1985 NFL season

The 1985 NFL season was the 66th regular season of the National Football League. The season ended with Super Bowl XX when the Chicago Bears defeated the New England Patriots 46–10 at the Louisiana Superdome; the Bears became the second team in NFL history to win 15 games in the regular season and 18 including the playoffs. Whenever a team time out is called after the two-minute warning of each half or overtime, it should only last a minute instead of 90 seconds. A play is dead anytime the quarterback performs a kneel-down after the two-minute warning of each half, or whenever the player declares himself down by sliding feet first on the ground; the ball is spotted at the point where the player touches the ground first. Pass interference is not to be called when a pass is uncatchable. Both "Roughing the kicker" and "Running into the kicker" fouls are not to be called if the defensive player was blocked into the kicker; the definition of a valid fair catch signal is defined as one arm, extended above the head and waved from side to side.

Goaltending is illegal. The officials' uniform changed slightly. Instead of wearing black stirrups with two white stripes over white sanitary hose, the officials began wearing a one-piece sock similar to those worn by players, black with two white stripes on top and solid white on the bottom; these were first worn the previous season in Super Bowl XIX. Defensive backs were ruled to have an "equal right to the ball", meaning that pass interference would not be called if the defensive player was looking back attempting to intercept the ball, that any contact with the receiver did not materially affect the receiver's ability to catch the ball. W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, PCT = Winning Percentage, PF= Points For, PA = Points Against Los Angeles Raiders were the first AFC seed ahead of Miami based on better record against common opponents. N. Y. Jets were the first AFC Wild Card based on better conference record than New Denver. New England was the second AFC Wild Card ahead of Denver based on better record against common opponents.

Cincinnati finished ahead of Pittsburgh in the AFC Central based on head-to-head sweep. Seattle finished ahead of San Diego in the AFC West based on head-to-head sweep. Dallas finished ahead of N. Y. Giants and Washington in the NFC East based on better head-to-head record. N. Y. Giants were the first NFC Wild Card based on better conference record than San Francisco and Washington. San Francisco was the second NFC Wild Card based on head-to-head victory over Washington. Minnesota finished ahead of Detroit in the NFC Central based on better division record; the following players set all-time records during the season: The 1985 NFL Draft was held from April 30 to May 1, 1985 at New York City's Omni Park Central Hotel. With the first pick, the Buffalo Bills selected defensive end Bruce Smith from Virginia Tech. Cleveland Browns: Marty Schottenheimer began his first full season as head coach of the Browns, he replaced Sam Rutigliano, fired after starting the 1984 season 1–7. Detroit Lions: Monte Clark was fired and replaced by Darryl Rogers.

Indianapolis Colts: Rod Dowhower was named as head coach. Frank Kush resigned. Offensive line coach Hal Hunter served as interim for the team's final 1984 game. Minnesota Vikings: Les Steckel was fired. Bud Grant came out of retirement for a second stint with the Vikings. New England Patriots: Raymond Berry began his first full season as head coach, he replaced Ron Meyer, fired after eight games into the 1984 season. Tampa Bay Buccaneers: John McKay retired and was replaced by Leeman Bennett. Buffalo Bills: Kay Stephenson was fired after going 0–4 to start the season. Defensive coordinator Hank Bullough was named as interim. Houston Oilers: Hugh Campbell was fired after 14 games. Defensive coordinator Jerry Glanville took over for the final two games. New Orleans Saints: Bum Phillips resigned after 12 games. Wade Phillips, his son and the team's assistant coach, served as interim for the last four games. Philadelphia Eagles: Marion Campbell was fired before the final game of the season. Fred Bruney as interim for that last game.

NFL Record and Fact Book NFL History 1981–1990 Total Football: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League

German Association for Housing, Urban and Spatial Development

The German Association for Housing and Spatial Development is a politically independent association and registered with an approved non-profit status. It is concerned with key questions and future perspectives of the housing and real estate industry, urban planning and spatial development; the German Association was founded in 1946. Since it has been an important player in post-war Germany, being a platform for discussion and exchange, providing the Federal Ministry of Transport and Urban Development and other important institutions with recommendations and shaping the public discourse. Furthermore, it represented the German side on international congresses like the 20th International congress for housing and urban planning, hosted in 1950 in Amsterdam by the International Association for housing and urban planning which proves its long history as exchange and dissemination point, unifying various points of view within the range of German housing and planning institutions; the German Association has gained experience in vertical cross-sector communication.

For about 15 years it has acquired knowledge in transnational co-operation within projects that are funded within the framework of the territorial agenda of the European Union and has acted as lead partner several times. It is partner of various projects in the field of housing and spatial planning; the German association develops recommendations regarding legislation and practice within its own commissions and working groups. According to its history, it sees itself as an independent know how exchange platform and a clearing agent of the federal Ministry of Transport and Urban Development and other related associations. With its branch office in Brussels the German Association is connected to other EU institutions and disseminates project results. Municipalities, research institutes, credit institutions and other companies, politicians as well as individuals are members of the German association; the managing committee consists of: the honorary presidents Irene Wiese-von Ofen and Karl Ravens, the president Jürgen Heyer the vice-presidents Josef Meyer and Helmut Rausch the bursar Axel Vogt as well as the other members Axel Gedaschko, Hartwig Hamm, Norbert Portz, Franz-Georg Rips and Oda Scheibelhuber.

Another board is the Associations council, chaired by the president of the association, Jürgen Heyer. Official website


BetaShares is an Australian provider of exchange-traded funds and other ASX-traded funds. The company introduced a range of products into the Australian ETF landscape, including Australia's first currency hedged ETF, Australia's first range of commodity ETFs, Australia's first range of currency ETFs, Australia's first ETF using Fundamentally based indexes and a range of short exchange traded products. BetaShares is based in Australia with offices in Melbourne and Brisbane. BetaShares is owned and managed by its Australian based management team along with a strategic shareholding from Mirae Asset Financial Group, one of Asia's largest independent financial services group. BetaShares offers exchange-traded funds across several asset classes, including equities, fixed income, hybrids and commodities; the organisation is involved in researching and commenting on ETF investing for Australian investors as well as forecasting the future growth of the industry in Australia. Some of BetaShares' milestones include: Announced the launch of Australia's first currency ETF, now covers the US Dollar, British Pound and Euro.

Announced the launch of Australia's first currency hedged ETF, the BetaShares Gold Bullion ETF. Announced the launch of Australia's first range of commodity ETFs, including Australia's first crude oil ETF and first Agriculture ETF. Announced the launch of Australia's first Cash ETF, the BetaShares Australian High Interest Cash ETF, subsequently launched the first ETF in Australia to offer exposure to a portfolio of Australian Bank senior floating rate bonds. In May 2018, they launched a Corporate Bond ETF and in July 2019, an Australian Government bond ETF Announced the launch of Australia's first ETF products using leverage and shorting over a range of asset classes, including Australian and global shares, as well as currencies offering exposure to both bullish and bearish investment strategies. Announced the launch of Australia's first ETF to track the NASDAQ-100 Index and the first ETF in Australia providing dedicated exposure to the global cybersecurity sector. Announced the launch of two ethical ETFs using climate leadership and ESG screening criteria, the BetaShares Global Sustainability Leaders ETF BetaShares Australian Sustainability Leaders ETF.

Announced the launch of the worlds lowest cost Australian equities ETF. Announced the launch of two new technology funds, the Global Robotics and Artificial Intelligence ETF and the Asia Technology Tigers ETF. Announced the launch of two new global funds, the Global Quality Leaders ETF and the Global Income Leaders ETF. Announced the launch of Australia's first ETF to track the FTSE-100 Index BetaShares has formed a number of partnerships: In July 2013, BetaShares launched the BetaShares FTSE RAFI Australia 200 ETF, based on a fundamentally based index developed by Research Affiliates, a globally renowned product development and research firm; the Research Affiliates Fundamental Index® approach uses 4 fundamental factors to develop index weightings including sales, cash flow and book value. In December 2014, the BetaShares FTSE RAFI U. S. 1000 ETF began trading. In August 2014, BetaShares announced an alliance with WisdomTree investments, the fifth largest ETF product provider in the US. Together they released the BetaShares WisdomTree Europe ETF and BetaShares WisdomTree Japan ETF.

In July 2016, BetaShares formed an alliance with AMP Capital to launch a range of Active ETFs including the AMP Capital Global Property Securities Fund, AMP Capital Global Infrastructure Securities Fund and the AMP Capital Dynamic Markets Fund. In November 2017, BetaShares and Coolabah Capital Investments released Australia's first Active ETF investing in a managed, diversified portfolio of hybrid securities; the portfolio manager for the BetaShares Active Australian Hybrids Fund is Christopher Joye. In December 2017, BetaShares and global asset manager Legg Mason, one of the world's largest active investment management firms, entered a strategic partnership to launch the BetaShares Legg Mason Equity Income Fund and BetaShares Legg Mason Real Income Fund. In November 2018, they launched Australia's first Active Fixed Income ETF, the BetaShares Legg Mason Australian Bond Fund. In June 2019, they launched their fourth active fund, the BetaShares Legg Mason Emerging Markets Fund. List of Australian exchange-traded funds Exchange-traded fund Gold exchange-traded fund