Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
1948 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1948 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 2, 1948, as part of the 1948 United States presidential election. State voters chose eight electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president. South Carolina was won by States' Rights Democratic candidate Strom Thurmond, defeating the Democratic candidate, incumbent President Harry S. Truman, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Thurmond won his native state by a margin of 47.77 percent, making him the first third-party candidate to carry the state since Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge in 1860. For six decades South Carolina had been a one-party state dominated by the Democratic Party; the Republican Party had been moribund due to the disfranchisement of blacks and the complete absence of other support bases as the Palmetto State lacked upland or German refugee whites opposed to secession. Between 1900 and 1944, no Republican presidential candidate obtained more than seven percent of the total presidential vote – a vote which in 1924 reached as low as 6.6 percent of the total voting-age population.
This absolute loyalty to the Democratic Party – so strong that Catholic Al Smith in 1928 received over ninety percent of South Carolina's limited vote total at the same time as five former Confederate states bolted to Herbert Hoover – began to break down with Henry A. Wallace's appointment as Vice-President and the 1943 Detroit race riots; the northern left wing of the Democratic Party became as a result of this riot committed to restoring black political rights, a policy vehemently opposed by all Southern Democrats as an infringement upon "states' rights". Tension widened much further when new President Harry Truman, himself a Southerner from Missouri, had described to him a number of horrifying lynchings and racial violence against black veterans, most crucially the beating and blinding of Isaac Woodard three hours after being discharged from the army. Truman viewed as no friend of civil rights, came to believe that racial violence against blacks in the South was a threat to the United States' image abroad and its ability to win the Cold War against the radically egalitarian rhetoric of Communism.
The result was a major Civil Rights plan titled To Secure These Rights a year and a civil rights plank in the 1948 Democratic platform. Southern Democrats were enraged by these proposals and thus sought to form a "States' Rights" Democratic ticket, which would replace Truman as the official Democratic nominee. In South Carolina, Dixiecrats controlled the situation and achieved this, so that Thurmond and Mississippi Governor Fielding Wright were listed as the official "Democratic" nominees. Significant opposition to Thurmond came from the poor whites of the industrial upcountry, who rejected the Dixiecrats' opposition to public works and labor regulation. However, sufficiently few of these poorer whites voted that Thurmond was able to carry South Carolina, winning 44 of the state's 46 counties and over seventy-one percent of the total presidential vote. Thurmond exceeded 72 percent in all but twelve counties, passed ninety percent in ten
1884 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1884 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 4, 1884, as part of the 1884 United States presidential election. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted for the Democratic nominee, Grover Cleveland, over the Republican nominee, James G. Blaine. Cleveland won the state by a wide margin of 51.84%
1952 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1952 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 4, 1952, as part of the 1952 United States presidential election. South Carolina voters chose eight representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. For six decades up to 1950 South Carolina had been a one-party state dominated by the Democratic Party; the Republican Party had been moribund due to the disfranchisement of blacks and the complete absence of other support bases as the Palmetto State lacked upland or German refugee whites opposed to secession. Between 1900 and 1948, no Republican presidential candidate obtained more than seven percent of the total presidential vote – a vote which in 1924 reached as low as 6.6 percent of the total voting-age population. This absolute loyalty began to break down during World War II when Vice-Presidents Henry A. Wallace and Harry Truman began to realize that a legacy of discrimination against blacks was a threat to the United States' image abroad and its ability to win the Cold War against the radically egalitarian rhetoric of Communism.
In the 1948 presidential election, Truman was backed by only 24 percent of South Carolina's limited electorate – most of that from the few upcountry poor whites able to meet rigorous voting requirements – and state Governor Strom Thurmond won 71 percent, carrying every county except Anderson and Spartanburg. Between the 1948 and 1952 presidential elections, South Carolina's electorate saw the most radical changes in any state since Reconstruction and "Redemption" had expanded and contracted the electorates of all former Confederate states; the state became the last to adopt the secret ballot, whose absence had allowed intimidation of those who refused to vote Democratic in general elections, it fully abolished the poll tax that had further restricted white turnout in presidential elections. There was some expansion of black voter registration, though as in all areas of the South east of the Mississippi River this was an urban phenomenon. Despite Truman announcing as early as May 1950 that he would not run again for President in 1952, it had become clear that South Carolina's rulers remained disenchanted with the national Democratic Party.
It was planned that Eisenhower would run on an independent ticket with former state Governor James F. Byrnes, who regained his Senate seat in the 1950 primary, with the ultimate goal of the entire South controlling national politics as an unpledged electoral slate. Despite some criticism of his policies, Byrnes created an organization named "Independents for Eisenhower", aimed at allowing white Southerners to leave the Democratic Party without embracing the still-feared "Party of Lincoln"; these would join with a small number of remnant Republicans to form a fusion slate for Eisenhower – who by the time this plan was developed in September had won the Republican nomination. In addition to Byrnes, Dixiecrat candidate Thurmond endorsed Eisenhower, foreshadowing his switch to the Republican Party to support the much more conservative Barry Goldwater a dozen years later. Further sentiment against the national Democratic Party resulted from fears that the Supreme Court would – as it did in the legendary Brown v. Board of Education case a year and a half after the election – rule South Carolina's de jure segregated school system a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment.
From the time Eisenhower announced he would run on an independent slate nominated by the many dissident Democrats, he gained substantial support, most in the small black-majority rural counties where only whites voted. However, polls always had Stevenson staying ahead of Eisenhower, in the end he carried the state by a small majority of five thousand votes. Stevenson's victory was due to his ability to maintain two- and three-to-one majorities in the poor white upcountry counties that had given substantial opposition to Thurmond, along with a substantial majority of the twenty thousand or so blacks who are believed to have voted; the Palmetto State was won by Stevenson and running mate Alabama Senator John Sparkman, with 50.72 percent of the popular vote, against Columbia University President Eisenhower and California Senator Richard Nixon, with 49.28 percent of the popular vote. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Aiken County voted for a Democratic presidential candidate
1796 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1796 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place between November 4 and December 7, 1796, as part of the 1796 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President. During this election, South Carolina cast nine electoral votes for former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson
1936 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1936 United States presidential election in South Carolina was held on November 3, 1936. The state voters chose eight electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted for Democratic Party candidate and incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt, over Republican Party candidate incumbent Governor of Kansas Alf Landon. Roosevelt, who won the state by a landslide margin of 97.14 percent, carried all counties with over ninety percent of the vote, his 98.57 percent of the popular vote is the highest for any presidential candidate in South Carolina since popular voting was first used in the 1868 election
2004 United States Senate election in South Carolina
The 2004 United States Senate election in South Carolina was held on November 2, 2004. Longtime incumbent Democratic U. S. Senator Fritz Hollings retired, Republican Representative Jim DeMint, won the open seat. Ben Frasier, former congressional aide Inez Tenenbaum, South Carolina Superintendent of Education David Beasley, former governor Charlie Condon, State Attorney General Orly Benny Davis, businesswoman Jim DeMint, U. S. Representative Mark McBride, Mayor of Myrtle Beach Thomas Ravenel, businessman The Senate election two years earlier in 2002 did not have a primary election because the South Carolina Republicans were more preoccupied with the gubernatorial contest, despite having the first open senate seat in 40 years; the retirement of Democratic Senator Fritz Hollings gave the Republicans an opportunity to pick up the seat and with no other interesting positions up for election in 2004, a crowded field developed in the Republican primary. Furthermore, the Republicans were motivated by having President Bush at the top of the ticket enabling them to ride his coattails to victory.
Former Governor David Beasley, from the Pee Dee, entered the race and emerged as the frontrunner because of his support from the evangelical voters. However, during his term as governor from 1994 to 1998 he had angered the electorate by proposing to remove the Confederate Naval Jack from the dome of the statehouse and by being against the adoption of a state lottery to provide for college scholarships. Both positions led to the loss of his re-election in 1998 and the issues continued to trouble him in the Senate race; the battle for second place in the primary was between Upstate congressman, Jim DeMint, Charleston developer Thomas Ravenel. DeMint was able to squeak out a second-place finish because Charlie Condon, a former Attorney General of South Carolina, split the Lowcountry vote with Ravenel thus providing DeMint the margin he needed. In addition, while many voters were attracted to the Ravenel campaign and felt that he had a future in politics, they believed that he should set his sights on a less high-profile office first before trying to become senator.
Resigned to defeat, Ravenel endorsed DeMint in the runoff election. In the runoff election on June 22, 2004, DeMint scored a surprising victory over Beasley. Ravenel's endorsement of DeMint proved crucial as the Lowcountry counties went for the Representative from the Upstate. Beasley had burnt too many bridges while governor and was unable to increase his share of the vote in the runoff. Jim DeMint, U. S. Representative Inez Tenenbaum, South Carolina Superintendent of Education Tee Ferguson Efia Nwangaza Rebekah E. Sutherland Patrick Tyndall DeMint entered the general election campaign weakened from the primary fight, having spent most of his campaign funds, he stressed to the voters that he would follow conservative principles and provide an important Republican vote in the divided Senate. Democrats fared poorly in statewide elections in South Carolina, so Tenenbaum tried to make the race about issues rather than party identification, she attacked DeMint's support of the FairTax proposal because it would increase the sales tax by 23%.
The election victory by DeMint cemented South Carolina's shift to the Republican column as the best candidate the Democrats could offer was soundly defeated by the typical 10 point margin. List of United States Senators from South Carolina Harrell, Peter E.. "SOUTH CAROLINA: Debate Poses Question of Who Has Momentum". The New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2008. Graham, Michael. "The Revolutionary". National Review Online. Retrieved February 1, 2008