Minsk is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislač and the Nyamiha Rivers. As the national capital, Minsk has a special administrative status in Belarus and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region and Minsk District; the population in January 2018 was 1,982,444. Minsk is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States and seat of its Executive Secretary; the earliest historical references to Minsk date to the 11th century, when it was noted as a provincial city within the Principality of Polotsk. The settlement developed on the rivers. In 1242, Minsk became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it received town privileges in 1499. From 1569, it was a capital of the Minsk Voivodeship, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, it was part of a region annexed by the Russian Empire in 1793, as a consequence of the Second Partition of Poland. From 1919 to 1991, after the Russian Revolution, Minsk was the capital of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, in the Soviet Union.
Minsk will host the 2019 European Games. The Old East Slavic name of the town was Мѣньскъ; the direct continuation of this name in Belarusian is Miensk. The resulting form of the name, was taken over both in Russian and Polish, under the influence of Russian it became official in Belarusian. However, some Belarusian-speakers continue to use Miensk as their preferred name for the city; when Belarus was under Polish rule, the names Mińsk Litewski'Minsk of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania' and Mińsk Białoruski'Minsk in Belarus' were used to differentiate this place name from Mińsk Mazowiecki'Minsk in Masovia'. In modern Polish, Mińsk without an attribute refers to the city in Belarus, about 50 times bigger than Mińsk Mazowiecki; the area of today's Minsk was settled by the Early East Slavs by the 9th century AD. The Svislach River valley was the settlement boundary between two Early East Slav tribes – the Krivichs and Dregovichs. By 980, the area was incorporated into the early medieval Principality of Polotsk, one of the earliest East Slav principalities of Old Rus' state.
Minsk was first mentioned in the name form Měneskъ in the Primary Chronicle for the year 1067 in association with the Battle on the River Nemiga. 1067 is now accepted as the founding year of Minsk. City authorities consider the date of 3 March 1067, to be the exact founding date of the city, though the town had existed for some time by then; the origin of the name is unknown but there are several theories. In the early 12th century, the Principality of Polotsk disintegrated into smaller fiefs; the Principality of Minsk was established by one of the Polotsk dynasty princes. In 1129, the Principality of Minsk was annexed by the dominant principality of Kievan Rus. By 1150, Minsk rivaled Polotsk as the major city in the former Principality of Polotsk; the princes of Minsk and Polotsk were engaged in years of struggle trying to unite all lands under the rule of Polotsk. Minsk escaped the Mongol invasion of Rus in 1237–1239. In 1242, Minsk became a part of the expanding Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it joined peacefully and local elites enjoyed high rank in the society of the Grand Duchy.
In 1413, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland entered into a union. Minsk became the centre of Minsk Voivodship. In 1441, the Polish-Lithuanian prince and future king Casimir IV included Minsk in a list of cities enjoying certain privileges, in 1499, during the reign of his son, Alexander I Jagiellon, Minsk received town privileges under Magdeburg law. In 1569, after the Union of Lublin, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland merged into a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Afterwards, a Polish community including government clerks and craftsmen settled in Minsk. By the middle of the 16th century, Minsk was an important economic and cultural centre in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, it was an important centre for the Eastern Orthodox Church. Following the Union of Brest, both the Uniate church and the Roman Catholic Church increased in influence. In 1655, Minsk was conquered by troops of Tsar Alexei of Russia. Russians governed the city until 1660 when it was regained by King of Poland.
By the end of the Polish-Russian War, Minsk had just 300 houses. The second wave of devastation occurred during the Great Northern War, when Minsk was occupied in 1708 and 1709 by the army of Charles XII of Sweden and by the army of Peter the Great; the last decades of the Polish rule involved decline or slow development, since Minsk had become a small provincial town of little economic or military significance. Minsk was annexed by Russia in 1793 as a consequence of the Second Partition of Poland. In 1796, it became the centre of the Minsk Governorate. All of the initial street names were replaced by Russian names, though the spelling of the city's name remained unchanged, it was occupied by the Grande Armée during French invasion of Russia in 1812. Throughout the 19th century, the city continued to grow and improve. In the 1830s, major streets and squares of Minsk were paved. A first public library was opened in 1836, a fire brigade was put into operation in 1837. In 1838, the first
East Pomeranian Offensive
The East Pomeranian Strategic Offensive operation was an offensive by the Soviet Red Army against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. It took place in Pomerania and West Prussia from 10 February – 4 April 1945; the operation happened in four phases: Konitz-Köslin Offensive Operation 24 February – 6 March 1945 Danzig Offensive Operation 7–31 March 1945 Arnswalde-Kolberg Offensive Operation 1–18 March 1945 Altdamm Offensive Operation 18 March – 4 April 1945 It was the East Pomeranian Offensive that prevented Zhukov from reaching Berlin in February, since it became a priority to clear German forces from Pomerania first. The 2nd Belorussian Front—under Konstantin Rokossovsky—had been tasked with advancing westward north of the Vistula River toward Pomerania and the major port city of Danzig, with the primary aim of protecting the right flank of Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front, pushing towards Berlin. During the East Prussian Offensive, Rokossovsky was ordered to wheel directly north toward Elbing.
This left substantial German forces intact in Pomerania, where they threatened the right flank of Zhukov's formations. As a result, once the initial phase of the East Prussian Offensive was over, the 2nd Belorussian Front was redeployed with the intention of attacking westwards into Pomerania, eliminating the possibility of a German counter-offensive; the need to secure the flanks delayed the Soviets' final push towards Berlin, planned for February, until April. Joseph Stalin's decision to delay the push toward Berlin from February to April has been a subject of some controversy among both the Soviet generals and military historians, with one side arguing that the Soviets had a chance of securing Berlin much quicker and with much lower losses in February, the other arguing that the danger of leaving large German formations on the flanks could have resulted in a successful German counter-attack and prolonged the war further: the Germans did in fact mount a surprise counter-attack in Pomerania in mid-February, Operation Solstice.
The delay did, allow the Soviets to occupy significant parts of Austria in the Vienna Offensive. As early as 13 February, German intelligence services had deduced that the Soviets would seek to clear Pomerania before advancing on Berlin; the 2nd Army—defending a large and exposed sector running through Pomerania eastward toward the edge of East Prussia at Elbing — sought permission to withdraw, but this was denied by Adolf Hitler. Graudenz, on the Vistula, was surrounded on 18 February. Army Group Vistula 2nd Army XXXXVI Panzer Corps VII Panzer Corps XXVII Panzer Corps XXIII Corps XVIII Mountain Corps Fortress garrisons of Graudenz and Danzig Eastern flank of 3rd Panzer Army III SS Panzer Corps X SS CorpsThe corps of the Second Army were understrength by this time, being composed of fragmentary or ad hoc units; the 3rd Panzer Army had been rebuilt using the korps of the formed 11th SS Panzer Army, the original formation having been destroyed in Lithuania and East Prussia, where its remnants were now defending Königsberg.
2nd Belorussian Front Eastern flank of 1st Belorussian Front 3rd Shock Army 1st Guards Tank Army 2nd Guards Tank Army Rokossovsky opened the offensive on 24 February using the fresh troops of Kozlov's 19th Army, but after an initial advance of some 20 km they were halted by intense German resistance. On 26 February, he inserted the 3rd Guards Tank Corps east of Neustettin, where they achieved a penetration of 40 km, relieved Kozlov of command; the 3rd Guards Tank Corps broke through at Baldenburg, while Neustettin on the Front's left flank fell to the 3rd Guards Cavalry Corps on 27 February. Weiß had hurriedly assembled the VII Panzer Corps, including the remnants of the 7th Panzer Division, at Rummelsburg to threaten 19th Army's flank. However, after a Soviet breakthrough at Köslin on 2 March, the 2nd Army found itself cut off from the rest of its Army Group. Zhukov's right wing—a grouping of the 3rd Shock Army and 1st and 2nd Guards Tank Armies—went over to the offensive on 1 March, striking northward with the main force concentrated at Reetz.
The entire left wing of 3rd Panzer Army was cut off by their breakthrough, after Guderian refused Raus' request for withdrawal. On 4 March, forward Soviet tank units reached the Baltic, the German forces in Pomerania were trapped in a series of encirclements; the 2nd Army began to fall back on the Danzig fortified area, while the X SS Corps of the 3rd Panzer Army had been surrounded at Dramburg. Rokossovksy opened the second phase of his offensive on March 6; the 2nd Shock Army threatened to cut off the defending forces in the fortress of Marienburg, evacuated two days while in the east Elbing fell on 10 March. The defence of Marienburg was conducted by a Kampfgruppe under the nominal control of the staff of the 7th Infantry Division, including marine, SS and other units. Weiß, having warned that the Elbing pocket could not be held, was relieved of command on 9 March and replaced by Dietrich von Saucken; the troops of the German 2nd Army withdrew in disarray into Danzig and Gdingen, where the 2nd Belorussian Front besieged them.
Zhukov's forces meanwhile, cleared the remainder of 3rd Panzer Army from the east bank of the lower O
Alexey Rodin (general)
Alexey Grigoryevich Rodin was a Soviet Army colonel general and Hero of the Soviet Union. Born in 1902 to a peasant family, Rodin was drafted into the Red Army in 1920. After fighting in the Russian Civil War, he became an officer and rose to command 50th Rifle Corps Armored and Mechanized forces during the Winter War. After the end of the war, Rodin became deputy commander of the 24th Tank Division and fought in the Baltic Operation and Leningrad Strategic Defensive. Given command of the 124th Tank Brigade in September 1941, he led the unit during battles around Leningrad and in the Lyuban Offensive Operation. From June 1942, Rodin led the unit during Operation Uranus. For its actions, the corps became the 1st Guards Tank Corps and Rodin received the title Hero of the Soviet Union. After Stalingrad, he was promoted to command the 2nd Tank Army and led it during Operation Kutuzov and the Battle of the Dnieper, but was dismissed due to lack of progress and heavy losses incurred in the army's advance.
In September 1943, Rodin became commander of the Western Front Armored and Mechanized Forces, participating in Operation Suvorov, Operation Bagration and the East Prussian Offensive. Postwar, he became head of the Directorate of Combat Training of the Armored and Mechanized Forces before retirement in 1954. Rodin was born on 17 February 1902 in Zuyevo village in Tver Governorate to a peasant family. In April 1920, he was drafted into the Red Army. Rodin fought in the Russian Civil War in the Caucasus, he served with a separate cavalry division in the 9th Army. In December 1920, the division was reorganized into the 2nd Cavalry Regiment of the 31st Rifle Division, where Rodin served as a senior clerk; the division took part in the suppression of partisan groups in the Caucasus. In February 1921, Rodin became adjutant of the escort unit of the 9th Army's Revolutionary Military Council. After the end of the fighting in August 1922, Rodin became a cadet at the Vladikavkaz Combat Arms Courses. In January 1923 he was enrolled in the Krasnodar Red Army Courses and the Moscow Artillery School in August.
In September 1926, Rodin graduated from the Moscow Artillery School. He joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in that year, he was sent to the Ural Military District, where he became chief of intelligence and communications for the 9th Horse Artillery Division. In October 1927, he was transferred to the 45th Artillery Regiment of the 45th Rifle Division and became an assistant battery commander. Subsequently, Rodin became commander of a battery. In June 1931, he became commander of the 45th Rifle Division motorized detachment. In February 1932, Rodin became a battalion commander in the 45th Artillery Regiment. In January 1933, he was sent to the Military Academy of Motorization, he received the rank of Major in 1936. In 1937, he graduated from the Military Academy of Mechanization and Motorization and transferred to the tank troops. From December 1937, he was the chief of staff of the 9th Mechanized Brigade. In 1938, he was promoted to colonel. From 1939, he was head of the Mechanized Troops of the 50th Rifle Corps.
He fought in the Winter War with the corps. On 23 January, Rodin prevented a panic in the rear area of the 138th Rifle Division and organized the repulsion of a Finnish counterattack. In July 1940, he was given command of the 5th Tank Regiment of the 3rd Tank Division. In December 1940, he transferred to command the 2nd Light Tank Brigade in the Leningrad Military District. In March 1941, he became deputy commander of the 24th Tank Division; the division fought in the Baltic Operation and the Leningrad Strategic Defensive. Rodin's division defended the Luga defensive line for one month. In September 1941, he became commander of the 124th Tank Brigade. In February 1942, the brigade transferred to the 54th Army at Volkhov and fought in the unsuccessful Lyuban Offensive Operation. From May, Rodin was the deputy commander of the 54th Army Mechanized Troops. On 3 May, he was promoted to major general. In June 1942, he became commander of the 26th Tank Corps; the corps captured Kalach on 9 November. The corps became the 1st Guards Tank Corps and received the honorific "Don" for its actions.
On 7 February 1943, Rodin was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin for his leadership of the corps. After the end of the Battle of Stalingrad in February, Rodin became commander of the 2nd Tank Army, he received a promotion to lieutenant general on 4 February. During February and March, the army fought in the unsuccessful offensive to capture Sevsk and Smolensk. In July, the army fought in Operation Kutuzov; the army fought in the Chernigov-Pripyat Offensive during the Battle of the Dnieper during August and September. On 2 August due to the lack of progress and heavy losses Rodin was dismissed as commander of the 2nd Tank Amy and was replaced by Lieutenant General Semen Bogdanov, he was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War 1st class on 27 August. On 9 September, Rodin became commander of the mechanized forces of the Western Front, he participated in Operation Suvorov. In April 1944, the Western Front became the 3rd Belorussian Front. During the summer of 1944 he fought in Operation Bagration.
Rodin was awarded the Order of Kutuzov 1st class on 3 July. On 15 July 1944, he was promoted to colonel general. In the spring of 1945, Rodin participated in the East Prussian Offensive. After the end of the war, Rodin continued to serve in the army; until July 1945, he led the mechanized forces of the Baranovichi Military District. In March 1947, Rodin became the command
Puchavičy (Minsk Region)
Puchavičy is a village in Pukhavichy Raion, Minsk Voblast, capital of Puchavičy Selsoviet. In December 1926, 929 Jews lived in 43 percent of the total population; the Germans occupied the town at the end of June 1941. The Jewish population were murdered in 1941. Anatol Volny - was a Belarusian artist, poet and journalist
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Rechytsa is a city in the Gomel Region of Belarus. It is center of Rechytsa District; the city is situated at the mouth of Rechytsa River, flowing into the Dnieper. As of 2005 the population was 65,532. Rechytsa is one of the oldest towns of Belarus. First settlements in this region are dated back to the epoch of mesolite. On the area was inhabited by the Dregovichi tribe; the town was first mentioned in the Novgorod chronicle in 1213 as a town of the Chernihiv Principality. Rechytsa was ruled by Kiev and Turov Grand Dukes. At the time of Gediminas reign the town was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Rečyca as well as Orsha, Mogilev, Stary Bychaw and Rahachow formed a well-developed frontier defense system at the River Dniepr. 1392–1430 – the reign of Grand Duke Vytautas. He constructed a fortified castle with five towers in the area of the detinets on the bank of the Dniepr. At that time the town had three fortification lines in the form of water trenches and ramparts with bastions. In the area between the fortress and the second fortification line there was a territory for rich mansions, Church of the Order of Friars Preachers and a trade square.
The town inhabitants settled lived between the third fortification lines. The construction of the town had clear right-angled forms. In 1561 the town was granted the Magdeburg rights. In the middle of the 17th century Rechytsa was destroyed during the Cossack war of 1648–1651. After the Truce of Anrusovo the town became a part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1793 Rechytsa became an used center of the Minsk province; the first permanent town plan of Rechytsa was approved in 1800. During the Napoleon Wars in 1812 the town was a temporary residence of the Minsk governor. Rechytsa had one of the oldest Jewish communities in Belarus, the town was a center for Chabad Hasidic Jews. In 1648, Cossacks murdered many of its Jews; the town's Jewish population in 1766 numbered 133, increasing to 1,268 in 1800, 2,080 in 1847. By 1897 the town's Jewish population grew to 5,334, which constituted 57 percent of the general population. On the eve of World War I the Jewish population is thought to have numbered some 7,500.
Rabbi Shalom Dovber Schneersohn of Rechitsa led the Kapust branch of the Chabad movement until his death in 1908. During World War Two, the Germans occupied the town on August 23, 1941 and in November all 3,000 remaining Jews were gathered in a ghetto. On November 25 the Jews were murdered by the Nazis. Following the war, a few Jews returned to Rechytsa; the town had no synagogue, in 1970 the Jewish population was estimated at about 1,000. In the 1990s most Jews of the town emigrated to the West. Early 1900s? – 1.77 thousand 2005 – 65.5 thousand 2006 – 65.4 thousand 2007 – 65.3 thousand 2010 – 64.7 thousand Rechytsa products are well known in the CIS member-states as well as in other countries. Rechyca produces watercrafts, beer, which are exported to England, the Netherlands and several African countries. Alexander Isachov, notable Belarusian artist Yefim Kopelyan Vladimir Matyushenko Vasil Kiryienka Official site Official site Rechytsa, Belarus at JewishGen
Pavlograd is an industrial city in eastern Ukraine, located within the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. Administratively, Pavlohrad is incorporated as the town of oblast significance and serves as the administrative center of Pavlohrad Raion which it does not belong to, its population is 107,742 . The rivers of Vovcha, Kocherha flow through Pavlohrad; the area of the city is 59.3 square kilometres. There are 1 lyceum in the city. Pavlohrad is one of the oldest settlements in Dnipropetrovsk oblast; the first references to it are from the 17th century. At the beginning of the 1770s Zaporozhian Cossack Matvii Khizhnyak built winter quarters, which soon became known as sloboda Matviivka. In 1779 Matveevka was renamed to Luhanske, as the latter became headquarters of the Luhansk pikemen regiment headed by M. I. Golinishchev-Kutuzov. With the establishment of Yekaterinoslav Viceroyalty, named in honor of Paul І, became a part of this administrative unit as a district town. In 1784 Pavlohrad received city status. There were 2419 inhabitants in the city at the end of 18th century.
The citizens of Pavlograd lived in daub. The first stone building was Svyato-Vosnesensky Cathedral on Soborna ploshcha; the first blazon of the city was affirmed on July 29, 1811, the second one on September 26, 1979. The first citizens were Kalmiussky Palanki and demobilized military; the city plan was created by Scottish architect W. Geste and was affirmed by emperor Nicholas I on July 31, 1831. In 1871 local merchant A. K. Shalin was elected the first head of the city; the central street was named after him. Merchant of ІІ Guild A. V. Permanin was elected as city governor in 1892. Under his leadership the city started to develop rapidly: a lot of churches, barracks, gymnasiums and plants were built. In 1896, "Earl's Theatre" was built by the Golenishchev-Kutuzov family. In the 1870s a railway was built between St. Simferopol, passing through Pavlohrad. In 1930 there was an uprising against Soviet rule in Pavlohrad. From 1780 to 1941, a significant Jewish community existed in the city; the pre-Holocaust Jewish population was 4,000.
The city was destroyed during Nazi occupation in 1941. During the Holocaust, a concentration camp was located in Pavlohrad and a large part of the community died during the war and during the mass executions; the Pavlohrad Jewish cemetery contains not only Jewish, but Christian burials, which were agreed to by the leaders of the local Jewish community in 1995. On May 22, 2011, it was reported that unknown persons desecrated the cemetery in the town - tombstones were turned over and broken as what seems to be an anti-Semitic act; the city is home to Pavlohrad Mechanical Plant, established in December 1963 as a specialized production facility of the Plant no. 586. PMZ is a factory dedicated to assembly and production of solid-fueled rocket engines and missiles. By 1975 PMZ became the largest solid-rocket factory within the Ministry of General Machine Building of USSR. PMZ made fuel tanks for booster rockets and plastic ICBM rocket motor casings. Pavlohrad is twinned with: Lubsko, Poland San Sebastián, Spain The murder of the Jews of Pavlohrad during World War II, at Yad Vashem website