The 1988 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. In the Seoul Games, 160 nations were represented by a total of 8,391 athletes: 6,197 men and 2,194 women. 237 events were held and 27,221 volunteers helped to prepare the Olympics. 11,331 media showed the Games all over the world. These were the last Olympic Games for the Soviet Union and East Germany, as both ceased to exist before the next Olympic Games; the Soviets utterly dominated the medal table, winning 132 total medals. No country came close to this result after 1988; the games were boycotted by its ally, Cuba. Ethiopia and the Seychelles did not respond to the invitations sent by the IOC. Nicaragua did not participate due to financial considerations; the participation of Madagascar had been expected, their team was expected at the opening ceremony of 160 nations. However, the country withdrew because of financial reasons.
Nonetheless, the much larger boycotts seen in the previous three Summer Olympics were avoided, resulting in the largest number of participating nations during the Cold War era. Seoul was chosen to host the Summer Games through a vote held on 30 September 1981, finishing ahead of the Japanese city of Nagoya. Below was the vote count that occurred at the 84th IOC Session and 11th Olympic Congress in Baden-Baden, West Germany. After the Olympics were awarded, Seoul received the opportunity to stage the 10th Asian Games in 1986, using them to test its preparation for the Olympics. In its final Olympics, the Soviet Union utterly dominated the medal table winning 55 gold and 132 total medals. No country came close to this result after 1988. Soviet Vladimir Artemov won four gold medals in gymnastics. Daniela Silivaş of Romania won three and equalled compatriot Nadia Comăneci's record of seven Perfect 10s in one Olympic Games. After having demolished the world record in the 100 m dash at the Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, U.
S. sprinter Florence Griffith Joyner set an Olympic record in the 100-metre dash and a still-standing world record in the 200-metre dash to capture gold medals in both events. To these medals, she added a gold in the 4×100 relay and a silver in the 4×400. Canadian Ben Johnson won the 100 m final with a new world record, but was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol. Johnson has since claimed. In the Women's Artistic Gymnastics Team All-Around Competition, the U. S. women's team was penalized with a deduction of five-tenths of a point from their team score by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique after the compulsory round due to their Olympic team alternate Rhonda Faehn appearing on the podium for the uneven bars during the duration of Kelly Garrison-Steve's compulsory uneven bars routine, despite not competing, having been caught by the East German judge, Ellen Berger. The U. S. finished fourth after the completion of the optional rounds with a combined score of 390.575, three-tenths of a point behind East Germany.
This still remains controversial in the sport of gymnastics, as the U. S. performed better than the East German team and they would have taken the bronze medal in the team competition had they not been penalized or had an inquiry accepted to receive the points back. Phoebe Mills won an individual bronze medal on the balance beam, shared with Romania's Gabriela Potorac, making history as the first medal won by a U. S. woman in artistic gymnastics at a attended games. The USSR won their final team gold medals in artistic gymnastics on both the men's and women's sides with scores of 593.350 and 395.475 respectively. The men's team was led by Vladimir Artemov. Lawrence Lemieux, a Canadian sailor in the Finn class, was in second place and poised to win a silver medal when he abandoned the race to save an injured competitor, he arrived in 21st place, but was recognized by the IOC with the Pierre de Coubertin medal honoring his bravery and sacrifice. U. S. diver Greg Louganis won back-to-back titles on both diving events despite hitting his head on the springboard in the third round and suffering a concussion.
Christa Luding-Rothenburger of East Germany won the silver medal in the women's sprint event in cycling. Combined with the two medals she won in speed skating in the Winter Games in Calgary, she became the first athlete to win medals in two Olympics held in the same year. Anthony Nesty of Suriname won his country's first Olympic medal by winning the 100 m butterfly, scoring an upset victory over Matt Biondi by.01 of a second. Swimmer Kristin Otto of East Germany won six gold medals. Other multi-medalists in the pool were Janet Evans. Swedish fencer Kerstin Palm became the first woman to take part in seven Olympics. Swimmer Mel Stewart of the U. S. was the most anticipated to win the men's 200 m butterfly final but came in 5th. Mark Todd of New Zealand won his second consecutive individual gold medal in the three-day event in equestrian on Charisma, only the second time in eventing history that a gold medal has been won consecutively. Baseball and Taekwondo were demonstration sports; the opening ceremony featured a mass demonstration of taekwondo with hundreds of adults and children performing moves in
Caspar René Gregory was an American-born German theologian. Gregory was born in Philadelphia. After completing his bachelor's degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1864, he studied theology at two Presbyterian seminaries: in 1865–1867 at the Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary, in 1867–1873 at the Princeton Theological Seminary. In 1873, he decided to continue his studies at the University of Leipzig under Constantin von Tischendorf, to whose work on textual criticism of the New Testament he had been referred by his teacher Ezra Abbot, he administered the scientific legacy of Tischendorf, who died in 1874, continued his work. In 1876, he obtained his PhD. with a dissertation on Grégoire the priest and the revolutionist. The first examiner for it was the historian Georg Voigt, he completed his post-doctoral work in Leipzig in 1884, became an associate professor in 1889 and a full honorary professor in 1891. He had several doctorates: Karl Josef Friedrich mentions five doctorates in his biography of Gregory.
At least one doctorate in theology obtained in Leipzig in 1889 is attested. In June 1901, he received an honorary doctorate of Divinity from the University of Glasgow. On 11 August 1914, a citizen of Saxony since 1881, enlisted in the German Army as its oldest wartime volunteer, he fell in 1917 on the western front. He died on April 9, 1917 in a field hospital in France. Gregory specialized in New Testament textual criticism, he organized biblical manuscripts into a classification system, the system in use throughout the scholarly world today. He is credited with being the first to notice the consistent medieval practice of collating parchment leaves so that grain side faced grain side and flesh side flesh side, he was interested in biblical canon. Gregory, Caspar René. Prolegomena zu Tischendorfs Novum Testamentum Graece, 2 Vols. CS1 maint: date format ———. Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. Retrieved 2010-03-18. ———. Canon and Text of the New Testament. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Retrieved 2011-08-03. ———. Das Freer-Logion. Leipzig: Hinrichs. ———. Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments. Leipzig. ———. Einleitung in das Neue Testament. ———. Vorschläge für eine kritische Ausgabe des griechischen Neuen Testaments. ———. Die Koridethi-Evangelien. ———. Zu Fuß in Bibellanden. Hermann Guthe. ———. "The Essay'Contra Novatianum'". The American Journal of Theology. 3: 566–570. Ernst Barnikol, "Gregory, Caspar René", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 7, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 27–29. Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz. "Caspar René Gregory". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 2. Hamm: Bautz. Col. 344. ISBN 3-88309-032-8. Karl Josef Friedrich, Caspar Rene Gregory, in: Sächsische Lebensbilder, Vol. I, Dresden 1930, p. 125-131. Ernst Jünger, ed. "Caspar René Gregory", in: Die Unvergessenen. Berlin: Andermann. P. 111 ff. Bruno Hartung, "Caspar René Gregory", in: Das Jahr des Herrn: Kalender für die evangelischen Gemeinden Leipzigs. 5. Jg. p. 36-38. From the Papers of Caspar René Gregory.
In "Of the Incomparable Treasure of the Holy Scriptures: An Exhibit of Historic Bible-related Materials from the Collection of the Andover-Harvard Theological Library," October 1998 Caspar René Gregory in the German National Library catalogue Biographical sketch in The Biblical World, Vol. 38, pp. 350-354 Gregory's obituary in the New York Times
Joshua Ryne Jung is an American professional baseball third baseman in the Texas Rangers organization. He played college baseball for the Texas Tech Red Raiders. Jung attended Douglas MacArthur High School in San Antonio, Texas where he played baseball and football. Undrafted out of high school in the 2016 MLB draft, he enrolled at Texas Tech University to play college baseball for the Red Raiders. In 2017, as a freshman at Texas Tech, Jung started all 62 games at third base, batting.306 with six home runs and 43 RBIs. He was named the Big 12 Freshman of the Year and was named a Freshman All-American by multiple outlets including Collegiate Baseball and Perfect Game/Rawlings, he was named to the All-Big 12 Freshman Team and the All-Big 12 Second Team. That summer, he played in the California Collegiate League where he hit.368 with two home runs, 31 RBIs, a.454 on-base percentage over 117 at-bats. As a sophomore in 2018, Jung once again started all 65 of Texas Tech's games at third base, slashing.392/.491/.639 with 12 home runs and 80 RBIs.
He was named to the All-Big 12 First Team, was once again named an All-American by outlets such as Baseball America and Collegiate Baseball. He played for the USA Baseball Collegiate National Team that summer. Jung was named a preseason All-American by Perfect Game, Baseball America, D1Baseball.com, Collegiate Baseball prior to his junior year. During the season, he missed two games due to a quadricep strain, ending his streak of 139 consecutive starts. After returning, he moved to shortstop, he was named the 2019 Big 12 Co-Player of the Year after batting.333 with nine home runs and 49 RBIs through 49 games. He was named an All-American by Baseball America, D1Baseball.com, Perfect Game, ABCA, NCBWA. Jung was the recipient of the 2019 Bobby Bragan Collegiate Slugger Award, which honors the top Division I baseball player within Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico and Oklahoma each season. Jung finished his junior year slashing.343 /.474 /.636 with 58 RBIs in 64 games. Considered one of the top prospects for the 2019 MLB draft, he was selected by the Texas Rangers in the first round, with the eighth overall pick.
On July 3, 2019, Jung signed with the Rangers for a $4.4 million signing bonus. On July 10, 2019, Jung made his professional debut with the Arizona League Rangers of the Rookie-level Arizona League, hitting a home run in his first professional at-bat. On July 15, Jung was promoted to the Hickory Crawdads of the Class A South Atlantic League, hit.287/.363/.389/.752 with one home run and 23 RBI over 40 games for them. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or Baseball-Reference Texas Tech Red Raiders bio Josh Jung on Twitter