Head of government
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country; the authority of a head of government, such as a president, chancellor, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature, varies among sovereign states, depending on the particular system of the government, chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the government, is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature. Although there is a formal reporting relationship to a head of state, the latter acts as a figurehead who may take the role of chief executive on limited occasions, either when receiving constitutional advice from the head of government or under specific provisions in a constitution.
In presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, according to the constitution of the particular state. In semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each country's constitution. A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958. In France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, the head of government. However, the president must choose someone who can act as an executive, but who enjoys the support of the France's legislature, the National Assembly, in order to be able to pass legislation. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party but the majority in the National Assembly is of a different party. Given that the majority party has greater control over state funding and primary legislation, the president is in effect forced to choose a prime minister from the opposition party in order to ensure an effective, functioning legislature.
In this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the president's influence restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people. A prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister; this is used as a formal title in many states, but informally a generic term to describe whichever office is considered the principal minister under an otherwise styled head of state, as minister — Latin for servants or subordinates — is a common title for members of a government. Formally the head of state can be the head of government as well but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Various constitutions use different titles, the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, where there is an elected legislative body checking the Head of government, include the following; some of these titles relate to governments below the national level. Chancellor Chairman of the Executive Council Chief Minister Chief Executive First Minister Minister-President Premier President of the Council of Ministers President of the Council of State President of the Executive Council President of the Government Prime Minister State Counsellor State President Albanian: Kryeministër Bengali: For the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Pradan Mantri.
Home Secretary (India)
The Home Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Home Affairs. This post is held by senior IAS officer of the rank of Secretary to Government of India; the current Home Secretary is Rajiv Gauba. As a Secretary to Government of India, the Home Secretary ranks 23rd on Indian Order of Precedence. Home Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Home Affairs, is the principal adviser to the Home Minister on all matters of policy and administration within the Home Ministry; the role of Home Secretary is as follows: To act as the administrative head of the Ministry of Home Affairs. The responsibility in this regard is undivided. To act as the chief adviser to the Home Minister on all aspects of policy and administrative affairs. To represent the Ministry of Home Affairs before the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of India; the Home Secretary is eligible for a Diplomatic passport. The official earmarked residence of the Union Home Secretary is 3, New Moti Bagh, New Delhi, a Type-VIII bungalow.
As the Home Secretary is of the rank of Secretary to Government of India, his/her salary is equivalent to Chief Secretaries of State Governments and to Vice Chief of Army Staff/Commanders, in the rank of Lieutenant General and equivalent ranks in Indian Armed Forces. Cabinet Secretary of India Foreign Secretary Defence Secretary Chief Secretary
2014 Indian general election
The Indian general election, 2014 was held to constitute the 16th Lok Sabha, electing members of parliament for all 543 parliamentary constituencies. Running in nine phases from 7 April to 12 May 2014, it was the longest election in the country's history. According to the Election Commission of India, 814.5 million people were eligible to vote, with an increase of 100 million voters since the last general election in 2009, making it the largest election in the world. Around 23.1 million or 2.7% of the total eligible voters were aged 18–19 years. A total of 8,251 candidates contested for the 543 Lok Sabha seats; the average election turnout over all nine phases was around 66.40%, the highest in the history of Indian general elections. The results were declared on 16 May 2014, 15 days before the 15th Lok Sabha completed its constitutional mandate on 31 May 2014; the counting exercise was held at 989 counting centres. The National Democratic Alliance won a sweeping victory; the BJP won 31.0% votes, the lowest share for a party to form a majority government in India since independence, while NDA's combined vote share was 38.5%.
BJP and its allies won the right to form the largest majority government since the 1984 general election, it was the first time since that election that a party has won enough seats to govern without the support of other parties. The United Progressive Alliance, led by the Indian National Congress, won 59 seats, 44 of which were won by the Congress, that won 19.3% of all votes. It was the Congress party's worst defeat in a general election. In order to become the official opposition party in India, a party must gain 10% of the seats in the Lok Sabha. Due to this fact, India remains without an official opposition party; as per the requirements of the Indian Constitution, elections to the Lok Sabha must be held at an interval of five years or whenever parliament is dissolved by the president. The previous election, to the 15th Lok Sabha, was conducted in April–May 2009, its term would have expired on 31 May 2014; the election to the 16th Lok Sabha was organised and conducted by the Election Commission of India and was held in multiple phases, to better handle the large electoral base and security concerns.
Since the last general election in 2009, the anti-corruption movement by Anna Hazare, other similar moves by Baba Ramdev and Arvind Kejriwal, gathered momentum and political interest. Kejriwal went on to form a separate political party, Aam Aadmi Party, in November 2012; the 2012 presidential election resulted in Pranab Mukherjee of Indian National Congress becoming the president. Andhra politics was further shaken following the death of its chief minister, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, his son, Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy broke from the INC and founded the YSR Congress Party, taking several politicians with him; the final session of parliament ended on 21 February. Amongst the agenda in the final session was passing The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2013 in tackling corruption and the creation of Telangana; the Cabinet of India revised the limit of election expenditure by a candidate for parliamentary constituencies to ₹7 million in bigger states and to ₹5.4 million in smaller states and all union territories except Delhi.
This revision of the ceiling on the elections were attributed to the increase in the number of electors and polling stations as well as the increase in the cost inflation index. Satyendra Singh, a doctor with a disability, showed the lack of preparedness by the Election Commission of India towards electors with disabilities through the Right to Information Act; the Chief Electoral Officer in Delhi, Vijay Dev started a campaign on providing accessibility for the disabled, along with him. Singh conducted sensitisation workshops for election officers and helped in setting up a registration link for voters with disabilities to register to vote and provide their requirements; the Chief Election Commissioner of India, V. S. Sampath, announced the polling schedule on 5 March. Voting was scheduled to be held in nine phases from 7 April to 12 May, the results of the election were announced on 16 May. Simultaneous elections were held for the Vidhan Sabhas of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha and Sikkim.
Important issues during the campaign included high inflation, lack of jobs, economic slow down, corruption and terrorism, religious division and communalism, infrastructure such as roads and water. In another survey by Zee News for about 14% of people, corruption is the main issue in the election. Bloomberg highlighted India's slowing economy amidst a record high current account deficit and a falling rupee in summer 2013, it pointed out a lack of infrastructure investment and a government likely to give subsidies that the national finances cannot afford just before the election. Other points it mentioned were an inefficient bureaucracy; the economy was the main issue in the campaign. The lack of a clear mandate as a result of the election could lead to an increase in the price of gold in the country. Modi brought up the issue of farmer suicides that resulted from high debt and poor yield on their crops. Former Finance Minister Yashwant Sinha criticised the incumbent Chidambaram in saying that he had a "habit that he will get a strong economy, he will ruin it before he leaves...
Shri Chidambaram will be remembered in history as a spoiler, as someone who specialises in sub-five per cent growth rate, for his hubris, arrogance". During the UPA-2 government, a number of scams came to public attention, deteriorating the image of
Defence Secretary (India)
The Defence Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Defence. This post is held by a senior Indian Administrative Service of the rank of secretary to the Government of India; the current Defence Secretary is Sanjay Mitra. As a secretary to the Government of India, the Defence Secretary ranks 23rd on Indian order of precedence. Defence Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Defence, is the principal adviser to the Minister of Defence on all matters of policy and administration within the Ministry of Defence; the role of Defence Secretary is as follows: To act as the administrative head of the Department of Defence. The responsibility in this regard is undivided. To act as the chief adviser to the Defence Minister on all aspects of policy and administrative affairs. To represent the Ministry of Defence before the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of India; the Defence Secretary is responsible for coordinating the activities of the other departments in the Ministry of Defence.
To act as the first among equals among the secretaries in the Ministry of Defence. The Defence Secretary is eligible for a diplomatic passport; the official earmarked residence of the Defence Secretary is 9, New Moti Bagh, New Delhi, a Type-VIII bungalow. The salary and emolument in this rank is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and to Vice Chief of the Army Staff/commanders and officers in the rank of full general and its equivalents in the Indian Armed Forces. Cabinet Secretary of India Home Secretary Foreign Secretary Chief Secretary
Government of India
The Government of India abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in the capital of India. Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state, the union government is composed of the executive, the legislature, the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister and the supreme court; the President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, is responsible for running the union government. The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, the Rajya Sabha the upper house; the judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, the criminal procedure code.
Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law; the full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases; the terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārata Sarakāra" are used and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term New Delhi is used as a metonym for the central government, as the seat of government is in New Delhi; the powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures.
The Lok Sabha is considered the House of the people. The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court. However, it does exercise some control over the executive; the members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha; the Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha can never be dissolved; the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term. The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy; the division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The executive power is vested in the President of India, as per Article 53 of the constitution.
The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53. The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India; the council of ministers remains in power during the'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha; the president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the president, as the head of state receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time in cases involving punishment of death; the decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister; the vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president; the vice president has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The
Indian Railway Traffic Service
The Indian Railway Traffic Service, abbreviated as IRTS is a Group'A' Central Civil Service cadre of the Government of India. IRTS in its present form was reconstituted in 1967; the IRTS Cadre functions under the Administrative Control of the Ministry of Railways, Government of India. The officers of this service are responsible for administering Railway Transport in the country. On one hand, IRTS officers co-ordinate among various technical departments of the Indian Railways, while on the other hand, they form the public interface of the Indian Railways. Colloquially called Traffic Officers, they are the primary facilitators of Railway services right from Planning of freight movement, Passenger transport, Passenger amenities to Station Management and Infrastructure Planning. Traffic Department is responsible for optimum utilization of Railway assets and their seamless integration to provide a swift and safe transportation service and consequent realization of revenues in-line with the social obligations of the Indian Railways.
Traffic Department comprises two branches: Operations CommercialOfficers may be shifted from one branch to another based on organisational requirements throughout their career. With the growing network and increasing traffic, the British Govt. Recognized the need for a separate Traffic Department for handling train operations; the Traffic Service was created in the year in 1889, further strengthened in 1906. Earlier, an exclusive service reserved for English officers, admission into the cadre was thrown open to all post-Independence. Known as "Officers of the Superior Revenue Establishment of the Traffic and Commercial Department of Indian Railways", the service, on 4 March 1967 was rechristened "Indian Railway Traffic Service". On the occasion of IRTS day, March 2018, esteemed Member Traffic, Shri. Mohammad Jamshed, the head of the cadre unveiled a new, redesigned version of the IRTS logo conceptualized and created by the 2015 batch of IRTS Officer Trainees; the redesigned logo prominently features the following components Regal Ashok Stambh in gold Constellation of 17 stars to represent the seventeen zones of the Indian Railways, Pair of hands holding up the Chakra signifying moving the nation towards prosperity and development.
A logo to represent the legacy of IRTS while highlighting its role in nation building in the times to come. There are two modes of recruitment to IRTS Group ‘A’: 50% through direct recruitment through the annual Civil Services Examination conducted by UPSC. 50% through promotion from Group B officers of Operating and Commercial departments of the Zonal Railways. Current cadre strength of IRTS officers is around 900, serving in 68 divisions across 17 Zonal Railways in India and the Railway Board After selection, the IRTS probationers undergo Foundation training at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, along with trainees of other Civil Services. IRTS probationers report to their Centralized Training Institute - Indian Railways Institute for Transportation Management, Lucknow for joining formalities and induction into the cadre as Officer Trainees or Probationary Officers; this is followed by visit to a host of academies and institutions, over a period of next 78 weeks, to give wide-ranging exposure to Officer trainees which would be useful in their career as Railway Officers.
Some of these institutions include - Operations and Commercial Training at Indian Railways Institute for Transport Management, Lucknow Railway Foundation Course at National Academy of Indian Railway, Vadodara. Operations Training at Zonal Railway Training Institute, Udaipur Marketing Management and Transport Economics at Indian Institute of Management Operations Research at Indian Institute of Technology Tourism and Hospitality management Training at Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Vigilance and Anti-Corruption Training at Central Bureau of Investigation Academy, Ghaziabad Accounts Training at Centralised Training Academy for Railway Accounts, Secundarabad Secretariat Training at Institute for Institute of Secretariat Training and Management, New Delhi Ethical Governance Training at Initiatives of Change, Panchgani Accounts Training at National Academy Of Audit and Accounts, Shimla Metro Rail Training at Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, New Delhi Military Logistics Training at Sena Bhavan, New Delhi Appreciation program at Indian Military Academy, Dehradun Container Logistics Training at Inland Container Depot, Tughlaqabad Signals and Tele-communications Training at Indian Railways Institute of Signal Engineering and Telecommunications, Secundarabad P-Way and Contract Management Training at Indian Railway Institute of Civil Engineering, Pune Locomotive, Rolling Stock and Workshop Management Training at Indian Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Jamalpur Electric Traction and Railway Electrification Management Training at Indian Railway Institute of Electrical Engineering, Nashik Infrastructure Security Management Training at Jagjivan Ram Railway Protection Force Academy, Lucknow Railway Information Infrastructure Management Training at Centre for Railway information systems, New Delhi Parliamentary Procedures Training at Bureau of Parliamentary Studies and Training, New Delhi Divisional attachments at 68 divisions spread across the length and breadth of the country Industrial Field visits - Coal India, Aditya Birla Cements, TATA, Bhilai Steel Plant Port Attachments - Paradip, Vishakhapatnam, JNPT, Krishnapatnam, Ennore etc.
Appreciation Visits to various Railway establishments situated in difficult terrains - Konkan Railways, K-K Li
Law enforcement in India
Law enforcement in India is performed by numerous law enforcement agencies. Like many federal nations, the nature of the Constitution of India mandates law and order as a subject of the state; therefore the bulk of the policing lies with the respective territories of India. At the federal level, the many agencies are part of the Ministry of Home Affairs, support the states in their duties. Larger cities operate police commissionerates, under respective state police. All senior police officers in the state police forces, as well as those in the federal agencies, are members of the Indian Police Service; the central agencies are controlled by the central Government of India. The majority of federal law enforcement agencies are controlled by the Ministry of Home Affairs; the head of each of the federal law enforcement agencies is always an Indian Police Service officer. The constitution assigns responsibility for maintaining law and order to the states and territories, all routine policing—including apprehension of criminals—is carried out by state-level police forces.
The constitution permits the central government to participate in police operations and organisation by authorising the creation of Indian Police Service. Central police forces can assist the state's police force, but only if so requested by the state governments. In practice, the central government has observed these limits. During the Emergency of 1975-77, the constitution was amended to permit the central government to dispatch and deploy its Central Armed Police forces without regard to the wishes of the states; this action proved unpopular, the use of the Central Police Forces was controversial. After the Emergency was lifted, the constitution was amended in December 1978 to make deployment of central Police forces once again dependent on the consent of the state government; the principal national-level organisation concerned with law enforcement is the Ministry of Home Affairs, which supervises a large number of government functions and agencies operated and administered by the central government.
The ministry is concerned with all matters pertaining to the maintenance of public peace and order, the staffing and administration of the public services, the delineation of internal boundaries, the administration of union territories. In addition of being the cadre controlling authority of the IPS, the Ministry of Home Affairs maintains several agencies and organisations dealing with police and security. Police in the union territories comes directly under MHA; the Minister of Home Affairs is the cabinet minister responsible for Ministry of Home Affairs, whereas the Home Secretary, an Indian Administrative Service officer, acts as the administrative head of Ministry of Home Affairs. The Indian Border Security Force is responsible for policing India's land borders during peacetime and preventing trans-border crimes, it is a central police force operating under the MHA. It performs a variety of duties ranging from VIP security to election duties, from guarding of vital installations to counter-naxal operations.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 demonstrated the inadequacies of the existing border management system and led to the formation of the Border Security Force as a unified central armed police force with the specific mandate of guarding India's international boundary with Pakistan. The BSF's policing capabilities were used in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 against the Pakistani Armed Forces in areas which were least threatened. During wartime or upon orders from the central government BSF operates under the command of the Indian Army. BSF troops took part in the Battle of Longewala in 1971 in this capacity. After the 1971 war which led to the creation of Bangladesh, the responsibility for policing the border with Bangladesh was assigned to Border Security Force. Although charged with guarding India's external boundaries, the BSF has more been given the task of counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations; when the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir broke out in 1989, the Jammu and Kashmir state police and the thinly-deployed Central Reserve Police Force needed extra force to cope with the spiralling violence, the Indian government deployed the BSF to Jammu and Kashmir to combat Kashmiri militants.
BSF operates a Tear-Smoke Unit situated at BSF Academy at Takenpur, Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh which supplies tear gas and smoke shells for riot prevention to all of the state police forces. BSF runs the National Dog Training and Research Centre. BSF is one of several Indian police forces which has its own Water wings, it provides helicopter and other support services to the state police. The primary task of CISF is providing industrial security; the Central Industrial Security Force is used to guard industrial installations around the country owned by the Central government as well as securing seaports and airports. CISF provides security to certain NGOs, they provide security for atomic power plants, space installations, oil fields and refineries, major ports, heavy engineering plants, steel plants, fertilizer units, hydroelectric/thermal power plants and other installations or wholly run by the government. The Central Reserve Police Force is one of the largest Central Police organisations in the world.
Its main objective is to assist and help states and union territories' law enforcement agencies in maintaining law and order and to contain insurgency. It is deployed as anti-terrorist unit in various regions, it is operating abroad as part of United Nations peacekeeping missions. It performs a variety of duties ranging from VIP security to election duties, from guarding of vital