Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
Armed Islamic Group of Algeria
The Armed Islamic Group, was one of the two main Islamist insurgents groups that fought the Algerian government and army in the Algerian Civil War. It was created from smaller armed groups following the 1992 military coup and arrest and internment of thousands of officials in the Islamist Islamic Salvation Front party after that party won the first round of parliamentary elections in December 1991, it was led by a succession of amirs who were arrested one after another. Unlike the other main armed groups, the Mouvement Islamique Arme and the Islamic Salvation Army, in its pursuit of an Islamic state the GIA sought not to pressure the government into concessions but to destabilise and overthrow it, to "purge the land of the ungodly", its slogan inscribed on all communiques was: "no agreement, no truce, no dialogue". The group desired to create "an atmosphere of general insecurity" and employed kidnapping and bombings, including car bombs and targeted not only security forces but civilians. Between 1992 and 1998, the GIA conducted a violent campaign of civilian massacres, sometimes wiping out entire villages in its area of operation.
It attacked and killed other Islamists that left the GIA or attempted to negotiate with the government. It targeted foreign civilians living in Algeria, killing more than 100 expatriate men and women in the country; the group established a presence outside Algeria, in France, Britain and the United States, launched terror attacks in France in late 1994. The "undisputed principal Islamist force" in Algeria in 1994, by 1996, militants were deserting "in droves", alienated by its execution of civilians and Islamists leaders. In 1999, a government amnesty law motivated large numbers of jihadis to "repent"; the remnants of the GIA proper were hunted down over the next two years, leaving a splinter group the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat, which announced its support for Al-Qaeda in October 2003. The GIA is considered a terrorist organisation by the governments of Algeria and France. To what extent the group was infiltrated and manipulated by Algerian security services is disputed; the GIA remains a Proscribed Organisation in the United Kingdom under the Terrorism Act 2000.
According to Algerian veterans of the Afghan jihad who founded the GIA, the idea of forming an armed group to fight jihad against the Algerian government was developed not after the coup but in 1989 after leaders of the Islamic Armed Movement of Mustafa Bouyali, were freed from prison, but was not acted on due to the spectacular electoral political success of the FIS. Early in 1992, Mansour Meliani, a former aid to Bouyali, along with many "Afghans", broke with his former friend Abdelkader Heresay and left the MIA, founding his own Jihadi group around July 1992. Meliani was arrested in July and executed in August 1993. Meliani was replaced by Mohammed Allal, aka Moh Leveilley, killed on 1 September 1992 by the Algerian military when they attacked a meeting held to unify command of the jihad. Leveilley was replaced in January 1993 by Abdelhak Layada, who declared his group independent of the FIS and MIA and not obedient to its orders, it adopted the radical Omar El-Eulmi as a spiritual guide, Layada affirmed that "political pluralism is equivalent to sedition".
He believed jihad in Algeria was fard ayn, or an individual obligation of adult male Muslims. Layada threatened not just the families of Algerian soldiers. From its inception on, the GIA called for and implemented the killing of anyone collaborating with or supporting the authorities, including government employees such as teachers and civil servants. Layada did not last long and was arrested in Morocco in May 1993. Beside's the GIA, the other major branch of the Algerian resistance was the Islamic Armed Movement, it was led by the ex-soldier "General" Abdelkader Chebouti, was "well-organized and structured and favored a long-term jihad" targeting the state and its representatives and based on a guerrilla campaign like that of the War of Independence. From prison, Ali Benhadj issued a fatwa giving the MIA his blessing. In August 1993, Seif Allah Djafar, aka Mourad Si Ahmed, aka Djafar al-Afghani, a 30-year-old black marketer with no education beyond primary school, became GIA amir. Violence escalated under Djafar.
Under him, the group named and assassinated specific journalists and intellectuals, saying that "The journalists who fight against Islamism through the pen will perish by the sword." The GIA explicitly affirmed that it "did not represent the armed wing of the FIS", issued death threats against several FIS and MIA members, including MIA's Heresay and FIS's Kebir and Redjam. About the time al-Afghani took power of GIA, a group of Algerian jihadists returning from Afghanistan came to London. Together with Islamist intellectual Abu Qatada, they started up a weekly magazine, Usrat al-Ansar as a GIA propaganda outlet. Abu Qatada "provided the intellectual and ideological firepower" to justify GIA actions, the journal became "a trusted source of news and information about the GIA for Islamists around the world."The GIA soon broadened its attacks to civilians who refused to live by their prohibitions, foreigners living in Algeria. A hostage released on 31 October 1993 carried a message ordering foreigners to "leave the country.
We are giving you one month. Anyone who exceeds that period will be responsible for his own sudden death." By the end of 1993 26 foreigners had been killed. In November 1993 Shei
The RER C is one of the five lines in the RER system serving Paris, France. It is operated by SNCF; the line runs from the northwestern termini Pontoise, Versailles-Château-Rive-Gauche and Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines to the southeastern termini Massy-Palaiseau, Dourdan-la-Forêt, Saint-Martin d'Étampes and Versailles – Chantiers. The RER C line is the second-longest in the network, with over 187 km of route. RER C was created from an amalgamation and renovation of several old SNCF commuter lines unlike RER A and B which had newer sections owned and constructed by RATP; each day, over 531 trains run on the RER C alone, carries over 540,000 passengers daily, 150,000 passengers more than the entirety of the TGV network. It is the most popular RER line for tourists which represents 15% of its passengers, as the line serves many monuments and museums, including the Palace of Versailles. However, the numerous stops, combined with the old and fragile infrastructure the line inherited, makes the Parisian section of the RER C slow and inefficient.
The numerous old curves and steep grades on RER C means trains sometimes need to slow down to 40 km/h to safely pass sections with tight alignments. In contrast, RER A was constructed with more modern standards enabling much higher average operating speeds; these problems are evident on trips to and from the northern suburbs to the city center as taking Transilien lines and transferring to the Métro is much faster than taking the meandering RER C with spaced stops. In addition, the RER C's complicated operating schedule created by its complex network of numerous branches means the entire line is vulnerable to delays from the smallest incidents; these issues have led to the line being called "réseau escargot régional" by the local populace. Line C was opened on 26 September 1979 following the construction of a new 1-kilometre tunnel connecting the Gare d'Orsay railway terminus with the Invalides terminus of the Rive Gauche line to Versailles, along the banks of the Seine. Services operated between Versailles-Château-Rive-Gauche – Invalides – Quai-d'Orsay, branching to Massy – Palaiseau, Juvisy – Dourdan / Saint-Martin d'Étampes.
May 1980: Service extended Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines – Versailles – Chantiers – Gare des Invalides. On 25 September 1988 the VMI branch to the north-west opened; this branch used the infrastructure of the "ligne d'Auteuil", a new 3 kilometres tunnel connection between Batignolles and St-Ouen, connecting to the RER C's main trunk at Champ de Mars-Tour Eiffel via a curved bridge over the Seine river. This extended services to Montigny -- Argenteuil. Porte de Clichy opened on 29 September 1991. Located between Pereire – Levallois and St-Ouen. In 1992 the line was extended from Juvisy to Versailles. A further 9 kilometres extension from Montigny – Beauchamp to Pontoise was opened on 28 August 2000. On the same day a new station, Bibliothèque François Mitterrand, opened in order to create a new connexion with Métro Line 14. Located between Paris-Austerlitz and Boulevard Masséna. Another new station, St-Ouen-l'Aumône-Liesse, opened on 24 March 2002. Located between Pierrelaye and St-Ouen-l'Aumône; the C3 branch transferred to the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail network on 27 August 2006.
On 16 December 2006, Boulevard Victor was renamed Boulevard Victor – Pont du Garigliano to highlight the new interchange with tramway line T3. In February 2012, Versailles - Rive Gauche was renamed Versailles-Château-Rive-Gauche, to avoid frequent tourist confusion with other stations in Versailles. List of stations of the Paris Métro List of stations of the Paris RER Media related to Paris RER ligne C at Wikimedia Commons RATP official website RATP English website Interactive map of the RER Interactive map of the Paris métro Mobidf website, dedicated to the RER Metro-Pole website, dedicated to Paris public transports
A field hospital is a small mobile medical unit, or mini hospital, that temporarily takes care of casualties on-site before they can be safely transported to more permanent facilities. This term is used overwhelmingly with reference to military situations, but may be used in times of disaster; the concept was inherited from the battlefield and is now applied in case of disasters or major accidents, as well as with traditional military medicine. A field hospital is a medical staff with a mobile medical kit and a wide tent-like shelter so that it can be set up near the source of casualties. In an urban environment, the field hospital is established in an accessible and visible building. In the case of an airborne structure, the mobile medical kit is placed in a normalized container. A field hospital is larger than a temporary aid station but smaller than a permanent military hospital. International humanitarian law, such as the Geneva Conventions, include prohibitions on attacking doctors, hospital ships, or field hospitals buildings displaying a Red Cross, a Red Crescent or other emblem related to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
Field hospitals were called ambulances. The surgical, evacuation, or field hospitals would remain many miles in the rear, the divisional clearing stations were never intended to provide emergency life-saving surgery. With the Army's larger mobile hospitals unable to assume their traditional role in support of the front line combat units, the chain of evacuation was interrupted at a critical point; some sort of interim solution had to be found to provide the necessary surgical services and care to the wounded directly behind the front lines. Otherwise, many wounded soldiers would die from either the lack of life-saving surgery at the front or from the long and arduous evacuation trek along jungle trails from the frontal clearing stations to the nearest surgical unit. Manned with skilled surgeons and located close to the fighting to render quick, life-saving surgical intervention, the portable hospital could be moved by its own personnel to remain with the infantrymen during fluid operations.
A team of Medical Corps officers modified the basic War Department for a standard 25-bed station hospital into a new theater and table of basic for a portable hospital of 25-beds. The new unit was capable of supporting small units in its camp-type version or battalion and regimental combat teams in its task force version. Commanded by a Medical Corps captain or major, the new 29-man portable hospital had 4 medical officers 3 general surgeons and 25 enlisted men, including 2 surgical and 11 medical technicians. What marked a radical departure was that all of the unit's equipment and surgical supplies, rations could weigh no more than the 29 men could transport; because the surgical demands on the theater's hospitals were only minimal, a large number of trained surgeons were available in Australia to man the new units. The surgeons in many of the initial portable hospitals would set standards of excellence in surgery and care that established the reputation of the portable hospitals throughout the theater.
However, this was not true of all of the units, in some instances hospital commanders took advantage of this opportunity to unburden themselves of their unproductive and less well qualified surgeons. Hastily assembled and trained, the portable hospitals suffered from many shortcomings in personnel and equipment, which would soon become obvious in the jungle fighting around Buna; the single most critical problem was the severe limitation placed on the total weight to assure the unit's portability. From the start, this meant that to be portable the unit had to give up medical and surgical equipment and supplies that would have been most useful in the field. Another handicap was the lack of a coherent doctrine for the tactical employment of the portable hospitals, along with an explanation of their exact role in the chain of treatment and evacuation within the combat zone; the Chief Surgeon's Office promulgated a basic doctrine in September 1942 when the portable hospitals were established, but that doctrine went to the base sections in Australia and the portable hospitals and not to the medical units or surgeons in the Advanced Base in Papua and combat units.
With no actual operational experience as a basis, that doctrine was much more conjectural than concrete. The Surgeon General's Office and the War Department enthusiastically adopted SWPA's new hospital as a regular unit before the first portable hospitals proved their value in the Buna campaign; the Surgeon General sought and received approval to add 48 of the new portable hospitals to the War Department's troop basis for 1943. Based on what was learned at Buna. By the end of 1943, the 48 new units were activated, two of which were assigned to SWPA. Another 15 new units would arrive in the theater during 1944 to support the increasing pace of MacArthur's offensive operations along the northern coast of New Guinea and into the Philippines. One portable surgical hospital was now allocated per infantry regiment, 3 per division, although additional hospitals were authorized in larger operations. During the war, a total of 103 portable surgical hospitals were activated and 78 would serve in various theaters around the world through end of the war—19 in the China-Burma-India, China, or India-Burma theaters.
Maison Blanche (Paris Métro)
Maison Blanche is a station of the Paris Métro, serving Line 7. South of this station, the line forks into two branches, one leading to Villejuif – Louis Aragon and the other to Mairie d'Ivry; the station is under the Avenue d'Italie, between the streets of Rue Caillaux and Rue Bourgon, near the Porte d'Italie, a gate in the former Thiers Wall. It opened as part of a planned section of Line 7, temporarily operated as part of Line 10 until the completion of the under-Seine crossing of line 7 from Pont de Sully to Place Monge. On 7 March 1930 the line was extended from Place d'Italie to Porte de Choisy, including Maison Blanche; the station was integrated into line 7 on 26 April 1931. The station is named after the district, which gets its name from a hotel of the same name, French for "White House". An extension of line 14 from Olympiades to Maison Blanche is planned taking over the branch to Villejuif – Louis Aragon. A possible extension of this line to Orly Airport was announced by the French government in April 2009
The Schengen acquis is a set of rules and legislation, integrated into European Union law, which regulate the abolishment of border controls at the internal borders within the Schengen Area, as well as the strengthening of border controls at the external borders. The Schengen acquis comprises: the Schengen Agreement, signed on 14 June 1985 by Benelux and France. However, systematic identity controls were still in place at the border between most member states. Disagreement between member states led to an impasse on the abolition of border controls within the Community, but in 1985 five of the ten member states, France, the Netherlands, West Germany, signed an agreement on the gradual abolition of common border controls; the agreement was signed on the river-boat Princess Marie-Astrid on the river Moselle near the town of Schengen, where the territories of France and Luxembourg meet. Three of the signatories Belgium and the Netherlands had abolished common border controls as part of the Benelux Economic Union.
The Schengen Agreement was signed independently of the European Union, in part owing to the lack of consensus amongst EU member states over whether or not the EU had the jurisdiction to abolish border controls, in part because those ready to implement the idea did not wish to wait for others. The Agreement provided for harmonisation of visa policies, allowing residents in border areas freedom to cross borders away from fixed checkpoints and the replacement of passport checks with visual surveillance of vehicles at reduced speed and vehicle checks that allowed vehicles to cross borders without stopping. In 1990, the Agreement was supplemented by the Schengen Convention which proposed the abolition of internal border controls and a common visa policy, it was this Convention that created the Schengen Area through the complete abolition of border controls between Schengen member states, common rules on visas, police and judicial cooperation. The Schengen Agreement along with its implementing Convention was implemented in 1995 only for some signatories, but just over two years during the Amsterdam Intergovernmental Conference, all European Union member states except the United Kingdom and Ireland had signed the Schengen Agreement.
It was during those negotiations, which led to the Amsterdam Treaty, that the incorporation of the Schengen acquis into the main body of European Union law was agreed along with opt-outs for Ireland and the United Kingdom, which were to remain outside of the Schengen Area. In December 1996 two non-EU member states Norway and Iceland signed an association agreement with the signatories of the Schengen Agreement to become part of the Schengen Area. While this agreement never came into force, both countries did become part of the Schengen Area after concluding similar agreements with the EU; the Schengen Convention itself was not open for signature by non-EU member states. In 2009, Switzerland finalised its official entry to the Schengen Area with the acceptance of an association agreement by popular referendum in 2005. Now that the Schengen Agreement is part of the acquis communautaire, the Agreement has, for EU members, lost the status of a treaty, which could only be amended according to its terms.
Instead, amendments are made according to the legislative procedure of the EU under EU treaties. Ratification by the former agreement signatory states is not required for altering or repealing some or all of the former Schengen acquis. Legal acts setting out the conditions for entry into the Schengen Area are now made by majority vote in the legislative bodies of the European Union. New EU member states do not sign the Schengen Agreement as such, instead being bound to implement the Schengen rules as part of the pre-existing body of EU law, which every new entrant is required to accept; this led to the result that non-EU Schengen member states have few formally binding options to influence the shaping and evolution of Schengen rules. However, consultations with affected countries are conducted prior to the adoption of particular new legislation. Schengen – eurotopics The Schengen Area: collection of resources – CVCE – Virtual Resource Centre for Knowledge about Europe The Schengen Acquis – EUR-Lex
HM Prison Belmarsh
Her Majesty's Prison Belmarsh is a Category A men's prison in Thamesmead, south-east London, England. It is run by Her Majesty's Prison Service. Belmarsh Prison was built on part of the East site of the former Royal Arsenal in Woolwich, became operational on 2 April 1991. Belmarsh is adjacent and adjoined to Woolwich Crown Court, as such the prison is used in high-profile cases those concerning national security. Between 2001 and 2002, Belmarsh Prison was used to detain a number of people indefinitely without charge or trial under the provisions of the Part 4 of the Anti-terrorism and Security Act 2001, leading it to be called the "British version of Guantanamo Bay"; the law lords ruled in A v Secretary of State for the Home Dept that such imprisonment was discriminatory and against the Human Rights Act. It is used for the detention of prisoners for terrorist related offences. In September 2006 the number of such prisoners was 51. In May 2007, there was a violent disturbance in the prison, Sky News reported.
At least four prison officers were injured. In 2009 an archaeological dig on site led to discovery of a 6,000-year-old trackway in the prison, the second oldest known wooden trackway in Northern Europe after the Sweet Track near Glastonbury. In November 2009, an inspection report from Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons criticised the "extremely high" amount of force used to control inmates at the prison; the report stated that an unusually high number of prisoners had reported being intimidated or victimised by staff at Belmarsh. In 2010, HMP Isis Young Offenders Institution was opened within the perimeter wall of Belmarsh Prison. Belmarsh is a Category A Prison holding prisoners from all over the United Kingdom. In addition Belmarsh is a local prison, accepting different categories of prisoners from the Central Criminal Court and Magistrates' Courts in South East London. In addition the establishment serves Crown and Magistrates' Courts in South West Essex. Accommodation at the prison is a mixture of 60% multi-occupancy cells and 40% single cells, distributed across 4 residential units.
Inmates at Belmarsh are offered access to education, two gyms, one focusing on Physical Education courses and one recreational, with use of a sports hall and a fitness room. The gym staff have a partnership with Charlton Athletic F. C. to deliver FA accredited coaching courses for prisoners. A listener scheme for prisoners at risk from suicide or self-harm is in operation at Belmarsh. There is a support group for foreign national prisoners, providing advice on immigration law. Julian Paul Assange - Wikileaks founder. Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale – Islamic terrorists convicted of the murder of British soldier Lee Rigby Abu Hamza al-Masri Manfo Kwaku Asiedu, 2005 Jeffrey Archer, 2001 – Archer wrote about his stay in Belmarsh in the first volume of A Prison Diary and used the setting extensively in his novel A Prisoner of Birth. John McAvoy - now an athlete who competes in the Ironman Triathlon and has attracted sponsorship from Nike. Ian Huntley – Psychopathic child killer, held there during his trial involving the Soham murders, prior to being moved to HMP Wakefield.
Dhiren Barot Ronnie Biggs Andy Coulson – Former editor of News of the World and press secretary to Prime Minister David Cameron, convicted in June 2014 of conspiracy to hack phones. Barry George – Spent 7 years incarcerated in Belmarsh Prison after being wrongfully convicted of the 1999 murder of Jill Dando Jonathan King David Copeland Jonathan Aitken Paul Magee Lotfi Raissi, 2001 Richard Tomlinson Steve Wright Charles Bronson John Gilligan Irish Criminal Curtis Warren – Removed from HM Prison La Moye in Jersey due to security risks. Will return to Jersey in December 2015 for sentencing. Stefan Williams-Dennis Rachid Ramda Stuart Hazell – jailed for life after pleading guilty to the murder of Tia Sharp Asil Nadir – Former CEO of Poly Peck PLC and billionaire businessman Gary Dobson and David Norris – Both convicted of the Murder of Stephen Lawrence Karl Bishop – A sociopathic murderer serving 20 years for murdering Harry Potter actor, Robert Knox, as well as wounding his friends outside a bar where the murder took place Jake Fahri – A sociopathic killer serving 14 years for murdering Jimmy Mizen John Worboys – taxi driver and serial rapist jailed in 2009 following conviction for raping 12 women Ramzi Mohammed Muktar Said Ibrahim Yasin Hassan Omar Richard Huckle – Described as one of Britain's worst paedophiles.
Momcilo Krajisnik – political leader of Bosnian Serb in period of Bosnian war Denis MacShane – Labour Member of Parliament jailed for expenses fraud Thomas Mair – far-right extremist sentenced to life imprisonment with a whole life order for the Murder of Jo Cox Stephen Port – sentenced to life imprisonment with a whole life order for raping and murdering four gay men Ministry of Justice pages on HMP Belmarsh HMP Belmarsh – HM Inspectorate of Prisons Reports