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2001 World Series

The 2001 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's 2001 season. The 97th edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the National League champion Arizona Diamondbacks and the three-time defending World Series champions and American League champion New York Yankees; the Diamondbacks defeated the Yankees. Considered one of the greatest World Series of all time, memorable aspects included two extra-inning games and three late-inning comebacks. Diamondbacks pitchers Randy Johnson and Curt Schilling were both named World Series Most Valuable Players; the Yankees advanced to the World Series by defeating the Oakland Athletics, three games to two, in the AL Division Series, the Seattle Mariners in the AL Championship Series, four games to one. It was the Yankees' fourth consecutive World Series appearance, after winning championships in 1998, 1999, 2000; the Diamondbacks advanced to the World Series by defeating the St. Louis Cardinals, three games to two, in the NL Division Series, the Atlanta Braves in the NL Championship Series, four games to one.

It was the franchise's first appearance in a World Series. The Series began than usual as a result of a delay in the regular season after the September 11 attacks and was the first to extend into November; the Diamondbacks won the first two games at home. The Yankees responded with a close win in game 3, at which U. S. President George W. Bush threw out the ceremonial first pitch. In games 4 and 5, the Yankees won in comeback fashion, hitting game-tying home runs off Diamondbacks closer Byung-hyun Kim with one out remaining in consecutive games, before winning in extra innings; the Diamondbacks won game 6 in a blowout, forcing a decisive game 7. In the final game, the Yankees led in the ninth inning before the Diamondbacks staged a comeback against closer Mariano Rivera, capped off by a walk-off, bases-loaded bloop single by Luis Gonzalez to clinch Arizona's championship victory; this was the third World Series to end in a bases-loaded, walk-off hit, following 1991 and 1997. Among several firsts, the 2001 World Series was: the first World Series championship for the Diamondbacks.

The home team won every game in the Series, which had only happened twice before, in 1987 and 1991, both won by the Minnesota Twins. The Diamondbacks outscored the Yankees, 37–14, as a result of large margins of victory achieved by Arizona at Bank One Ballpark relative to the one-run margins the Yankees achieved at Yankee Stadium. Arizona's pitching held powerhouse New York to a.183 batting average, the lowest in a seven-game World Series. This and the 2002 World Series were the last two consecutive World Series to have game sevens until the World Series of 2016 and 2017; the 2001 World Series was the subject of an HBO documentary, Nine Innings from Ground Zero, in 2004. The Arizona Diamondbacks began play in 1998, along with the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, as the youngest expansion team in Major League Baseball. After a mediocre debut season, the Diamondbacks finished the following year first in the National League West with a 100–62 record, but lost to the New York Mets in the NL Division series.

With several All-Star players like Randy Johnson and Matt Williams, the Diamondbacks had high expectations for the 2000 season, but finished third in the NL West with an 85–77 record. During the offseason, team manager Buck Showalter was fired, replaced by sportscaster and former player Bob Brenly; the Diamondbacks acquired several notable free agent players during the offseason, including Miguel Batista, Mark Grace, Reggie Sanders. Most of the Diamondbacks players were above the age of thirty, had played on a number of teams prior to the 2001 season. In fact, the Diamondbacks starting lineup for the World Series did not include a player under the age of thirty-one, making them the oldest team by player age in World Series history. With several players nearing the age of retirement, Luis Gonzalez noted that the overall team mentality was "there's too many good guys in here to let this opportunity slip away". Although the Diamondbacks were only one game above.500 by the end of April, Gonzalez had a memorable start to the season, in which he tied the MLB record with thirteen home runs during the month of April.

The Diamondbacks found greater success in May and June, at one point at a six-game lead in the NL West. During this span, the team won nine consecutive games, Johnson tied the MLB record with twenty strikeouts in a nine inning game; the six game lead did not last long however, by the end of July, the Diamondbacks were a half game behind the Los Angeles Dodgers in the West. A resurgent August pushed the team back into first place, a spot they maintained for the rest of the season. By the end of the season, several Diamondbacks players had put up exceptional statistics: Curt Schilling had the most wins of any pitcher in MLB that year with twenty-two, while Johnson nearly broke the single season strikeout record with 372. Johnson and Schilling had the two lowest earned run averages in the NL, with 2.49 and 2.98 respectively. Gonzalez ended the season with a.325 batting average and fifty-seven home runs, finished third in voting for the NL Most Valuable Player Award. The Diamondbacks were one of the best defensive teams in MLB that year, second in fewest errors committed, tied with th

Peter Frechette

Peter Frechette is an American actor. He is a stage actor with two Tony Award nominations for Eastern Standard and Our Country's Good, stars in the plays of Richard Greenberg, he is well known on TV for playing hacker George on the NBC series Profiler and Peter Montefiore on Thirtysomething. In film, he is known for playing T-Bird Louis DiMucci in the musical Grease 2. Raised in Coventry, Rhode Island, Frechette is the youngest of five children, his father was his mother a nurse. Frechette earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Theater from the University of Rhode Island. Frechette first appeared on the professional stage at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe as part of the Rhode Island Summer Ensemble, starring with Chel Chenier in the comedy Pontifications on Puberty and Pigtails in 1979, he received high praise in 1981 for his work in two different productions of Harry Ruby's Songs My Mother Never Sang. The same year he starred in the one-act Off-Broadway production of In Cahoots, part of the Three Hopefuls MARATHON.

He left to work in Los Angeles, but returned in 1984 to star in Bob Merrill's Musical We're Home, again in 1987's revised production of Flora the Red Menace. In 1988, he returned to live in New York City to take the lead role of Drew Paley in the Off-Broadway production of Eastern Standard by Richard Greenberg, costarring Patricia Clarkson, Dylan Baker, Kevin Conroy; the show transferred to Broadway in December 1989 and he remained in the cast throughout the run despite filming the television series Dream Street in New Jersey. Frechette earned the Drama Desk Award, Outer Critics Circle Award and Theatre World Award for best actor, was nominated for a Tony Award; the same year, he starred in The American Place Theatre's Off-Broadway production of Hyde in Hollywood. In 1991, he starred opposite Cherry Jones in Our Country's Good, which resulted in a second Tony nomination for best actor; the same year he co-starred in Absent Friends as grief-stricken Colin. In 1992, he appeared in Bob Merrill's last Broadway musical of Hannah...1939 and Larry Kramer's autobiographical The Destiny of Me.

He appeared on Broadway in the original productions of Any Given Day and The Play's the Thing, as well as the 2005 revival of The Odd Couple as Roy. He's appeared at the Roundabout Theatre in three productions: The Play's the Thing, Hurrah at Last and The Dazzle. For The Dazzle, he and Reg Rogers were both nominated for Drama League Award for Distinguished Performance and Lucille Lortel Award for Best Actor, they originated the show in 2000 at the New York Stage and Film at Vassar College's Powerhouse Theater. Frechette was part of the west in the role of Laurie, he earned the Backstage West Garland Award in 1998 for his performance produced by the South Coast Repertory. He appeared in their productions of Night and Her Stars and The Extra Man. In 2016, he returned to the theater company in the role of Joseph II in Amadeus. Frechette was a member of the resident ensemble at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival for five years, he has worked with national regional companies including the Seattle Repertory Theatre, Berkeley Repertory Theatre, George Street Playhouse, Cape Playhouse, The Old Globe, La Jolla Playhouse, Mark Taper Forum, Berkshire Playhouse, the Pasadena Playhouse as an actor and instructor since leaving New York City.

Frechette is a founding member of the New York theater company The Drama Department. Frechette's made his film debut in Grease 2 as T-Bird Louis DiMucci, he appeared on the film's soundtrack. He went on to appear in the pilot of Voyagers!. He appeared in two episodes of The Facts of Life which served as backdoor pilots for a series about an all-boys military academy; the would-be series would have starred Jimmy Baio with Frechette as the primary antagonist, but it was not picked up to series. He continued appearing in films horror films including The Hills Have Eyes Part II, The Kindred, The Unholy and Paint it Black, he had a large role in the 1984 comedy No Small Affair as Jon Cryer's older brother. He made guest appearances on Taxi, The Renegades, Hill Street Blues, Hotel, It's a Living, Cagney & Lacey, and, most notably, in two episodes of L. A. Law as Christopher Appleton, an HIV-positive gay man who claimed to have killed his lover as an act of mercy because he was dying from AIDS. Frechette was cast as one of the three leads of 1989's Dream Street, the unofficial blue-collar spin-off of Thirtysomething.

In November 1989, Frechette guest-starred in the Thirtysomething episode "Strangers", as Peter Montefiore, a man who goes on a date with recurring character Russell Weller. Frechette and Weller appeared in bed naked after having had sexual relations following a first date, generating controversy. A number of advertisers refused to run commercials during the broadcast, and

Waterworks (card game)

Waterworks is a card game created by Parker Brothers in 1972, named for the space Water Works in the game Monopoly. The game pieces consist of: a deck of 110 pipe cards, a bathtub-shaped card tray, 10 small metal wrenches; the object is for each player to create a pipeline of a designated length that begins with a valve and ends with a spout. Players race to be the first to complete a continuous, leak-free pipeline that connects their valve card to their spout card, while opposing players try to give them leaks that must be fixed. Players begin with a hand of two wrenches. Cards used in play are lead pipe cards, copper pipe cards, lead pipe cards that are leaky; the valve card is placed on the table to begin a player's pipeline. The spout card is set aside until it is used by a player who has completed their pipeline, immediately the player ends the game by placing the spout aimed down toward the player. A number of different pipe shapes are represented in the game. Leaky pipes can only be added to the end or over the last piece of another player's pipeline, players cannot add to their pipeline until leaks are repaired.

Leaks are repaired by either placing an intact pipe of the same shape over the leak or placing a wrench on the leak card. Repaired pipes cannot leak again. Play proceeds clockwise and new cards are drawn after cards are played. Players always have the option of exchanging a single card rather than playing a card; the minimum length of the pipeline required to win varies by the number of players, as follows: Each player can do one of the following items: place a "good" pipe card on your pipeline, place a metal wrench on a leaky pipe in his or her own pipeline, place a "leaky" pipe card on another player's pipeline, or discard a card face up in the "discard" pile. When a wrench is played to fix a leaky pipe, that wrench can never be moved and this constitutes a complete turn; the player does not discard a card. When a player's turn ends he or she should pick a card and always have five cards in hand. Cards are always played vertically. No card can be played such that it is oriented 90 degrees, or "sideways," compared to the rest of the pipeline.

No play is allowed. Winning Moves Games has reissued the game as Classic Waterworks

Gregory R. Ciottone

Gregory R. Ciottone is an American physician specializing in Disaster Medicine and Counter-Terrorism Medicine, he is an Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine at Harvard Medical School and the founding director of the BIDMC Fellowship in Disaster Medicine, the first of its kind in a Harvard teaching hospital. As well, he holds the position of Director for Medical Preparedness at the National Preparedness Leadership Initiative, a joint program of the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and the Center for Public Leadership at the Harvard John F. Kennedy School of Government, he serves as a consultant to the White House Medical Unit for the Obama and Trump administrations. In 2019 he was elected President of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine.. Born in Washington, D. C. Greg Ciottone attended St. Mark's School in Massachusetts for secondary school and went on to earn his BA in Biology and Chemistry in 1987 at Colby College, where he graduated Phi Bet Kappa, he received his MD degree from the University of Massachusetts Medical School in 1991, receiving the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine Award for Excellence in Emergency Medicine.

He was selected as Chief Resident. He continued on at that institution, being appointed Instructor of Medicine in 1994, Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine at UMMS, where he served as Director of the Institute for Disaster and Emergency Medicine, Director of the Division of International Disaster and Emergency Medicine. In 1995 Dr. Ciottone was selected to lead the Washington DC-based American International Health Alliance Emergency Medicine Task Force for the former Soviet Union, he served as Co-Director of the EMS/Disaster Medicine Fellowship program at UMMS, in 1998 was appointed a Disaster Medicine Fellowship Director for the International Atomic Energy Agency in Geneva Switzerland. In 1999 he was selected as Director of the University of Massachusetts-Minsk Belarus Medical Partnership program by AIHA. In January 2001 Dr. Ciottone was appointed Director of the Division of International Disaster and Emergency Medicine in the Department of Emergency Medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

He went on to become the Chairman of the International Emergency Medicine Section, Division of Emergency Medicine at Harvard Medical School from 2002-2007, was named Chairman of the Disaster Medicine Section at HMS in 2007. In 2007, he founded the BIDMC Fellowship in Disaster Medicine, he rose to the level of Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine at Harvard Medical School in 2014. Dr. Ciottone's research and career interests have been in the area of Disaster Medicine, he has served as a consultant in more than 30 countries, including establishing 16 Disaster and Emergency Medicine training centers throughout the former Soviet Union in the 1990s. He served as the Commander of the Disaster Medical Assistance Team, Massachusetts 2 leading it as one of the first federal teams into Ground Zero on 9/11/2001. In 2006, Dr. Ciottone became Editor-in Chief of Disaster Medicine renamed Ciottone’s Disaster Medicine for the second edition, released in 2016 and deemed “The leading textbook in the field” by the journal Annals of Emergency Medicine.

Through his textbook, Ciottone first suggested the requirement that Emergency Management be a part of the knowledge base necessary for the practice of Disaster Medicine, something, accepted today. In addition to his textbook, he has written over 100 scholarly articles and educational materials. In recent years, Ciottone has played a leading role in establishing a new Initiative he named Counter-Terrorism Medicine, Focusing on mitigation and response to asymmetric terrorist attacks; the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine named him the Director of their new Special Interest Group: Counter-Terrorism Medicine. Ciottone has served as subject matter expert for CNN, SKY news, ABC, other major news outlets, has given the Keynote Address or Featured Speaker presentation at numerous international conferences, he was recognized for "Outstanding Achievement in Support of The White House Medical Unit and the President of the United States", has been inducted as an honorary fellow into the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland.

He was the 2018 recipient of the Disaster Medical Sciences award from the American College of Emergency Physicians

Ground rules

In baseball, ground rules are special rules particular to each baseball park in which the game is played. Unlike the well-defined playing field of most other sports, the playing area of a baseball field extends to an outfield fence in fair territory and the stadium seating in foul territory; the unique design of each ballpark, including fences, bullpens, stadium domes, photographer's wells and TV camera booths, requires that rules be defined to handle situations in which these objects may interact or interfere with the ball in play or with the players. Major League Baseball has defined a set of "universal ground rules" that apply to all MLB ballparks. Additionally, a set of universal ground rules exists for the six MLB stadiums with retractable roofs, with the individual ballparks able to set additional rules; the term ground rule double is applied to a batted ball that bounces fair over the outfield fence in fair or foul territory, although some commentators and writers shun the term because league-wide rules, not ground rules, apply in this case.

Ball on the top step of the dugout is in play. No equipment is permitted to be left on the top step of the dugout. If a ball hits equipment left on the top step it is dead. A player is not permitted to go into a dugout to make a catch. A player is permitted to reach into a dugout to make a catch. If a player makes a catch outside the dugout and the player's momentum carries him into the dugout the catch is allowed and the ball remains alive as long as the player does not fall while in the dugout. A batted ball in flight can be caught under railings and around screens. A catch may be made on the field tarp. Batted or thrown ball lodging in the rotating signage behind home plate or along first base or third base stands is out of play. Batted or thrown ball resting on the rotating signage behind home plate or along first base or third base stands is in play; the facings of railings surrounding the dugout and photographers areas are in play. Any cameras or microphones permanently attached on railings are treated as part of the railings and are in play.

Any recessed railings or poles that are in the dugout and photographers areas are out of play and should be marked with red to mark them out of play. Robotic cameras attached to the facing of the backstop screen are considered part of the screen. A batted ball striking the backstop camera is considered a dead ball. A thrown ball striking the backstop camera is considered in play. A ball striking the guide wires that support the backstop is a dead ball. A ball lodging behind or under canvas on field tarp is out of play. A ball striking the field tarp and rebounding onto the playing field is in play. No chairs can be brought out onto the playing field. All yellow lines are in play. Individual ballpark ground rules vary from ballpark to ballpark. For the 2017 season, Citi Field, Kauffman Stadium, Target Field, Yankee Stadium, Guaranteed Rate Field are the only MLB ballparks that do not have individual ground rules above the universal set. Examples of ground rules that have been or are still in major league ballparks include: Fenway Park – A fly ball that strikes the top of the ladder on the Green Monster and bounces out of play is two bases.

Minute Maid Park – A batted ball striking the flagpole in center field and bouncing onto the field is in play. The flagpole and the hill that it was on were removed following the 2016 season, the rule has been removed from the specific ballpark rules list. Tropicana Field – A batted ball that hits either of the two lower catwalks between the yellow foul poles is ruled a home run; the two upper catwalks are considered in play. Wrigley Field – A fair ball becoming lodged in the ivy on the outfield fence awards two bases to the batter and all runners. Citi Field – Any fair ball in flight hitting the overhanging Pepsi-Cola sign is ruled an automatic home run; the sign has since been changed to "Coca-Cola" following new sponsorship in 2016, no longer overhangs. The rule has since been removed from the specific ballpark rules; these ground rules only apply at ballparks featuring retractable roofs. As of the 2012 season, these are: Rogers Centre, Chase Field, Safeco Field, Miller Park, Minute Maid Park, Marlins Park.

Rules governing batted balls striking the roof are defined in each individual ballpark's ground rules. The decision as to whether a game begins with the roof open or closed rests with the home club. If the game begins with the roof open: It shall be closed only in the event of impending rain or other adverse weather conditions; the decision to close the roof shall be made by the home club, after consultation with the Umpire Crew Chief. The Umpire Crew Chief shall notify the visiting club, which may challenge the closing of the roof if it feels that a competitive imbalance will arise. In such an event, the Umpire Crew Chief shall make a final decision based on the merits of the challenge. All ballpark-specific retractable roof ground rules concern opening of the roof after a game has started. If the game starts with the roof closed: Chase Field, Miller Park, Minute Maid Park, & Safeco Field permit its opening during the game if weather conditions warrant, as long as the following procedure is followed:The roof may be opened on


Lieu-dit is a French toponymic term for a small geographical area bearing a traditional name. The name refers to some characteristic of the place, its former use, a past event, etc. A lieu-dit may be uninhabited, which distinguishes it from an hameau, inhabited. In Burgundy, the term climat is used interchangeably with lieu-dit. English speakers seem to have discovered the concept through oenology and have considered it as a wine term which in its typical usage translates as "vineyard name" or "named vineyard". A lieu-dit is the smallest piece of land which has a traditional vineyard name assigned to it. In most cases, this means. In some cases, lieux-dits appear on wine labels, in addition to the AOC name; this is most seen for Alsace wine and Burgundy wine. It may not always be easy for consumers to tell if a name on a wine label is a lieu-dit or a cuvée name created by the producer; the only case of mandatory mention of a lieu-dit is in Alsace, for Alsace Grand Cru AOC. The Grand Cru designation may only be used.

Lieux-dits may be indicated on regular Alsace AOC wines, but is not mandatory. In Burgundy, the term climat is used interchangeably with lieu-dit; the use of the lieu-dit varies with the level of classification of the wine. Although the Grand Cru burgundies are considered to be classified on the vineyard level and defined as separate AOCs, some Burgundy Grand Crus are in fact divided into several lieux-dits. An example is Corton, where it is common to see lieux-dits such as Les Bressandes, Le Clos de Roi and Les Renardes indicated. For village level burgundies, the lieu-dit may only be indicated in smaller print than the village name to avoid confusion with Premier Cru burgundies, where the village and vineyard name are indicated in the same size print. In Rhône, lieux-dits are most seen for some of the top wines of the region. Two examples are the lieu-dit La La Chatillonne within Côte-Rôtie. Not all sites have been registered as lieux-dits. For example La Mouline and Les Jumelles are les marques of individual producers.

In the United States, the labeling of vineyard designated wines follows the similar practice of highlighting the particular vineyard that the grapes are sourced from