popular vote pushed the Liberal Democrats, who themselves had increased their representation from 10 to 12 seats into fourth place. In Northern Ireland, Sinn Féin took its first Northern Ireland seat; the United Kingdom elected 78 Members of the European Parliament using proportional representation.
The United Kingdom was divided into twelve multi-member constituencies. The eleven of these regions which form Great Britain used a closed-list party list system method of proportional representation, calculated using the D'Hondt method. Northern Ireland used the Single Transferable Vote; as a consequence of the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, the number of seats allocated to the United Kingdom was fewer than in 1999. It was the first European election to be held in the United Kingdom using postal-only voting in four areas: the North East, North West and the Humber, East Midlands regions. A combination of the effects of the Treaty of Nice and the 2004 enlargement of the European Union meant that the number of seats allocated to the United Kingdom for the 2004 election was reduced from the 87 MEPs allocated for the 1999 election to 78 MEPs; as a result of the successful challenge of Matthews v United Kingdom before the European Court of Human Rights in 1999 residents of Gibraltar, voted in the European Parliament election for the first time, as part of the South West England region.
Changes in regional seat allocations 1 Includes Gibraltar, the only British overseas territory, part of the EU. Turnout for all the regions was 37.6% on an electorate of 45,309,760. The Conservatives and Labour both polled poorly; the Conservatives, although getting a vote share 4.1% greater than Labour, experienced their lowest vote share in a national election since 1832. Labour's vote share was its lowest since 1918. Labour's decline in votes was regarded as being due to widespread public dissatisfaction about the Iraq War and, as with the Conservatives, the increased popularity of UKIP. UKIP saw a large increase in support, increasing its number of MEPs from 3 to 12, drawing level with the Liberal Democrats, who themselves had increased their representation from 10 to 12 seats. UKIP pushing them into fourth place. Turnout was lowest in Scotland. In Scotland, Labour topped the poll, followed by the SNP; the Conservative Party's share of the vote declined by 2 percent, making it the region with the smallest swing against them.
Wales was the only region were Labour increased its share of the vote compared to 1999. The Conservatives managed to make gains pushing Plaid Cymru into third and whose share of the vote fell by 12 percentage points relative to 1999. UKIP narrowly beat the Liberal Democrats into fourth place. Wales was the region. All parties listed.†Loss/gain figures for seats are losses/gains versus the 1999 notional result, as the number of MEPs overall fell. Summary of the election results for Great Britain All parties listed.†Loss/gain figures for seats are losses/gains versus the 1999 notional result, as the number of MEPs overall fell. Gibraltar participated in the United Kingdom's election for the first time in 2004 as part of the South West England constituency. Gibraltar is a British overseas territory and therefore is under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom but does not form part of it. Gibraltar is however part of the only BOT to be so. Following however, the result of the successful challenge of Matthews v United Kingdom before the European Court of Human Rights in 1999 residents of Gibraltar were given the right to vote in the European Parliament elections.
The British government decided not to give Gibraltar its own seat due to its small electorate of just over 20,000 which would have meant with just one seat Gibraltar would have been over-represented by about 30 times the average. None of the main Gibraltar political parties contested the election, so voters chose from United Kingdom party lists. However, Lyana Armstrong-Emery of Gibraltar's Reform Party had a place on a joint list with the Green Party. In addition both the leader of the Conservative Party, Michael Howard, his deputy, Michael Ancram, campaigned in Gibraltar. Turnout in Gibraltar was 57.5%, higher than the 37.6% for the South West England electoral region as a whole. The Conservative Party polled over two-thirds of the Gibraltar vote, with no other party exceeding 10% support. Turnout in Northern Ireland was 51.2%. Sinn Féin took its first Northern Ireland seat. Sinn Féin won a seat in the corresponding elections in the Republic of Ireland. Sinn Féin and the DUP increased their shares of the vote relative to the 1999 European Parliament elections, while the shares for both the SDLP and the UUP fell.
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Representative of the European Union, London
The Representative of the European Union in London are the diplomatic missions of the European Commission and the European Parliament in the United Kingdom. They are both located in 32 Smith Square; the building was the Conservative Party's Central Office from the late 1950s until 2004 and was famous as the place where the Conservatives planned and celebrated their election victories. It was left vacant until 2009 when the EU chose it as their new London office, along with a new personalised postcode – SW1P 3EU. There was some criticism of the amount spent by the EU in updating the interior of the building, which included the installation of bomb and bullet-proof windows. Official site of the European Commission office Official site of the European Parliament office Europa -UK - Brexit
Party of European Socialists
The Party of European Socialists is a social-democratic European political party. The PES comprises national-level political parties from all member states of the European Union plus Norway; this includes major parties such as the Italian Democratic Party, the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party, Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. Parties from a number of other European countries are admitted to the PES as associate or observer parties. Most member and observer parties are members of the wider Progressive Alliance or Socialist International; the PES is led by its president Sergei Stanishev, a former Prime Minister of Bulgaria. Its political group in the European Parliament is the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats; the PES operates in the Committee of the Regions and the European Council. The party's English name is "Party of European Socialists". In addition, the following names are used in other languages: In March 2014 following the congress in Rome, the PES added the tagline "Socialists and Democrats" to its name following the admission of Italy's Democratic Party into the organisation.
In 1961, the Socialists in the European Parliament attempted to produce a common'European Socialist Programme' but this was neglected due to the applications of Britain, Denmark and Norway to join the European Community. The Socialists' 1962 congress pushed for greater democratisation and powers for Parliament, though it was only in 1969 that this possibility was examined by the member states. In 1973, Denmark and the United Kingdom joined the European Community, bringing in new parties from these countries; the enlarged Socialist Congress met in Bonn and inaugurated the Confederation of the Socialist Parties of the European Community. The Congress passed a resolution on social policy, including the right to decent work, social security and equality in the European economy. In 1978, the Confederation of Socialist Parties approved the first common European election Manifesto, it focused on several goals among which the most important were to ensure a right to decent work, fight pollution, end discrimination, protect the consumer and promote peace, human rights and civil liberties.
At its Luxembourg Congress in 1980, the Confederation of Socialist Parties approved its first Statute. The accession of Greece to the EU in 1981, followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986, brought in more parties. In 1984, a common Socialist election manifesto proposed a socialist remedy for the economic crisis of the time by establishing a link between industrial production, protection of fundamental social benefits, the fight for an improved quality of life. In 1992, with the European Community becoming the European Union and with the Treaty of Maastricht establishing the framework for political parties at a European level, the Confederation of Socialist Parties voted to transform itself into the Party of European Socialists; the party's first programme concentrated on job creation, gender equality and consumer protection and security, regulation of immigration, discouragement of racism and fighting organised crime. Along with the Socialist Group in the European Parliament, the founding members of the PES were: Social Democratic Party of Austria Socialist Party and the Socialist Party of Belgium Social Democrats of Denmark Socialist Party of France Social Democratic Party of Germany Panhellenic Socialist Movement of Greece Labour Party of Ireland Italian Democratic Socialist Party, Italian Socialist Party and Democratic Party of the Left of Italy Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party Labour Party of the Netherlands Socialist Party of Portugal Spanish Socialist Workers' Party Swedish Social Democratic Party Labour Party and Social Democratic and Labour Party of the UK In 2004 Poul Nyrup Rasmussen defeated Giuliano Amato to be elected President of the PES, succeeding Robin Cook in the post.
He was re-elected for a further 2.5 years at the PES Congress in Porto on 8 December 2006 and again at the Prague Congress in 2009. In 2010, the Foundation for European Progressive Studies was founded as the political foundation of the PES. Mr Rasmussen stood down at the PES Progressive Convention in Brussels on 24 November 2011, he was replaced as interim president by Sergei Stanishev, chairman of the Bulgarian Socialist Party and former prime minister of Bulgaria. On 28-29 September 2012, the PES Congress in Brussels Congress elected interim president Sergei Stanishev as full President, as well as four deputies: Jean-Christophe Cambadélis, Elena Valenciano, Jan Royall and Katarína Neveďalová; the same Congress elected Achim Post as its new secretary general, adopted a process which it described as "democratic and transparent" for electing its next candidate for Commission President in 2014. The PES had agreed in 2011 to use a PES presidential primary for the election; the PES has thirty-four full member parties from each of the twenty-eight EU member states and Norway.
There are twelve observer parties from other European countries. The youth organisation of the PES is the Young European Socialists. PES Women is the party's women's organisation, led by Zita Gurmai; the LGBTI campaign organisation is Rainbow Rose. PES is an associated organisation of the Progressive Alliance; the President represents the party on a daily basis and chairs the Presidency, which consists of the Secretary General, President of the S&D group in Parliament and one representative per full/associat
2014 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom's component of the 2014 European Parliament election was held on Thursday 22 May 2014, coinciding with the 2014 local elections in England and Northern Ireland. In total, 73 Members of the European Parliament were elected from the United Kingdom using proportional representation. England and Wales use a closed-list party list system of PR, while Northern Ireland used the single transferable vote. Most of the election results were announced after 10pm on Sunday 25 May - with the exception of Scotland, which did not declare its results until the following day - after voting closed throughout the 28 member states of the European Union; the UK Independence Party came top of the poll, winning 24 seats and 27% of the popular vote, the first time a political party other than the Labour Party or Conservative Party had won the popular vote at a British election since the 1906 general election. It was the first time a party other than Labour or Conservative had won the largest number of seats in a national election since the December 1910 general election.
In addition, the 23.1% of the vote won by the Conservatives is the lowest recorded voteshare for the party in a national election. The Labour Party became the first Official Opposition party since 1984 to fail to win a European Parliament election, although it did gain 7 seats, taking its overall tally to 20; the governing Conservative Party was pushed into third place for the first time at any European Parliament election, falling to 19 seats, while the Green Party of England and Wales saw its number of MEPs increase for the first time since 1999, winning 3 seats. In Scotland, the Scottish National Party won the largest share of the vote, taking 29% of the vote and 2 MEPs; the Liberal Democrats, who were in coalition with the Conservatives at the time, lost 10 of the 11 seats they were defending, won just 7% of the popular vote. Figures released in December 2014 showed that the Conservatives and UKIP each spent £2.96m on the campaign, the Liberal Democrats £1.5m, the Labour Party £1m. The United Kingdom elected 73 Members of the European Parliament using proportional representation.
The United Kingdom was divided into twelve multi-member constituencies. The eleven of these regions which form Great Britain used a closed-list party list system method of proportional representation, calculated using the D'Hondt method. Northern Ireland used the Single Transferable Vote; as a result of the Treaty of Lisbon coming into force, the UK became entitled to a 73rd MEP as from November 2011. The Electoral Commission performed a reallocation in keeping with the same procedures they used to allocate 72 MEPs and an extra Conservative MEP was allocated to the West Midlands constituency based on the 2009 vote and was enshrined in the European Union Act 2011 as an amendment of the European Parliamentary Elections Act 2002. 1 Includes Gibraltar, the only British overseas territory, part of the European Union. The European Parliamentary Elections Order 2013 provides for the designated Returning Officer for each electoral region to be the council official responsible for elections in each of the following Westminster constituencies: Kettering for the East Midlands, Chelmsford for the Eastern region, Deptford for the London region, Sunderland Central for the North East region, Manchester Central for the North West region, Falkirk for Scotland, Test for the South East region, Poole for the South West region, Preseli Pembrokeshire for Wales, Birmingham Ladywood for the West Midlands region, Leeds Central for the Yorkshire and Humber region, Belfast South for the Northern Ireland Region.
Between the 2009 and 2014 elections, there were various changes to the breakdown of UK members. In December 2011, a 73rd member from the UK was allocated to England because of the implementation of the Treaty of Lisbon. There were various defections: one Conservative MEP defected to the Liberal Democrats; the Ulster Conservatives and Unionists - New Force electoral pact between the Conservatives and the Ulster Unionist Party was dissolved. Thus, before the 2014 election, the following parties had MEPs representing UK constituencies: 39 parties stood a total of 747 candidates; the Conservative Party and UKIP had candidates in every region. Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the BNP had a full slate of candidates in all the regions in Great Britain; the English Democrats and An Independence from Europe had a full slate of candidates in all the English regions. No2EU had a full slate in seven regions, while Britain First and the Socialist Party of Great Britain had full slates in two regions each.
The Harmony Party stood in the Christian Peoples Alliance in three regions. Other parties only stood in one region. United in Europe was a single-issue party founded to contest these elections in Scotland, advocating continued membership of the UK in the EU. Founded by Charles Cormack in Edinburgh in January 2014 and registered on 3 April 2014 as a response to UKIP and Euroscepticism, the party did not
2019 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom's component of the 2019 European Parliament election is due to be held on Thursday 23 May 2019. It will be the ninth time for the United Kingdom and the fourth time for Gibraltar to elect MEPs to the European Parliament. Candidate nominations must be submitted by 16:00 on 24 April 2019, voter registration must be completed by 7 May 2019; the UK's ongoing withdrawal from the European Union is expected to be the central issue of the election campaign, it is uncertain how long British MEPs will sit before the withdrawal process is complete. While it is the default position in UK and EU law for the election to take place, the UK Government is continuing attempts to avoid participation by agreeing withdrawal before 23 May; the United Kingdom invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union on 29 March 2017 following a referendum on 23 June 2016 to leave the European Union. As a result, the country was due to leave the EU on 29 March 2019, before the European Parliament elections took place.
Nonetheless, on 27 May 2018, it was reported that the UK's Electoral Commission had set aside £829,000 for its "activities relating to a European Parliamentary election in 2019". The Commission described the money as a "precautionary measure, so that we have the necessary funds to deliver our functions at a European Parliamentary election, in the unlikely event that they do go ahead"; the European Parliament resolution of 7 February 2018 on the composition of the European Parliament included these clauses: H7 refers to the re-allocation of some UK seats following the UK withdrawal from the EU, stating: "Underlines that the seats to be vacated by the United Kingdom upon its withdrawal from the European Union will facilitate the adoption of a new allocation of seats in Parliament, which will implement the principle of degressive proportionality. H6 has a contingency for the situation that the UK does not leave the EU before the 2019 election, stating that "in case the above mentioned legal situation concerning the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union changes, the allocation of seats applied during the 2014–2019 parliamentary term should apply until the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union becomes effective"-The European Council drew up contingency plans allowing the UK to retain its MEPs should Brexit be postponed.: However, in the event that the United Kingdom is still a Member State of the Union at the beginning of the 2019-2024 parliamentary term, the number of representatives in the European Parliament per Member State taking up office shall be the one provided for in Article 3 of the European Council Decision 2013/312/EU until the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union becomes effective.
After Brexit was delayed beyond its initial planned date of 29 March 2019, the possibility of a sufficiently long delay so as to require the elections to take place became more apparent. The period for withdrawal under Article 50 was first extended, with the unanimous approval of the European Council, until 12 April 2019 — the deadline for informing the EU of the intention to hold elections. By early April, the House of Commons had voted again to extend the withdrawal period, a deadline of 31 October 2019 was agreed; the UK Government therefore ordered preparations for the election. Ratification of a withdrawal agreement by the UK and European parliaments would still permit the UK to leave before October. If this occurs before 23 May, the United Kingdom and Gibraltar will not take part in the 2019 European Parliament elections scheduled for May 2019. Having elections for the European Parliament while the UK is due to leave the European Union has been seen as problematic, with the UK Government keen to avoid this scenario.
The backdrop of ongoing debate around Brexit is expected to be significant in how people vote, with the election expected to be seen by some as a "proxy referendum" on whether the country should leave the EU or not. Commentators suggest that the vote share for the two biggest UK parties, the Conservatives and Labour, could fall, with voters moving towards a number of pro-Leave or pro-Remain parties; the election is seen as being significant for two new parties, the Brexit Party and Change UK - The Independent Group. Following the prospect of a potential delay to Brexit, Conservative Party MEPs were asked by their delegation leader if they would consider standing again if there was a delay that would mean the UK staying in the EU beyond the date of the next European Parliament election. In April 2019, Labour said it had started its process for choosing candidates, while the Liberal Democrats selection process is ongoing; the Brexit Party are planning to run 70 candidates. Patrick O'Flynn, the Social Democratic Party's sole MEP, having been elected as a UKIP candidate, stated in April 2019 that the SDP will not be standing candidates at the election.
Northern Ireland has a different political context to Great Britain, with different parties traditionally standing. Sinn Féin are selecting a candidate for the Northern Ireland constituency on the weekend of 13/14 April 2019. In April 2019, Jane Morrice, co-founder of the Northern Ireland Women's Coalition and a former deputy speaker of the Northern Ireland Assembly, announced that she would stand as an independent in the Northern Ireland constituency on a pro-Remain platform. UKIP are standing on a platform of delivering Brexit. Nigel Farage, the
Treaties of the European Union
The Treaties of the European Union are a set of international treaties between the European Union member states which sets out the EU's constitutional basis. They establish the various EU institutions together with their remit and objectives; the EU can only act within the competences granted to it through these treaties and amendment to the treaties requires the agreement and ratification of every single signatory. Two core functional treaties, the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, lay out how the EU operates, there are a number of satellite treaties which are interconnected with them; the treaties have been amended by other treaties over the 65 years since they were first signed. The consolidated version of the two core treaties is published by the European Commission; the two principal treaties on which the EU is based are the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. These main treaties have been altered by amending treaties at least once a decade since they each came into force, the latest being the Treaty of Lisbon which came into force in 2009.
The Lisbon Treaty made the Charter of Fundamental Rights binding, though it remains a separate document. Following the preamble the treaty text is divided into six parts. Title 1, Common ProvisionsThe first deals with common provisions. Article 1 establishes the European Union on the basis of the European Community and lays out the legal value of the treaties; the second article states that the EU is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity, democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities". The member states share a "society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, justice and equality between women and men prevail". Article 3 states the aims of the EU in six points; the first is to promote peace, European values and its citizens' well-being. The second relates to free movement with external border controls are in place. Point 3 deals with the internal market. Point 4 establishes the euro. Point 5 states the EU shall promote its values, contribute to eradicating poverty, observe human rights and respect the charter of the United Nations.
The final sixth point states that the EU shall pursue these objectives by "appropriate means" according with its competences given in the treaties. Article 4 relates to member states' sovereignty and obligations. Article 5 sets out the principles of conferral and proportionality with respect to the limits of its powers. Article 6 binds the EU to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 7 deals with the suspension of a member state and article 8 deals with establishing close relations with neighbouring states. Title 2, Provisions on democratic principlesArticle 9 establishes the equality of national citizens and citizenship of the European Union. Article 10 declares that the EU is founded in representative democracy and that decisions must be taken as as possible to citizens, it makes reference to European political parties and how citizens are represented: directly in the Parliament and by their governments in the Council and European Council – accountable to national parliaments.
Article 11 establishes government transparency, declares that broad consultations must be made and introduces provision for a petition where at least 1 million citizens may petition the Commission to legislate on a matter. Article 12 gives national parliaments limited involvement in the legislative process. Title 3, Provisions on the institutionsArticle 13 establishes the institutions in the following order and under the following names: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank and the Court of Auditors, it obliges co-operation between these and limits their competencies to the powers within the treaties. Article 14 deals with the workings of Parliament and its election, article 15 with the European Council and its president, article 16 with the Council and its configurations and article 17 with the Commission and its appointment. Article 18 establishes the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and article 19 establishes the Court of Justice.
Title 4, Provisions on enhanced cooperationsTitle 4 has only one article which allows a limited number of member states to co-operate within the EU if others are blocking integration in that field. Title 5, General provisions on the Union's external action and specific provisions on the Common Foreign and Security PolicyChapter 1 of this title includes articles 21 and 22. Article 21 deals with the principles. Article 22 gives the European Council, acting unanimously, control over defining the EU's foreign policy. Chapter 2 is further divided into sections; the first, common provisions, details the guidelines and functioning of the EU's foreign policy, including establishment of the European External Action Service and member state's responsibilities. Section 2, articles 42 to 46, deal with military cooperation. Title 6, Final p