Third attack on Anzac Cove
The third attack on Anzac Cove was an engagement during the Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War. The attack was conducted by the forces of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, against the forces of the British Empire defending the cove. On 25 April 1915, the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps landed on the western side of the Gallipoli Peninsula, at what thereafter became known as Anzac Cove; the first Turkish attempts to recapture the ANZAC beachhead were two unsuccessful attacks in April. Just over two weeks the Turks had gathered a force of 42,000 men to conduct their second assault against the ANZAC's 17,300 men; the ANZAC commanders had no indication of the impending attack until the day before, when British aircraft reported a build-up of troops opposite the ANZAC positions. The Turkish assault began in the early hours of 19 May directed at the centre of the ANZAC position, it had failed by midday. The ANZACs had less than seven hundred casualties. Expecting an imminent continuation of the battle, three Allied brigades arrived within twenty-four hours to reinforce the beachhead, but no subsequent attack materialised.
Instead, on 20 and 24 May two truces were declared to collect the wounded and bury the dead in no man's land. The Turks never succeeded in capturing the bridgehead. On 25 April, at the start of the Gallipoli Campaign, the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, commanded by Lieutenant-General William Birdwood, landed at Beach Z to become known as Anzac Cove; the beachhead was not a large position. Including two isolated outposts in the north, No.1 Post and No.2 Post, it stretched south only 2 miles to Chatham's Post, at the most had a depth of 750 yards. Other sources put the dimensions as 1.5 miles long, 1,000 yards deep. Two of the central positions, Quinn's and Courtnay's Posts, had a steep cliff to the rear of the ANZAC trenches. In places the Turkish trenches were dug as close as ten yards from the Allied lines; the First Turkish counter-attack on Anzac Cove in April, by the 19th Infantry Division commanded by Colonel Mustafa Kemal, had pierced the ANZAC line but was repulsed. On 5 May the Turkish Army commander, the German officer Otto Liman von Sanders, ordered his troops to adopt a defensive posture.
However, the Turkish General Staff considered the ANZAC beachhead to be such a precarious position that a small Turkish success would "drive them back into the sea". Another consideration was that eliminating the ANZAC position would release four or five divisions to move against the British and French beachhead at Cape Helles; the Ottoman Turkish Army of the First World War was badly underestimated by the Allies, during the war it would defeat forces from the British and Russian armies. Before the landings, the Gallipoli peninsula was defended by several divisions, based on infantry battalion strong-points overlooking the potential landing beaches. By April 1915, they had 230 mobile artillery pieces sited to defend the peninsula. All the Turkish Army commanders, down to company commander level, were experienced, being veterans of the Balkan Wars, but their command structure was weaker at the non commissioned officer level, with only one NCO in each company. One advantage that the Turkish Army had over the British supplied forces was their hand grenades, which were not used by the British forces.
The British acknowledged that the Turkish snipers' "marksmanship was superior" to that of the Allies. The assault was under the direct command of Major-General Essad Pasha; the plan was to gather the assault force secretly behind the Turkish lines on 18 May. At 03:30 19 May, while it was still dark, the Turkish forces would attack all along the ANZAC perimeter; the aim was to back into the sea. To maintain surprise the attack would not be preceded by an artillery bombardment; this was something. The signal to start the attack was supposed to have been the detonation of a large mine at Quinn's Post, in the centre of the ANZAC lines, but by 19 May the tunnel for the mine had not been completed; the attacking force, from north to south, comprised the 19th Division, 5th Division, 2nd Division, 16th Division and the now independent 77th Infantry Regiment. In total this was around 42,000 men; the 2nd and 16th Divisions were fresh, having just arrived on the peninsula, while the other two had taken part in some of the previous counter-attacks at Anzac Cove.
By now the ANZAC Corps comprised two divisions, with 43 artillery pieces. The New Zealand and Australian Division defended the northern half of the beachhead, while the 1st Australian Division defended the southern half; the perimeter was divided into four sections, from north to south, the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade in No.4 Section, the 1st Light Horse Brigade and the 4th Australian Brigade in No.3 Section, the 1st Australian Brigade in No.2 Section, the 3rd Australian Brigade in No.1 Section. The understrength 2nd Australian Brigade, the only corps reserve, was held where Shrapnel Valley met Monash Valley, was o
Battle for Baby 700
The Battle for Baby 700, was an engagement fought during the Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War. Between the forces of the British Empire and the Ottoman Turkish Empire. On 25 April 1915, the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, conducted an amphibious landing on the Gallipoli Peninsula; the landing at Anzac Cove was supposed to capture Baby 700, on the third ridge from the Aegean coast on the first day, but Turkish opposition being stronger than expected foiled their plans and they were forced to form a defensive perimeter on the second ridge. Having defended against a Turkish counter-attack on 27 April, they realised it would strengthen their position if they captured Baby 700; the operation was given to the New Zealand and Australian Division, their strongest formation, supported by the 1st Royal Naval Brigade. The failure did not stop the ANZACs from trying again. In August 1915, in conjunction with the Landing at Suvla, they attacked again; this time with some limited success, but the deception raids notably at The Nek and Lone Pine, resulted in severe casualties.
Baby 700 is a hill in the Sari Bair range, between Battleship Hill. It was named after its supposed height above sea level; the most direct route to there from the present ANZAC lines was a distance of 350 yards from Russell's Top through The Nek, a twenty yards piece of high ground between Malone's Gully to the north and Monash Valley to the south. During the Landing at Anzac Cove Baby 700, was supposed to have been secured by the 3rd Australian Brigade; however heavy Turkish resistance, had forced the brigade commander, Colonel Ewen Sinclair-Maclagan, to instead stop and form a defence line on the Second Ridge. This left Baby 700 in Turkish hands, providing them with a dominant position overlooking the ANZAC beachhead; that and their other positions at Russell's Top, The Nek and the head of Monash Valley, provided them with a distinct advantage, over the ANZACs. To such an extent that the ANZAC posts along the south-west side of Monash Valley, had Turkish trenches to their front and rear; when they landed over the night of 25/26 April, the 4th Australian Brigade had occupied the posts along Monash Valley.
The men defending Quinn's Post were overlooked from the Chessboard on the left, from the German officers' Ridge to the right and the Turkish lines were only fifty yards to their front. While the men at Pope's Hill on the opposite slope of Monash Valley, had Turkish positions along Dead Man's Ridge only one hundred yards to their rear. At this early stage of the campaign the ANZACs lines were a series of intermittent trenches and posts with large gaps between them which allowed Turkish snipers to daily infiltrate their rear areas. To make the positions around Monash Valley safe it was decided that Baby 700 and those positions overlooking the valley had to be captured; the initial plans called for a large scale assault on 30 April, that would capture of all of 400 Plateau in the south, along Mortar Ridge to Baby 700 along the seaward slopes to the coast in the north. The 1st New Zealand Brigade, in the north, the 4th Australian Brigade, in the centre, the 1st Australian Brigade, in the south, would carry out the assault.
Brigadier-General Harold Walker, commanding the 1st Australian Brigade, knowing the country and the state of his troops, was doubtful it would succeed. He asked the commander of the 1st Australian Division, Major-General William Bridges, to come forward and observe the situation for himself. Bridges agreed and advised the corps commander Lieutenant-General William Birdwood and after a staff conference the operation as it stood was cancelled; the attack was modified the objective was now to capture Baby 700, the New Zealand and Australian Division, commanded by Major-General Alexander Godley, would conduct the assault at 19:30 on 2 May. The 4th Australian Brigade, were responsible for capturing the territory from Quinn's Post to the summit of Baby 700. At the same time, the 1st New Zealand Brigade would capture the territory between the summit and the sea to the north. A naval gunnery and field artillery bombardment of Baby 700 would begin thirty minutes before the start of the attack. Followed ten minutes by the corps machine-guns opening fire.
At 19:15 the bombardment changed targets onto Chunuk Bair. The approach route for the attacking troops was up Monash Valley; the 1st Royal Naval Brigade would support the attacking forces. From north to south the initial assault battalions were the New Zealand Otago, the 13th Australian and the 16th Australian. At 19:15 as the bombardment lifted, the 16th Battalion climbed out of Monash Valley and as they cleared the ridge, came under heavy Turkish small arms fire, from The Nek and the Chessboard, to their rear. Advancing a few yards the battalion started digging in, extending the forward trench of Quinn's Post. Another section of the battalion occupied an abandoned Turkish trench five yards from the opposite crest, the rest of the battalion fought and extended their trenches through the night; however supplying the forward troops was difficult during the night and impossible during daylight, with the Turkish machine-guns firing from their rear. At daylight the Australians charged another Turkish trench about eighty yards, Turkish machine-guns on Baby 700 opened fire and forced them back.
The Turks started moving forwards towards the Australians trench, when around 05:00 a shell from an ANZAC battery landed behind them and part of the 16th Battalion withdrew back to their start position. The 13th Battalion in the centre, could only advance in single file due to the nature of the country; the head of the battalio
Battle of Hill 60 (Gallipoli)
The Battle of Hill 60 was the last major assault of the Gallipoli Campaign. It was launched on 21 August 1915 to coincide with the attack on Scimitar Hill made from the Suvla front by Major-General H. de B. De Lisle's Frederick Stopford having been replaced in the few days previous. Hill 60 was a low knoll at the northern end of the Sari Bair range which dominated the Suvla landing. Capturing this hill along with Scimitar Hill would have allowed the Anzac and Suvla landings to be securely linked. Two major attacks were made by the first on 21 August and the second on 27 August; the first assault resulted in limited gains around the lower parts of the hill, but the Ottoman defenders managed to hold the heights after the attack was continued by a fresh Australian battalion on 22 August. Reinforcements were committed, but the second major assault on 27 August faired and although fighting around the summit continued over the course of three days, at the end of the battle the Ottoman forces remained in possession of the summit.
Hill 60 commanded the low ground occupied by a thin line of outposts between the Allied forces at Anzac and Suvla. The hill was to be taken as part of an attack that stretched over a two-mile front from Hill 60 through Hetman Chair, Hill 70 and Oglu Tepe; the initial attacking force was based on troops allocated to Major-General Herbert Cox by Lieutenant-General William Birdwood: Canterbury Mounted Rifles and the Otago Mounted Rifles of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade 13th and 14th Battalions of the Australian 4th Infantry Brigade, 2 Gurkha battalions of the 29th Indian Brigade of the 10th Indian Division, 5th Battalion of the Irish Connaught Rangers, 10th Hampshires and 4th South Wales Borderers of the British 29th Division. The initial plan allocated the primary objective of Hill 60 to the New Zealand Mounted Rifles. To their left, the Connaught Rangers were to take the water wells at Kabak Kuyu and the Gurkhas the wells at Susak Kuyu. To the right of the NZMR, troops of the Australian 4th Infantry Brigade supported by the 10th Hampshires were to launch a feint attack, on the spur just above the knoll itself, to draw off Turkish reserves.
On the morning of 21 August, it was decided that the New Zealand artillery support, planned to pre-empt the attack, would be diverted to support the Suvla offensive. The start time for the advance on Hill 60 was put back by 30 minutes, by which time it was expected that the artillery would be available to support it; as a consequence Hill 60, the area around it, received no bombardment and the attackers were guaranteed to face severe opposition because the Turks were alerted. The NZMR moved out at 3:30 with a 400-metre approach march to the Ottoman positions. A number of Turks, on seeing the advancing lines abandoned their front trench, ran back to their rear trenches and, by 3:45, the New Zealanders began occupying the forward position. At 4 pm, the NZMR were in their first objective but neither the Indian Brigade on their left nor 4 Aust on their right were up with them though the Connaught Rangers had secured their first objective, the wells at Kabak. Brigadier-General Andrew Hamilton Russell, the NZMR commander, ordered the Australians to push forward and requested that the Connaughts assist on the left flank.
Although only'A' Company was ordered forward, the Connaughts had become mixed and the charge was made up from a crowd of men from all the companies, "mad with the lust for battle". Passing the first line trench on the west of the hill, with Turks running before them, the Connaughts were stopped by heavy rifle and machine gun fire from the crest as well as accurate artillery fire; the survivors consolidated their position in the first-line trench, were relieved by the Gurkhas from 5:15, leaving the Connaughts to concentrate on securing and fortifying the wells. The right flank was still having difficulties. From Hill 100 down to Hill 60, the Turkish trenches and artillery commanded the Kaiajik Dere valley which 4 Aust and the Hampshires had to cross; those that survived the crossing had dug in at 5 pm. An artillery shell had set undergrowth on fire; the Connaughts joined up with the NZMR to their right by 7 pm, but there was still a gap between the NZMR and the Australian 4th Infantry Brigade.
On 22 August, the attack was reinforced by the Australian 18th Battalion, part of the newly arrived Australian 2nd Division. The men were fresh and healthy, in stark contrast to the veteran troops, but were inexperienced and ill-equipped. Attacking only with the bayonet, they suffered 383 casualties, out of 750 men, in their dawn attack on Hill 60; the assault resumed on 27 August and further progress was made up the slope, but the summit of the hill was still held by the Ottomans. On the evening of 27 August 1915, the 9th Light Horse Regiment, of the Australian 3rd Light Horse Brigade, were sent in as reinforcements. One wave of 75 men led by the new commander, Lieutenant Colonel Carew Reynell, lost its way and was caught in the open by Ottoman machine guns, with many soldiers and Reynell being killed; the 10th Light Horse Regiment was committed to the fighting, on 28 August, some trenches at the summit were captured but the Ottomans clung to the vital northern face which overlooked Suvla. Attacking and counter-attacking continued until this final assault on Hill 60 ended on 29 August 1915.
The attack on Hill 60 was the last offensive action undertaken around Anzac by the Allies prior to the evacuation in December 1915. Historian Chris Coulthard-Clark describes the battle as a series of "...badly handled attacks which resulted in costly and confused fighting". The Allies were ultim
Battle of Mughar Ridge
The Battle of Mughar Ridge known by the British as the Action of El Mughar, took place on 13 November 1917 during the Pursuit phase of the Southern Palestine Offensive of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in the First World War. Fighting between the advancing Egyptian Expeditionary Force and the retreating Yildirim Army Group, occurred after the Battle of Beersheba and the Third Battle of Gaza. Operations occurred over an extensive area north of the Gaza to Beersheba line and west of the road from Beersheba to Jerusalem via Hebron. Strong Ottoman Army positions from Gaza to the foothills of the Judean Hills had held out against British Empire forces for a week after the Ottoman army was defeated at Beersheba, but the next day, 8 November, the main Ottoman base at Sheria was captured after two days' fighting and a British Yeomanry cavalry charge at Huj captured guns. The XXI Corps and Desert Mounted Corps attacked the Ottoman Eighth Army on an extended front from the Judean foothills across the Mediterranean coastal plain from 10 to 14 November.
Beginning on 10 November at Summil, an Ottoman counterattack by the Seventh Army was blocked by mounted units while on 13 November in the centre a cavalry charge assisted by infantry captured two fortified villages and on 14 November, to the north at Ayun Kara an Ottoman rearguard position was attacked by mounted units. Junction Station was captured and the Ottoman railway link with Jerusalem was cut; as a result of this victory the Ottoman Eighth Army withdrew behind the Nahr el Auja and their Seventh Army withdrew toward Jerusalem. After the capture of Beersheba on 31 October, from 1 to 7 November, strong Ottoman rearguard units at Tel el Khuweilfe in the southern Judean Hills, at Hareira and Sheria on the maritime plain, at Gaza close to the Mediterranean coast, held the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in heavy fighting. During this time the Ottoman Army was able to withdraw in good order; the delay caused by these rearguards may have compromised the British Empire advance as there was not much time to conclude military engagements in southern Palestine.
The winter rains were expected to start in the middle of the month and the black soil plain, firm, facilitating the movements of large military units would with the rains become a giant boggy quagmire, impassable for wheeled vehicles and heavy marching for infantry. With the rains the temperatures which were hot during the day and pleasant at night would drop to become piercingly cold. In 1917 the rains began on 19 November just as the infantry began their advance into the Judean Hills; the strength of the Seventh and Eighth Ottoman Armies, before the attack at Beersheba on 31 October, was estimated to have been 45,000 rifles, 1,500 sabres and 300 guns. This force had been made up of the Seventh Army's incomplete III Corps; the III Corps' 24th Infantry Division was at Kauwukah and its 27th Infantry Division was at Beersheba. Its 3rd Cavalry Division, as well as the 16th, 19th, 24th Infantry Divisions were in the area to the east of the Gaza–Beersheba line; the Seventh Army was commanded by Fevzi Çakmak.
The Eighth Army's XXII Corps was based at Gaza while its XX Corps was based at Sheria in the centre of the Gaza–Beersheba line. Supporting these two corps had been two reserve divisions; the Eighth Army was commanded by Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein and at that time had an estimated 2,894 officers. During 7–8 November rearguards of the Seventh and Eighth Ottoman Armies delayed the advance of Lieutenant General Harry Chauvel's Desert Mounted Corps, Major General Edmund Hakewill-Smith's 52nd Division, Major General Philip C Palin's 75th Division; the Desert Mounted Corps consisted of the Anzac Mounted Division, the Australian Mounted Division and the Yeomanry Mounted Division. The 52nd Division and 75th Division formed part of Lieutenant General Edward Bulfin's XXI Corps. On the coast the 52nd Division was fought a fierce action after crossing the Wadi el Hesi on the coast north of Gaza. By the morning of 8 November, two infantry brigades had crossed the Wadi el Hesi near its mouth and, despite some opposition established themselves on the sand dunes to the north towards Askelon.
Sausage Ridge, on their right stretched from Burberah to Deir Sineid, was held in considerable strength, as the ridge covered the road and railway from Gaza to the north. During the afternoon the 155th Brigade moved to attack Sausage Ridge, but it was threatened by a counterattack on the left forcing, the brigade to halt and face north to meet this attack; when the 156th Brigade arrived from Sh. Ajlin on the Wadi el Hesi, the 157th Brigade attacked the southern portion of the ridge, gained a footing as darkness fell, they lost this precarious position four times to fierce Ottoman counterattacks, before attacking and throwing the defenders off the ridge by 21:00. The two attacking brigades lost 700 men in this action; the Ottoman rearguards were able to safely get away during the night of the 8/9 November, but during the following day the only infantry unit capable of advancing was the 52nd Division's 156th Brigade, commanded by Brigadier General Archibald Herbert Leggett. The division's other brigades were regrouping after the fierce fighting a
General Sir Henry George Chauvel, more known as Sir Harry Chauvel, was a senior officer of the Australian Imperial Force who fought at Gallipoli and during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of the First World War. He was the first Australian to attain the rank of lieutenant general and general, the first to lead a corps; as commander of the Desert Mounted Corps, he was responsible for one of the most decisive victories and fastest pursuits in military history. The son of a grazier, Chauvel was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Upper Clarence Light Horse, a unit organised by his father, in 1886. After the family moved to Queensland he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Queensland Mounted Infantry in 1890, saw service during the 1891 Australian shearers' strike, he became a regular officer in 1896, went to the United Kingdom as part of the Queensland contingent for the 1897 Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. In 1899 he commanded one of two companies of Queensland Mounted Infantry that were Queensland's initial contribution to the Boer War.
After the war, he was involved with the training of the Australian Light Horse. Promoted to colonel in 1913, Chauvel became the Australian representative on the Imperial General Staff but the First World War broke out while he was still en route to the United Kingdom. Chauvel arranged for the Australian Imperial Force to be diverted to Egypt, where he joined his new command, the 1st Light Horse Brigade, in December. In May 1915, it was sent dismounted to Gallipoli, where Chauvel assumed responsibility for some of the most dangerous parts of the line, he took charge of the 1st Division that November. In March 1916, Chauvel became commander of the Anzac Mounted Division, gaining victories in the Battle of Romani in August and the Battle of Magdhaba in December, nearly winning the First Battle of Gaza in March 1917; the following month, he took over the Desert Column known as the Desert Mounted Corps, thereby becoming the first Australian to command a corps, the first to reach the rank of lieutenant general.
At Beersheba in October 1917, his light horse captured the town and its vital water supply in one of history's last great cavalry charges. By September 1918, Chauvel was able to effect a secret redeployment of three of his mounted divisions and launch a surprise attack on the enemy that won the Battle of Megiddo, he followed up this victory with one of the fastest pursuits in military history. In 1919, Chauvel was appointed the Army's most senior post, he was forced to maintain an hollow structure by politicians intent on cutting expenditure. He was concurrently Chief of the General Staff from 1923 until his retirement in 1930. In November 1929, he became the first Australian to be promoted to the rank of general. During the Second World War, he was recalled to duty as Inspector in Chief of the Volunteer Defence Corps. Henry George Chauvel was born in Tabulam, New South Wales, on 16 April 1865, the second child of a grazier, Charles Henry Edward Chauvel, his wife Fanny Ada Mary, née James. By 1884, Charles Henry Chauvel's station at Tabulam consisted of 96,000 acres, on which he raised 12,000 head of cattle and 320 horses.
From an early age Henry George Chauvel was known as "Harry". He was educated at Mr Belcher's School near Goulburn, before going to Sydney Grammar School from 1874 to 1880, Toowoomba Grammar School from 1881 to 1882. While at Sydney Grammar, Harry served in the school cadet unit, rising to the rank of lance corporal. In 1886, Charles Henry was given permission to raise two troops of cavalry. On 14 March 1886, he was commissioned as a captain in the Upper Clarence Light Horse, with his sons Arthur and Harry becoming second lieutenants, while his two younger sons became troopers; the unit escorted Lord Carrington, Governor of New South Wales, when he formally opened the railway at Tenterfield in 1886. Following a series of severe droughts in northern New South Wales, Charles Henry Chauvel sold his property at Tabulam in 1888 for £50,000. After paying his debts, he bought a much smaller 12,000-acre property at Canning Downs on the Darling Downs in Queensland. In 1889, Harry Chauvel embarked on a solo tour of Europe, visiting Venice, Florence and London.
While in the United Kingdom, he watched military manoeuvres near Aldershot in the presence of Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. Harry resigned his commission in the New South Wales Military Forces when he moved to Queensland, but on 9 January 1890 he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Queensland Mounted Infantry. After completing his examinations for the rank, he was confirmed as lieutenant in June 1890. Chauvel's unit was called up in March 1891 during the shearers' strike that had begun earlier that year. Leading his troops and a small detachment of Queensland Police, Chauvel was given the task of escorting a party of strikebreakers to a station north of Charleville. Near Oakwood, Chauvel's troops were confronted by a crowd of around two hundred mounted sheep shearers; when the inspector in charge of the police detachment arrested four of the shearers who were wanted by the police, the crowd became agitated, but Chauvel managed to disperse the crowd peacefully, bring his charges safely to their destination.
During the 1894 Australian shearers' strike, the Queensland government enrolled special constables rather than calling up the militia. Chauvel was appointed a temporary sub-inspector in Clermont, the district around Longreach. On 9 September 1896, Chauvel transferred to the Queensland Permanent Military Forces with the rank of captain in the Moreton Regiment, he was sent to the United Kingdom with the Queensland contingent for the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victo
The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae; the horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses; these feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, colors, breeds and behavior. Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.
Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep more than adults. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for 11 months, a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training in harness between the ages of two and four, they reach full adult development by age five, have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many different uses. Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture and therapy. Horses were used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control.
Many products are derived from horses, including meat, hide, hair and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers. Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages and breeds. Depending on breed and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and beyond; the oldest verifiable record was "Old Billy", a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62. In modern times, Sugar Puff, listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56. Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birth date, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere; the exception is in endurance riding, where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age.
The following terminology is used to describe horses of various ages: Foal: A foal of either sex less than one year old. A nursing foal is sometimes called a suckling and a foal, weaned is called a weanling. Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Yearling: A horse of either sex, between one and two years old. Colt: A male horse under the age of four. A common terminology error is to call any young horse a "colt", when the term only refers to young male horses. Filly: A female horse under the age of four. Mare: A female horse four years old and older. Stallion: A non-castrated male horse four years old and older; the term "horse" is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a stallion. Gelding: A castrated male horse of any age. In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old. However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines fillies as less than four years old.
The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers. This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches; the height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point the number of additional inches, ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh". Thus, a horse described; the size of horses varies by breed, but is influenced by nutrition. Light riding horses range in height from 14 to 16 hands and can weigh from 380 to 550 kilograms. Larger riding horses start at about 15.2 hands and are as tall as 17 hands, weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms. Heavy or draft horses are at least 16 hands (64 inches, 16
A rifle is a portable, long-barrelled firearm designed for long-range precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves cut into the bore walls. The term was rifled gun, with the word "rifle" referring to the machining process of creating grooving with cutting tools, is now used for any long handheld device designed for aimed discharge activated by a trigger, such as air rifles and the personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare, law enforcement and shooting sports. Like all typical firearms, a rifle's projectile is propelled by the contained deflagration of a combustible propellant compound, although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, formal target shooting and casual shooting; the raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile, imparting a spin around the longitudinal axis of the barrel.
When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling, in the same way that a properly spirally thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. This thus improves range and accuracy. Rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are classified as single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic, or automatic. Single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic rifles are limited by their designs to fire a single shot for each trigger pull. Only automatic rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze. Modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in function with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A military's light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles; the difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system, ammunition feed system. Rifles, with their lighter components and smaller capacity magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are.
Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are belt-fed. Many machine guns allow the operator to exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles do not. Most machine guns fire from an open bolt in order to reduce the danger of "cook-off", while all rifles fire from a closed bolt for accuracy. Machine guns are crewed by more than one soldier; the term "rifle" is sometimes used to describe larger rifled crew-served weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles and naval rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles; the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the tail feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. Early muskets produced large quantities of smoke and soot, which had to be cleaned from the action and bore of the musket either through the action of repeated bore scrubbing, or a deliberate attempt to create "soot grooves" that would allow for more shots to be fired from the firearm.
This might have led to a perceived increase in accuracy, although no one knows for sure. True rifling dates from the mid-15th century, although military commanders preferred smooth bore weapons for infantry use because rifles were much more prone to problems due to powder fouling the barrel and because they took longer to reload and fire than muskets. Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets. In the early 18th century, Benjamin Robins, an English mathematician, realized that an elongated bullet would retain the momentum and kinetic energy of a musket ball, but would slice through the air with greater ease; the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Their greater range was considered to be of little practical use, since the smoke from black powder obscured the battlefield and made it impossible to target the enemy from a distance. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters and non-military uses like hunting.
Muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of precision manufacturing, the need to load from the muzzle, the musket ball was a loose fit in the barrel. On firing the ball bounced off the sides of the barrel when fired and the final direction on leaving the muzzle was unpredictable; the performance of early muskets defined the style of warfare at the time. Due to the lack of accuracy, soldiers were deployed in long lines to fire at the opposing forces. Precise aim was thus not necessary to hit an opponent. Muskets were used for comparatively rapid, imprecise